Test: The Age of Industrialisation (Hard)


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following two problems were faced by cotton weavers in India?

Solution: By the turn of the 19th-century, weavers faced a new set of problems. As the cotton industry developed in England, Indian cotton weavers faced two problems - their export market collapsed and local market shrank being flooded with British goods. Indian handmade goods could not compete with fine machine-made goods of England. By 1860, they faced a new problem. They could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton which was sent to England for their industries after American world war. The prices of raw cotton shot up and Indian weavers were forced to buy raw cotton at exorbitant prices. In most cases, they were unable to pay.
QUESTION: 2

The earliest factories in England came up by the

Solution: The earliest factories were set up in England by 1730. These industries grew in number during late eighteenth century. Cotton factories were the first factories to be set up and its production boomed in the late nineteenth century. In 1760, Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787 this import increased to 22 million of raw cotton to feed the industry.
QUESTION: 3

Industrial Revolution first started in

Solution: England is known as the birthplace of industrial revolution which later spread to other parts of Europe.
QUESTION: 4

The port which gained importance in place of Hoogly during the colonial rule in India.

Solution: During colonial rule, East India company choose Calcutta as their operation center as it is nearer to the sea and also nearer to the village where the Indian merchants were settled. Another reason for choosing Calcutta was that it was protected by the Hoogly river in the west and salt lake in the east.
QUESTION: 5

The industrialisation did not progress in the beginning of seventeenth century due to

Solution: New technology was expensive and merchants and industrialists were cautious about using it.The machines often broke down and repairwas costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
QUESTION: 6

What was the first symbol of the new era in England?

Solution: Cotton was the first symbol of the new era in England. Its production boomed in the late nineteenth century. In 1760 Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787 this import soared to 22 million pounds. This increase was linked to a number of changes within the process of production.
QUESTION: 7

During the 19th century, Which were the most dynamic industries in Britain?

Solution: The most dynamic industries in Britain during 19th century were cotton and metal.
QUESTION: 8

In which century, the exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically?

Solution: In the twentieth century, handloom cloth production expanded steadily almost trebling the exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically.
QUESTION: 9

Who was Dwarkanath Tagore?

Solution: Dwarkanath Tagore was the Industrialist. In Bengal, he made his fortune in the China trade before he turned to industrial investment, setting up six joint-stock companies in the 1830s and 1840s.
QUESTION: 10

Which War caused new problems for Indian weavers?

Solution: The American Civil War caused new problems for Indian weavers. Indian weavers could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality. The Americans stopped supplying raw cotton to Britain due to the Civil War.
QUESTION: 11

When did the export of Indian yarn to China declined?

Solution: The export of Indian yarn to China declined in 1906, because produce from the Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market.
QUESTION: 12

What were supply during the First World War from Indian factories?

Solution: There are many items supply by Indian factories during the First World War. They are jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents, leather boots, horse and mule saddles, besides other things.
QUESTION: 13

Who produced music book that Dawn of the Century?

Solution: E. T. Paul produced a popular music book that had a picture on the cover page announcing the Dawn of the Century.
QUESTION: 14

Which pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports?

Solution: Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatam on the Coromandel coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.
QUESTION: 15

What was the reason behind new merchants could not set up business in the towns in Europe?

Solution: The new merchants could not set up business in the towns in Europe, because the powerful trade guilds and urban crafts made it difficult for new merchants to start business in towns and restricted their entry.
QUESTION: 16

Who was the Staplers and Fullers?

Solution: A Fuller ‘fulls’ or gathers cloth by pleating and ‘staples’ or sorts wool according to its fibre. A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool stapler, and carried it to the spinners, the yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, fullers, and then to dyers.
QUESTION: 17

What do you mean by Carding?

Solution: Carding is a process in which cotton or wool fibres are prepared for spinning.
QUESTION: 18

According to historians, who was the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century?

Solution: The typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century, according to historians, was traditional craftsperson and labourer and not a machine operator.
QUESTION: 19

What do you mean by ‘Gomastha’?

Solution:

First: the Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and later they appoint a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.

QUESTION: 20

In Victorian Britain the upper classes- aristocratic class and bourgeoisie preferred handmade goods because:

Solution: In Victorian Britain, the upper classes, i.e., the aristocrats and the Bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hand because of the following reasons.

(I) Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class.

(II) Handmade products were better finished, individually produced and designed carefully.

(III) The upper classes preferred the expensive products for their exclusiveness, which were not shared by all.

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