The first clear expression of nationalism came with:
The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes during French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
Nationalism brought about in Europe the emergence of :
The end result of these changes was the emergence of the nation-state in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe. The concept and practices of a modern state, in which a centralized power exercised sovereign control over a clearly defined territory, had been developing over a long period of time in Europe. But a nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
In which century nationalism emerged in Europe
Through out the course of the 19th century, Europe witnessed revolutions, radical political changes, and industrial advancements, which had an impact on shaping the art and culture of this time. By examining literature, art, and cultural changes of the 19th century, historians can provide a different perspective of the events that took place. At the start of the 19th century, Napoleon was defeated along with his militaristic agenda, and Europe now entered many new phases of social reform. Industrialization had slowly provided much of Europe a new means of production and architecture.
The ideas of a United Community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution were expressed by the French as :
The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
The Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic Code, established :
The civil code of 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code was enacted on March 21, 1804. It was one of the most important code of those times because institutionalised equalilty under law i.e. it ruled out privileges to people that were based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and stated that only the most qualified would be entitled to government jobs.
What kind of political and constitutional change was brought about by the French Revolution?
The french revolution was based upon the ideas of providing political freedom and social equality to the masses. After the revolution was over,every citizens of France was granted political,economic, social and religious freedom.
As a result of french revolution certain Human rights were declared. These Human Rights had their impact on France.
Name one kind of revolt that started in Europe in 1848.
1848 Revolutions in Europe; artisans, industrial workers and peasants revolt against economic hardships; middle classes demand constitutions and representative governments; Italians, Germans, Magyars, Poles, Czechs, etc. demand nation-states.
Who was Frederic sorrieu?
Frédéric Sorrieu was a French engraver, printmaker and draughtsman. He was notable for his works testifying the liberal and nationalist revolutions in France and in Europe.
The denial of universal suffrage in Europe, led to _________________.
The Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
In politics, liberalism emphasised ______________.
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. For the new middle classes; freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law were the bases of idea of liberalism.
Political & Social Perspective: From the political perspective, the idea of liberalism emphasized the concept of government by consent. Liberalism also meant an end of autocracy and clerical privileges. Further, it meant the need of a constitution and a representative government. Inviolability of private property was also emphasized by the nineteenth century liberals.
Friedrich List, a German professor of Economics, hoped to achieve two political ends through economic measures. They were ______________ .
Increase in power in Europe and Binding Germans economically into a nation were two political ends hoped to achieve by Friedrich List, a German professor of Economics, through economic measures.
Which new spirit guided European nations after Napoleon’s defeat?
After the death of Napoleon in 1815 European governments were driven in a spirit of conservatism. It means a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition established institution and customers and preferred gradual development to quick change. Conservation after 1815, in 1815 representatives of the European powers. Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Who had collectively detected Napoleon met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
(1) The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under, Napoleon.
(2) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future. Thus the kingdom of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the north and Geneva was added to Piedmont in the South
(3) Prussia was given important territories on its western frontiers, while Austria was given control of northern Italy. But the German Confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched. Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony. The main intention was to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.
All the new regimes, set up in 1815, were autocratic because :
1.The conservative regimes set up in 1851 were autocratic in its real sense of the word.
2.They did not tolerate criticism and dissent from any corner.
3.They sought to control activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic rulers.
4. Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was expressed freely in newspapers, books, plays and songs. The ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French Revolution were becoming popular but they were strictly condemned.
Repression of liberal revolutionaries after 1815, in Europe, led to
After 1815 due to the fear of repression, many revolutionaries or liberal-nationalists went underground to avoid arrest
(i) They established many secret societies to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
(ii) They opposed monarchical forms of governments that were established after the Vienna Congress.
(iii) They fought for liberty and freedom and thought the creation of nation-state as a necessary part of their struggle for freedom.
(iv) Giuseppe Mazzini founded secret societies like Young Italy and Young Europe for the unification of fragmented Italy.
(v) Following Mazzini’s model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(vi) Liberalism and nationalism brought revolution in many regions of Europe like the provinces of Ottoman Empire, Ireland, Poland besides Italy and Germany.
The three leaders who helped unification of Italy were :
In March 1861 Emmanuel II proclaimed the Italian nation with himself as king and Camillo Cavour as prime minister. Three of the key figures in the unification of Italy were Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour, who although all having different aims, ultimately contributed to the unification of Italy.
United Kingdom of Great Britain came into existence in the year -
The United Kingdom as a unified state can be treated as beginning in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland,into a united kingdom called Great Britain.
The first clear expression of nationalism came with:
Before 1789, France was under absolute monarchy. With French revolution, Monarch was throne out and a sovereign body of French citizens was established. This revolution made France the nation-state and made many political and constitutional changes like:
- A new french flag was adopted to replace former royal standard.
- The estate general, renamed as General assembly, became an elected body.
- Centralized administration and uniform civil laws were made for citizens.
- Uniform weighing and measurement system was adopted.
- French became the national language of France.
All these changes gives a clear expression of collectivism and gave people true power to shape the destiny of France. Thus France became a nation-state and world got a clear expression of nationalism through the French revolution.
The Nationalist Greeks got the support of the West European nations because :
An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the Greek war of independence. Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many West Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war, where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Cavour’s contribution to Italian unification was:
Cavours contriution to Italian unification is that he followed diplomatic alliance with France in 1859 and strengthening Sadinia and Piedmont. Cavour supported France and England against Russia in the Crimean War and gained their support against Austria.
Who was Giuseppe Mazzini? When and where he was born?
Giuseppe Garibald 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy.