Test: Science & Technology


10 Questions MCQ Test Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests) | Test: Science & Technology


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements.

1. The earliest book on mathematics was Sulvasutra, written by Aryabhatta

2. Apastamba introduce the concepts of practical geometry

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:

The earliest book on mathematics was Sulvasutra written by Baudhayana in the 6th century BC. There is a mention of 'Pi' and even some concepts very similar to Pythagoras theorem in the Sulvasutra. Pi is presently used to calculate the area and circumference of the circle. Apastamba, in the second century BC, introduced the concepts of practical geometry involving acute angles, obtuse angles and right angles. This knowledge of angles helped in the constructions of fire altars in those times.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements.

1. Aryabhatta formulated the area of triangle and discovered algebra

2. The value of Pi given by Aryabhatta is much more accurate than that given by the greeks

3. Aryabhattia also deals with the method of determining movement of sun and the moon

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:

Aryabhatta in his book stated that the earth is round and rotates on its own axis formulated the area of a triangle and discovered algebra. The value of Pi given by Aryabhatta is much more accurate than that given by the Greeks. The Jyotisa part of Aryabhattiya also deals with astronomical definitions, method of determining the true position of the planets, movement of the Sun and the Moon and the calculation of the eclipses. In his book, the reasons for the eclipses given are that when the shadow of the Earth falls on the Moon while rotating on its own axis, the lunar eclipse occurs, and when the Moon's shadow falls on the Earth, it results in solar eclipse. However, the orthodox theory previously explained that it was a process where the demon swallowed the planet. Thus, we can say that Aryabhatta's theories were a distinct departure from the orthodox theories of astrology and it stressed on scientific explanations than on beliefs. It is to be noted that Arabs called mathematics "Hindisat" or the Indian art which was learnt by them from India. The whole western world is indebted to India in this respect

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements.

1. Brahmasutra Siddhantika, was written by brahmagupta, in which zero was mentioned for the first time as a number

2. Ganit Sara Sangraha, was written by Mahaviracharya, which is the first textbook on mathematics in present day form

Which of these statements are NOT correct?

Solution:

Brahmagupta in the 7th century AD in his book Brahmasputa Siddhantika mention Zero for the first time as a number. In his book, he also introduced negative number and described them as debts and positive numbers as fortunes. In the 9th century AD, Mahaviracharya wrote Ganit Sara Sangraha which is the first textbook on arithmetic in present day form. In his book, he described in details the current method of finding Lowest common multiple. Therefore, it was an invention not by the John Napier but by Mahaviracharya in its actual form.

QUESTION: 4

Which of these are correctly matched?

1. Akbar - ordered to make mathematics as a subject of study in the education system during those times

2. Sawai Jai Singh - compiled Tajik, dealing with the large number of Persian technical terms

3. James Taylor - translated Leelavati

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

A chakrawat method or the cyclic method to solve algebraic equations was introduced by him in his book Lilavati. In the nineteenth century, James Taylor translated Lilavati and made it known to the people across the globe. In the Medieval period, Narayan Pandit produced works of mathematics which includenGanitakaumudi and Bijaganitavatamsa. Nilakantha Somasutvan wrote Tantrusamgraha, which contains the rules of trigonometric functions. Nilakanatha Jyotirvida compiled Tajik, dealing with a large number of Persian technical terms. Lilavati was translated into Persian by Faizi. Faizi, in the court of Akbar, translated Bhaskara's Beejaganita. Moreover, Akbar ordered to make mathematics as a subject of study in the education system during those times. In the field of astronomy, Feroz Shah Tughlaq established an observatory in Delhi and Feroz Shah Bahamani at Daulatabad. The court astronomer of Feroz shah Bahmani, Mahendra Suri, invented an astronomical instrument known as Yantaraja. Moreover, Sawai Jai Singh set up 5 astronomical observatories at Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi, Ujjain and Mathura.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements.

1. In Vedic times, Shiv was considered as the god of medicine

2. Yajur veda was the first book where we find mention about the diseases, its cure and medicines

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

On which of the following topics, we can find a note in charak Samhita?

1. Digestion

2. Metabolism

3. Immune system

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

In Charak Samhita, extensive note on digestion, metabolism and immune system is written. Charaka emphasises that the functioning of a human body depends on three Doshas: 1. Bile, 2. Phlegm and 3. Wind.

These doshas are produced with the help of blood, flesh and marrow and the body becomes sick due to an imbalance between these three doshas. Drugs can be used to restore this balance. Charaka in his book has put more emphasis on prevention rather than cure. Genetics also finds a mention in Charaka Samhita.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following emphasized on the use of opium in medicines and for Urine examination in Laboratories?

Solution:

The medieval period, Sarangdhara Samhita written in 13th century emphasised on the use of opium in medicines and for urine examination in laboratories. The Rasachikitsa system dealt with treatment of diseases using mineral medicines. The Unani system of medicine came to India from Greece with the book Firdausu hikmat written by Ali-bin-Rabban.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements about Nagarjuna.

1. He was expert in transforming the base metals into gold

2. He wrote a treatise Rasratnakara

3. He also wrote Uttaratantra, which deals with preparation of medicinal drugs

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

One of the famous alchemist of ancient times was Nagarjuna. He was an expert in transforming the base metals into gold. Born in Gujarat in 931 AD, Nagarjuna was blessed with this power of changing base metals into gold and extraction of "Elixir of life" asper the beliefs of the people. He wrote a treatise Rasaratnakara, a book on chemistry and is in the form of dialogue between him and the Gods. The treatise mainly deals with preparation of liquids (mainly mercury). The book also emphasised on the survey of metallurgy and alchemy. To prepare the elixir of life from mercury, Nagarjuna used animal and vegetable products apart from minerals and alkalis. He also discussed the transmutation of base metals into gold. The gold could not be produced but the method has been useful in producing metals with gold like yellowish brilliance which even helps in manufacturing imitation jewellery. Nagarjuna also wrote Uttaratantra which is a supplement to Sushruta Samhita and deals with preparation of medicinal drugs. Four ayurvedic treatises have also been written by him in the later years when his interest shifted in organic chemistry and medicine.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following classes are associated with ship building?

1. Samanya

2. Vishesh

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

There have been many references of maritime activities by Indians during ancient times. Sanskrit and Pali literature had a mention of ship building and navigation activities. In the theological folklore of Hinduism, the Satyanarayan Puja talks of a sea merchant who was caught in a storm and prayed to the lord that if he is saved then he will offer puja to Lord Satyanarayana. Yukti Kalpa Taru is a treatise in Sanskrit which deals with the various techniques used in ship building during ancient times. The book contains minute details about the types of ships, their sizes and the types of material used to build those ships. Indian builders possessed good knowledge about the materials used for ship building during ancient times.

The ships were primarily classified into two classes:

• Samanya (Ordinary class)

• Vishesha ( special class) The ordinary class is for a sea voyage and had two types of ships:

• Dirgha type of ship - long and narrow hull

• Unnata type of ship - higher hull

QUESTION: 10

Which of the following game was known as Chaturanga in the ancient times?

Solution:

Two famous Sports of India during ancient times: Kalaripayat: It was a martial art from Kerala which was transmitted to China in 5th century BC by a sage called Bodhidharma. The present form of Judo and karate did originate from Kalaripayat. Chess: The game was known as "Chaturanga'' meaning four bodies. It was played with counters and Aksha (dice). It was also called Astapada, meaning a game of eight steps.

Chaturanga finds its mention in the famous epic Mahabharata where this game was played between Kauravas and the Pandavas.

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