Test: Verbal Ability- 1


29 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2022 | Test: Verbal Ability- 1


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This mock test of Test: Verbal Ability- 1 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 29 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT Test: Verbal Ability- 1 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Verbal Ability- 1 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this Test: Verbal Ability- 1 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Verbal Ability- 1 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Ever since the final whistle brought World Cup 2006 to a close, the atmosphere in the two neighbouring capitals could not be more different. In Rome, there were scenes of euphoria over Italy's victory. Ecstatic Italian demonstrators partied into the early hours of the morning. The victorious team was given a rapturous welcome both at the airport and in Rome's Circolo Massimo, where over a million fans braved the Roman sun to greet the returning heroes. The great expanse of the Circolo Massimo was strewn with red, white and green flags, while the air was thick with the crowd's hooting, chanting and music-making. Late on Monday the winning team was expected to be greeted by Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Then, a parade through the streets of Rome, with the solid gold trophy in an open top bus.
In Paris, the Champs Elysees, which had seen crowds of up to 5,00,000 when France entered the quarterfinals and then the semifinals, had barely 50,000 fans who felt they had to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat. But their heart was not in it. A special TV show organised to celebrate victory turned into a virtual wake. [Mournful faces were trying to mask a sense of overwhelming sorrow, not least because superstar Zidane's final match had been tarnished by his expulsion from the game.]
There will be no parade down the Champs Elysees as had been planned. The players had lunch with President Jacques Chirac on their return. But a tight-lipped Raymond Domenech said brusquely: "I am the manager,
I decide. There will be no parade." Instead, fans had a glimpse of their favourite stars from a balcony of the chic Crillon Hotel at the Place de la Concorde. In Italy, on the other hand, the victory was experienced as a double triumph, with the feeling that Italians had avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of the French. The Italian press was lavish in its praise for the squadra azzura with headlines like "The world Belongs to Us" or simply, "Champions." Newspapers hoped this victory would augur a new era of hope and economic recovery for Italy.

In the first line of the passage, which are the two capitals that the author is referring to?

Solution:

The two capitals talked about in the passage are Rome and Paris. Thus, option (b) is correct.

QUESTION: 2

Ever since the final whistle brought World Cup 2006 to a close, the atmosphere in the two neighbouring capitals could not be more different. In Rome, there were scenes of euphoria over Italy's victory. Ecstatic Italian demonstrators partied into the early hours of the morning. The victorious team was given a rapturous welcome both at the airport and in Rome's Circolo Massimo, where over a million fans braved the Roman sun to greet the returning heroes. The great expanse of the Circolo Massimo was strewn with red, white and green flags, while the air was thick with the crowd's hooting, chanting and music-making. Late on Monday the winning team was expected to be greeted by Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Then, a parade through the streets of Rome, with the solid gold trophy in an open top bus.
In Paris, the Champs Elysees, which had seen crowds of up to 5,00,000 when France entered the quarterfinals and then the semifinals, had barely 50,000 fans who felt they had to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat. But their heart was not in it. A special TV show organised to celebrate victory turned into a virtual wake. [Mournful faces were trying to mask a sense of overwhelming sorrow, not least because superstar Zidane's final match had been tarnished by his expulsion from the game.]
There will be no parade down the Champs Elysees as had been planned. The players had lunch with President Jacques Chirac on their return. But a tight-lipped Raymond Domenech said brusquely: "I am the manager,
I decide. There will be no parade." Instead, fans had a glimpse of their favourite stars from a balcony of the chic Crillon Hotel at the Place de la Concorde. In Italy, on the other hand, the victory was experienced as a double triumph, with the feeling that Italians had avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of the French. The Italian press was lavish in its praise for the squadra azzura with headlines like "The world Belongs to Us" or simply, "Champions." Newspapers hoped this victory would augur a new era of hope and economic recovery for Italy.

What does the word 'tarnished' mean in the context of the passage?

Solution:

The word 'tarnished' as used in the passage means destroyed or spoiled. Therefore, option (b) is correct.

