Test: Reading Comprehension- 4


15 Questions MCQ Test General Aptitude for GATE | Test: Reading Comprehension- 4


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QUESTION: 1

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now generally agree that the 

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. The authors views the idea that the pterosaurs became airborne by rising into light winds created by waves as 

Solution:
QUESTION: 3

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. According to the passage, the skeleton of a pterosaur can be distinguished form that of a bird by the 

Solution:
QUESTION: 4

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. The ides attributed to T.H. Huxley in the passage suggest that he would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

Solution:
QUESTION: 5

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is characteristic of the pterosaurs? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. Which of the following best describes the organization of the last paragraph of the passage?

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

PASSAGE:The fossil remain of the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more than two centuries.  How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hangglider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were-reptiles or birds- are among the questions scientist have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the pterosaurs is that they were reptiles.  Their skulls, pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian.  The anatomy of their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the class of birds.  In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth finger of each forelimb supported a wing like membrane.  The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp claws, In birds the second finger is the principle strut of the wing, which consists primarily of features.  If the pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in an extended inverted V-shape along side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in their overall structure and proportions.  This is not surprising because the design of any flying vertebrate is subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that represents a saving in weight.  In the birds, however, these bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the pterosaurs probably had hairy coats.  T.H. Huxley reasoned that flying vertebrates must have been warm – blooded because flying implies a high internal temperature.  Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline the body to reduce drag in flight.  The recent discovery of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear evidenced that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-borne have led to suggestions that they launched themselves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees, or even by rising into light winds from the crests of waves.  Each hypothesis has its difficulties.  The first wrongly assumes that the pterosaur’s hind feet resembled a bat’s and could served as hooks by which the animal could bang in preparation for flight.  The second hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs could not have landed in trees without damaging their wings.  The birds calls for high waves to channels updrafts.  The wind that made such waves however, might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to control their flight once airborne.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that some scientists believe that pterosaurs. 

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. Which of the following is the principle topic of the passage? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. The author uses “labor market problems’ in lines 1-2 to refer to which of the following ?

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in order to show that 

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. Which of the following proposals best responds to the issues raised by the author ? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 12

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly unemployed during a twelve-month period is most probably to show that 

Solution:
QUESTION: 13

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. The author states that the mitigating effect of social programs involving income transfers on the income level of low-income people is often not felt by 

Solution:
QUESTION: 14

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. According to the passage, one factor that causes unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict the amount of economic hardship is the​

Solution:
QUESTION: 15

PASSAGE:How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems ?  This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.  In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate the degree of har-ship.  Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the  1930’s when most of the unemployed were primary bread-winners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing  in the labor market.  Increasing affluence, the rise of families with more than one wage earner, the growing predominance of secondary earners among the unemployed, and improved social welfare protection have unquestionably mitigated the consequences of joblessness.  Earnings and income data also overstate the dimensions of hard-ship. Among the millions with hourly earnings at or below the minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent families.  Most of those counted by the poverty statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family responsibilities which keep them out of the labor force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics underestimate the degree of labour-market-related hardship.  The unemployment counts exclude the millions of fully employed workers whose wages are so low that their families remain in poverty.  Low wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment frequently interact to undermine the capacity for self-support.  Since the number experiencing job-lessness at some time during the year is several times the number unemployed in any month, those who suffer s a result of forced idleness can equal or exceed average annual unemployment, even though only a minority of the jobless in any month really suffer.  For every person counted in the month unemployment tallies, there is another working part-time because of the inability to find full-time work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a job.  Finally, income transfers in our country have always focused on the elderly, disabled, and dependent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so that the dramatic expansion of cash and in kind transfers does not necessarily mean that those failing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a result of labor market problems number in the hundreds of thousands or the tens of millions, and hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tolerated or must be countered by job creation and economic stimulus.  There is only one area of agreement in this debate-that the existing poverty, employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate for one of their primary applications, measuring the consequences of labor market problems.
Q. The conclusion stated about the number of people who suffer as a result of forced idleness depends primarily on the point that 

Solution:

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