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The phenomenon occurring in an open channel when a rapidly flowing stream abruptly changes to slowly flowing stream causing a distinct rise of liquid surface is
For a given discharge in a horizontal frictionless channel two depths may have the same specific force. These two depths are known as
Hydraulic jump is a
(i) Steady flow
(ii) Uniform flow
(iii) Unsteady flow
(iv) Nonuniform flow The correct answer is
A triangular channel section is most economical when each of its sloping sides is inclined to the vertical at an angle of
For any channel section, the specific energy increases with
(i) increase in depth of subcritical flow
(ii) increase in depth of supercritical flow
(iii) decrease in depth of subcritical flow
(iv) decrease in depth of supercritical flow
The correct answer is
Which of the following Froude number range indicates a weak jump?
Type of Jump  F_{r} 
Undular jump Weak jump Oscillating jump Steady jump Strong jump  1‒ 1.7 1.7 − 2.5 2.5 ‒ 4.5 4.5 ‒ 9.0 > 9.0 
For a steep slope profile S1 , the type of flow will be
For a given specific energy E, the critical depth YC for a rectangular channel is given
The critical state of flow in a nonrectangular channel is expressed by
The flow characteristic of a channel does not charge with time at any point. What type of flow is it?
If the specific energy at the upstream section of a rectangular channel is 3 m and minimum specific energy is 2.5 m the maximum height of hump without causing afflux will be
E_{1} = Energy at section ① (before hump)
E_{min} = Minimum Energy at critical flow ∆Z = 3 − 2.5 = 0.5m
When the slope of bottom of a channel rises in the direction of flow, it is called
If F_{1} and F_{2} are the Froude numbers of flow before and after the hydraulic jump occuring in a rectangular channel, and y_{1} and y_{2} is a depth of flow before and after the hydraulic jump, then
A rectangular channel is 4 m wide and 2.5 m deep water is flowing in the channel for a depth of 2.1 m. The hydraulic radius is
= 1.024 m
For a maximum discharge in a circular channel section, the ratio of the depth of flow to that of diameter of the channel is
So for Qmax = d / D = 0.95
For maximum velocity in a circular channel section the ratio of the depth of flow to that of diameter of the channel is
The depth of flow for maximum velocity in a circular channel section with diameter equal to 2.5 m is
D = 2.5 m d = 0.81 × D = 0.81 × 2.5 = 2.025 m
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