QUESTION: 3

Ever since the final whistle brought World Cup 2006 to a close, the atmosphere in the two neighbouring capitals could not be more different. In Rome, there were scenes of euphoria over Italy's victory. Ecstatic Italian demonstrators partied into the early hours of the morning. The victorious team was given a rapturous welcome both at the airport and in Rome's Circolo Massimo, where over a million fans braved the Roman sun to greet the returning heroes. The great expanse of the Circolo Massimo was strewn with red, white and green flags, while the air was thick with the crowd's hooting, chanting and music-making. Late on Monday the winning team was expected to be greeted by Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Then, a parade through the streets of Rome, with the solid gold trophy in an open top bus.
In Paris, the Champs Elysees, which had seen crowds of up to 5,00,000 when France entered the quarterfinals and then the semifinals, had barely 50,000 fans who felt they had to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat. But their heart was not in it. A special TV show organised to celebrate victory turned into a virtual wake. [Mournful faces were trying to mask a sense of overwhelming sorrow, not least because superstar Zidane's final match had been tarnished by his expulsion from the game.]
There will be no parade down the Champs Elysees as had been planned. The players had lunch with President Jacques Chirac on their return. But a tight-lipped Raymond Domenech said brusquely: "I am the manager,
I decide. There will be no parade." Instead, fans had a glimpse of their favourite stars from a balcony of the chic Crillon Hotel at the Place de la Concorde. In Italy, on the other hand, the victory was experienced as a double triumph, with the feeling that Italians had avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of the French. The Italian press was lavish in its praise for the squadra azzura with headlines like "The world Belongs to Us" or simply, "Champions." Newspapers hoped this victory would augur a new era of hope and economic recovery for Italy.

Why did the French fans gather to welcome their team despite its defeat in World Cup 2006?

Solution:

The second paragraph of the passage states that the 50,000 French fans gathered at Champs Elysees "to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat".
In other words, the fans wanted to convey to their team that they had given their rivals a tough fight. Therefore, option (d) is correct. Option (c) is incorrect owing to the word 'congratulate'. Options (a) and (b) are incorrect because the passage contains no evidence to support them.

QUESTION: 4

Ever since the final whistle brought World Cup 2006 to a close, the atmosphere in the two neighbouring capitals could not be more different. In Rome, there were scenes of euphoria over Italy's victory. Ecstatic Italian demonstrators partied into the early hours of the morning. The victorious team was given a rapturous welcome both at the airport and in Rome's Circolo Massimo, where over a million fans braved the Roman sun to greet the returning heroes. The great expanse of the Circolo Massimo was strewn with red, white and green flags, while the air was thick with the crowd's hooting, chanting and music-making. Late on Monday the winning team was expected to be greeted by Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Then, a parade through the streets of Rome, with the solid gold trophy in an open top bus.
In Paris, the Champs Elysees, which had seen crowds of up to 5,00,000 when France entered the quarterfinals and then the semifinals, had barely 50,000 fans who felt they had to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat. But their heart was not in it. A special TV show organised to celebrate victory turned into a virtual wake. [Mournful faces were trying to mask a sense of overwhelming sorrow, not least because superstar Zidane's final match had been tarnished by his expulsion from the game.]
There will be no parade down the Champs Elysees as had been planned. The players had lunch with President Jacques Chirac on their return. But a tight-lipped Raymond Domenech said brusquely: "I am the manager,
I decide. There will be no parade." Instead, fans had a glimpse of their favourite stars from a balcony of the chic Crillon Hotel at the Place de la Concorde. In Italy, on the other hand, the victory was experienced as a double triumph, with the feeling that Italians had avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of the French. The Italian press was lavish in its praise for the squadra azzura with headlines like "The world Belongs to Us" or simply, "Champions." Newspapers hoped this victory would augur a new era of hope and economic recovery for Italy.

Which of the following is incorrect with respect to the passage?
1. Zidane was excluded from the football team before the final match got over.
2. France mourned over a not-so-glorious end of Zidane's career.
3. Italy has lost a match against France.
4. Italy triumphed over France twice in World Cup 2006.

Solution:

Statement 2 is incorrect because the second paragraph states that the faces of the French fans were mournful "not least because superstar Zidane's final match had been tarnished". Statement 4 is incorrect because the last paragraph states that the Italian victory was a "double triumph" because they had two reasons to celebrate - one, their triumph in this match and that they "avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of French". This also proves that Italy had once been defeated by France, rendering statement 3 correct. Statement 1 is also correct because the second paragraph clearly states that Zidane was expelled in the final match.

QUESTION: 5

Ever since the final whistle brought World Cup 2006 to a close, the atmosphere in the two neighbouring capitals could not be more different. In Rome, there were scenes of euphoria over Italy's victory. Ecstatic Italian demonstrators partied into the early hours of the morning. The victorious team was given a rapturous welcome both at the airport and in Rome's Circolo Massimo, where over a million fans braved the Roman sun to greet the returning heroes. The great expanse of the Circolo Massimo was strewn with red, white and green flags, while the air was thick with the crowd's hooting, chanting and music-making. Late on Monday the winning team was expected to be greeted by Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Then, a parade through the streets of Rome, with the solid gold trophy in an open top bus.
In Paris, the Champs Elysees, which had seen crowds of up to 5,00,000 when France entered the quarterfinals and then the semifinals, had barely 50,000 fans who felt they had to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat. But their heart was not in it. A special TV show organised to celebrate victory turned into a virtual wake. [Mournful faces were trying to mask a sense of overwhelming sorrow, not least because superstar Zidane's final match had been tarnished by his expulsion from the game.]
There will be no parade down the Champs Elysees as had been planned. The players had lunch with President Jacques Chirac on their return. But a tight-lipped Raymond Domenech said brusquely: "I am the manager,
I decide. There will be no parade." Instead, fans had a glimpse of their favourite stars from a balcony of the chic Crillon Hotel at the Place de la Concorde. In Italy, on the other hand, the victory was experienced as a double triumph, with the feeling that Italians had avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of the French. The Italian press was lavish in its praise for the squadra azzura with headlines like "The world Belongs to Us" or simply, "Champions." Newspapers hoped this victory would augur a new era of hope and economic recovery for Italy.

Choose the most appropriate title for the given passage:

Solution:

The passage gives equal weightage to the discussion of both - the ecstasy felt by the Italians and the mournful atmosphere in France - after Italy's victory over France in World Cup 2006. Therefore, option (a) is correct. Options (b) and (c) are inept because each of them refer to only one country - France and Italy respectively. Option (d) is incorrect because it's too general.

QUESTION: 6

Weaver sees hypocrisy in the World Bank as a predictable feature in a large international organization especially when viewed using resource dependency (viewing the competitive environment) and sociological institutionalism (the authorising environment). The Bank's emphasis on organizational survival and legitimacy shows itself in its interactions with multiple actors in its competitive and authoritarian environments. Many critics of the Bank simply see the Bank as unable to achieve the goals it sets and help its client states. Weaver however launches into an in-depth description of two "worlds"-the World's Bank and the Bank's World. The former indicates the complex structure of the Bank including its donor states, client states, its private capita markets and the watchdog Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Weaver's examination reveals the various pressures exerted on the Bank and the degree of American influence on the bank.
In as much as the Bank is pressured from many sides, Weaver notes a strong degree of operational authority and autonomy in the "Bank's World". This stems from the complexity of its operations, some which are not open to extensive review. Second the diversity of member states allows the Bank some autonomy and most importantly, the Bank holds a strong monopoly over development related knowledge. This control of ideas is coupled with a technocratic and economic rationality, reinforced with the influx of Western trained neo-classical economists. Bank ideological coherence is also maintained by the editing of reports to align with neoliberal beliefs. It is within these strong intellectual norms that Weaver examines World Bank reforms. Contrary to some critics, the Bank did engage in reforms in the 1990s. The Strategic Compact arose as a need to transform the Bank back as an effort to re-orientate itself as the premier development agency, after external criticism and an internal evaluation. The first aim of streamlining bureaucracy was easily reached however the aim of being more "poverty focused and accountable" came at odds with the technical, economic and apolitical rationality. New efforts such as listening to clients and conducting consultations clashed with the existing approval culture. Overall, changes occurred but still the approval culture remained strong.
Similarly, the focus on good governance was not that effective with apolitical stances amongst staff. Furthermore, the dominating neo-liberal mindset resulted in governance issues framed with economic objectives in mind. Just as with the Strategic Compact, Weaver notes that governance reform challenged the Bank's conventional method of conducting business. Weaver does qualify that the constant need to placate the demands of various external groups also hampered Bank reform. She however noted that the Bank deep culture will prevent any productive change. Weaver thus delves away from the normal criticism of the World Bank to explain the reasons of Bank actions and activities. She shed a new light noting that such hypocrisy is a tenet in any large international organisation. In order for any improvement to the World Bank, it is not simply the initiation of change but the need to re work the internal settings of one of the world's most important development groups.

Under which environments does Weaver assess World Bank's hypocrisy?

Solution:

The answer is (d) and this has been given in the first paragraph. Combative is a synonym of competitive but with a negative connotation and it does not fit into the context of the paragraph. Democratic is an antonym for authoritarian.

QUESTION: 7

Weaver sees hypocrisy in the World Bank as a predictable feature in a large international organization especially when viewed using resource dependency (viewing the competitive environment) and sociological institutionalism (the authorising environment). The Bank's emphasis on organizational survival and legitimacy shows itself in its interactions with multiple actors in its competitive and authoritarian environments. Many critics of the Bank simply see the Bank as unable to achieve the goals it sets and help its client states. Weaver however launches into an in-depth description of two "worlds"-the World's Bank and the Bank's World. The former indicates the complex structure of the Bank including its donor states, client states, its private capita markets and the watchdog Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Weaver's examination reveals the various pressures exerted on the Bank and the degree of American influence on the bank.
In as much as the Bank is pressured from many sides, Weaver notes a strong degree of operational authority and autonomy in the "Bank's World". This stems from the complexity of its operations, some which are not open to extensive review. Second the diversity of member states allows the Bank some autonomy and most importantly, the Bank holds a strong monopoly over development related knowledge. This control of ideas is coupled with a technocratic and economic rationality, reinforced with the influx of Western trained neo-classical economists. Bank ideological coherence is also maintained by the editing of reports to align with neoliberal beliefs. It is within these strong intellectual norms that Weaver examines World Bank reforms. Contrary to some critics, the Bank did engage in reforms in the 1990s. The Strategic Compact arose as a need to transform the Bank back as an effort to re-orientate itself as the premier development agency, after external criticism and an internal evaluation. The first aim of streamlining bureaucracy was easily reached however the aim of being more "poverty focused and accountable" came at odds with the technical, economic and apolitical rationality. New efforts such as listening to clients and conducting consultations clashed with the existing approval culture. Overall, changes occurred but still the approval culture remained strong.
Similarly, the focus on good governance was not that effective with apolitical stances amongst staff. Furthermore, the dominating neo-liberal mindset resulted in governance issues framed with economic objectives in mind. Just as with the Strategic Compact, Weaver notes that governance reform challenged the Bank's conventional method of conducting business. Weaver does qualify that the constant need to placate the demands of various external groups also hampered Bank reform. She however noted that the Bank deep culture will prevent any productive change. Weaver thus delves away from the normal criticism of the World Bank to explain the reasons of Bank actions and activities. She shed a new light noting that such hypocrisy is a tenet in any large international organisation. In order for any improvement to the World Bank, it is not simply the initiation of change but the need to re work the internal settings of one of the world's most important development groups.

What changes does Weaver feel the bank needs to bring in for true reform?

Solution:

The author discusses the two sides of the bank - external pressures and the internal environment - in the context of reforms. However, it is clearly inferred from paragraph 3, 4, 5 and 6 that she feels that bank reform has not taken place because of its strong internal culture. The last paragraph clinches the answer as option (c). Option (a) is incorrect as this was part of the failed efforts for reforms in the 1990s. Option (b) is incorrect as indicated from the first line of paragraph 3. The external reforms are not seen as important when compared with the failed efforts of the bank in changing its internal environment. Option (d) is an end objective for the bank but it does not reflect the changes that need to be made thereby not answering the question. Option (c) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 8

Weaver sees hypocrisy in the World Bank as a predictable feature in a large international organization especially when viewed using resource dependency (viewing the competitive environment) and sociological institutionalism (the authorising environment). The Bank's emphasis on organizational survival and legitimacy shows itself in its interactions with multiple actors in its competitive and authoritarian environments. Many critics of the Bank simply see the Bank as unable to achieve the goals it sets and help its client states. Weaver however launches into an in-depth description of two "worlds"-the World's Bank and the Bank's World. The former indicates the complex structure of the Bank including its donor states, client states, its private capita markets and the watchdog Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Weaver's examination reveals the various pressures exerted on the Bank and the degree of American influence on the bank.
In as much as the Bank is pressured from many sides, Weaver notes a strong degree of operational authority and autonomy in the "Bank's World". This stems from the complexity of its operations, some which are not open to extensive review. Second the diversity of member states allows the Bank some autonomy and most importantly, the Bank holds a strong monopoly over development related knowledge. This control of ideas is coupled with a technocratic and economic rationality, reinforced with the influx of Western trained neo-classical economists. Bank ideological coherence is also maintained by the editing of reports to align with neoliberal beliefs. It is within these strong intellectual norms that Weaver examines World Bank reforms. Contrary to some critics, the Bank did engage in reforms in the 1990s. The Strategic Compact arose as a need to transform the Bank back as an effort to re-orientate itself as the premier development agency, after external criticism and an internal evaluation. The first aim of streamlining bureaucracy was easily reached however the aim of being more "poverty focused and accountable" came at odds with the technical, economic and apolitical rationality. New efforts such as listening to clients and conducting consultations clashed with the existing approval culture. Overall, changes occurred but still the approval culture remained strong.
Similarly, the focus on good governance was not that effective with apolitical stances amongst staff. Furthermore, the dominating neo-liberal mindset resulted in governance issues framed with economic objectives in mind. Just as with the Strategic Compact, Weaver notes that governance reform challenged the Bank's conventional method of conducting business. Weaver does qualify that the constant need to placate the demands of various external groups also hampered Bank reform. She however noted that the Bank deep culture will prevent any productive change. Weaver thus delves away from the normal criticism of the World Bank to explain the reasons of Bank actions and activities. She shed a new light noting that such hypocrisy is a tenet in any large international organisation. In order for any improvement to the World Bank, it is not simply the initiation of change but the need to re work the internal settings of one of the world's most important development groups.

It can be inferred that Weaver's attitude to the World Bank is best reflected in which of the following statements?

Solution:

The question asks for the statement which most reflects Weaver's attitude. In the first and last paragraphs of the passage, Weaver agrees that the World Bank is a hypocritical organization she also moves away from this to look at how it can move away from this. Option (a) does not answer this question entirely and instead criticizes the bank.
Option (b) is the best answer in the context of the entire passage. Option (c) has never been stated nor implied by Weaver, it is what other critics have said about the Bank. Option (d) has to do with the failed reforms of the 1990s and not the time period the author is writing in.

QUESTION: 9

Weaver sees hypocrisy in the World Bank as a predictable feature in a large international organization especially when viewed using resource dependency (viewing the competitive environment) and sociological institutionalism (the authorising environment). The Bank's emphasis on organizational survival and legitimacy shows itself in its interactions with multiple actors in its competitive and authoritarian environments. Many critics of the Bank simply see the Bank as unable to achieve the goals it sets and help its client states. Weaver however launches into an in-depth description of two "worlds"-the World's Bank and the Bank's World. The former indicates the complex structure of the Bank including its donor states, client states, its private capita markets and the watchdog Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Weaver's examination reveals the various pressures exerted on the Bank and the degree of American influence on the bank.
In as much as the Bank is pressured from many sides, Weaver notes a strong degree of operational authority and autonomy in the "Bank's World". This stems from the complexity of its operations, some which are not open to extensive review. Second the diversity of member states allows the Bank some autonomy and most importantly, the Bank holds a strong monopoly over development related knowledge. This control of ideas is coupled with a technocratic and economic rationality, reinforced with the influx of Western trained neo-classical economists. Bank ideological coherence is also maintained by the editing of reports to align with neoliberal beliefs. It is within these strong intellectual norms that Weaver examines World Bank reforms. Contrary to some critics, the Bank did engage in reforms in the 1990s. The Strategic Compact arose as a need to transform the Bank back as an effort to re-orientate itself as the premier development agency, after external criticism and an internal evaluation. The first aim of streamlining bureaucracy was easily reached however the aim of being more "poverty focused and accountable" came at odds with the technical, economic and apolitical rationality. New efforts such as listening to clients and conducting consultations clashed with the existing approval culture. Overall, changes occurred but still the approval culture remained strong.
Similarly, the focus on good governance was not that effective with apolitical stances amongst staff. Furthermore, the dominating neo-liberal mindset resulted in governance issues framed with economic objectives in mind. Just as with the Strategic Compact, Weaver notes that governance reform challenged the Bank's conventional method of conducting business. Weaver does qualify that the constant need to placate the demands of various external groups also hampered Bank reform. She however noted that the Bank deep culture will prevent any productive change. Weaver thus delves away from the normal criticism of the World Bank to explain the reasons of Bank actions and activities. She shed a new light noting that such hypocrisy is a tenet in any large international organisation. In order for any improvement to the World Bank, it is not simply the initiation of change but the need to re work the internal settings of one of the world's most important development groups.

What is the tone of the author?

Solution:

The author's tone is incisive or analytical.

QUESTION: 10

Weaver sees hypocrisy in the World Bank as a predictable feature in a large international organization especially when viewed using resource dependency (viewing the competitive environment) and sociological institutionalism (the authorising environment). The Bank's emphasis on organizational survival and legitimacy shows itself in its interactions with multiple actors in its competitive and authoritarian environments. Many critics of the Bank simply see the Bank as unable to achieve the goals it sets and help its client states. Weaver however launches into an in-depth description of two "worlds"-the World's Bank and the Bank's World. The former indicates the complex structure of the Bank including its donor states, client states, its private capita markets and the watchdog Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Weaver's examination reveals the various pressures exerted on the Bank and the degree of American influence on the bank.
In as much as the Bank is pressured from many sides, Weaver notes a strong degree of operational authority and autonomy in the "Bank's World". This stems from the complexity of its operations, some which are not open to extensive review. Second the diversity of member states allows the Bank some autonomy and most importantly, the Bank holds a strong monopoly over development related knowledge. This control of ideas is coupled with a technocratic and economic rationality, reinforced with the influx of Western trained neo-classical economists. Bank ideological coherence is also maintained by the editing of reports to align with neoliberal beliefs. It is within these strong intellectual norms that Weaver examines World Bank reforms. Contrary to some critics, the Bank did engage in reforms in the 1990s. The Strategic Compact arose as a need to transform the Bank back as an effort to re-orientate itself as the premier development agency, after external criticism and an internal evaluation. The first aim of streamlining bureaucracy was easily reached however the aim of being more "poverty focused and accountable" came at odds with the technical, economic and apolitical rationality. New efforts such as listening to clients and conducting consultations clashed with the existing approval culture. Overall, changes occurred but still the approval culture remained strong.
Similarly, the focus on good governance was not that effective with apolitical stances amongst staff. Furthermore, the dominating neo-liberal mindset resulted in governance issues framed with economic objectives in mind. Just as with the Strategic Compact, Weaver notes that governance reform challenged the Bank's conventional method of conducting business. Weaver does qualify that the constant need to placate the demands of various external groups also hampered Bank reform. She however noted that the Bank deep culture will prevent any productive change. Weaver thus delves away from the normal criticism of the World Bank to explain the reasons of Bank actions and activities. She shed a new light noting that such hypocrisy is a tenet in any large international organisation. In order for any improvement to the World Bank, it is not simply the initiation of change but the need to re work the internal settings of one of the world's most important development groups.

Consider the following statements:
1. The World Bank engaged in reforms in the 1980s.
2. Every operation of the World Bank is open to extensive reviews.
According to the above passage, which of the statements is/are valid?

Solution:

Both the statements are incorrect. Refer to the third paragraph for the answers.

QUESTION: 11

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full- figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in. With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.
The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

Option (d) can be inferred from the penultimate
paragraph which says that "The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes." Hence, it can be clearly understood that children can be influenced by their parents. Option (a) cannot be inferred from the passage. The first paragraph says that beauty pageant contestants have the potential to make headlines and these girls are beautiful and most often thin too. It might not be true the other way round. Option (b) is beyond the scope of the passage since we do not know whether anti-obesity programme helped in reducing obesity or not. Option (c) cannot be inferred from the passage since it is just an opinion of Jane Caro. We do not know whether the author agrees with the statement or not.

QUESTION: 12

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full- figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in. With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.
The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Why did Chloe Marshall make headlines?

Solution:

The opening paragraph tells us that all Miss India's
and Miss World's make headlines, but Chloe Marshall gathered more attention because she was a "full figured" 2008 Miss England runner up. She created a "stop-the-press" moment since large women are not 'generally' considered 'fairest of them all'. However, it cannot be inferred that she was not considered "fairest of them all". This rules out option (a) and makes option (d) the correct answer. Option (a) is incorrect as 'not unlike' means that she [Chloe] was like the others.

QUESTION: 13

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full- figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in. With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.
The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Which notion is being talked about in the last line of the passage?

Solution:

The entire passage talks about women wanting to be slim and associating slim with being beautiful. Refer to the last line, "...the notion that fat is bad, slim is good..." So option (b) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 14

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full- figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in. With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.
The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?
A. Beauty is given great importance in today's society.
B. Only a few women are happy the way they look.
C. Media is considered the Lilliputian character that is responsible for the body-image debate.

Solution:

The author agrees with both statements A and B.
Refer to the first line of the passage wherein the author says, "Beauty is a valuable commodity..." Hence, it can be understood that in today's society, beauty is given a lot of significance. In the third paragraph, the author says that 94 percent of the women are judgmental about their looks. This means that there are only a few women who are satisfied with their looks. Hence, option (a) is the answer.
Refer to the line 'The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate'. Bogeyman is a mythical creature adopted by parents to scare little children. 'Lilliputian' is used to describe little people. Therefore, we can say that statement C is not in line with what the author agrees to.

QUESTION: 15

Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image-obsessed society, so it's not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren't just beautiful; they're most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 ("full- figured" or "ample," to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop-the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered "the fairest of them all." Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear -thin is in. With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were "very satisfied" with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. "If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: 'I'm happy with who I am,' entire economies would collapse," says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer.
The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it's only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children's attitudes. "A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters," says Tiggemann. "That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on." The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. "It's shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks," she says. "It's perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better." And it's a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.

Which of the following is the synonym of the word "odious"?

Solution:

'Odious' means arousing or deserving hatred. Hence, its synonym is disgusting, rendering option (d) the correct answer.

QUESTION: 16

In the wake of the varying forms which the idea of the end of history has taken, the intellectual history of disillusionment and resignation has been countered with a Leftist framework. But, with almost 10 million nonwhite people in the EU, the rising number of impoverished masses in Brazil, or in South Asia, as well as the problems of health and illiteracy, the Left has a formidable task before it; issues concerning economic deprivation, the brutalisation of workers, increasing spending on nuclear enhancement and the need for all ethnic minorities to explicitly feature in a pluralistic vision needs to be the foundation of any reinvention of the Left.
The long drawn out economic and political tensions, for instance, in Latin America have moved the Hugo Chavez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales trio towards an international agenda for social reconstruction within which socialism does not need to be replaced but must be put forward as a programme to salvage a world from inequality and the abuse of power, especially the hegemony of the White House. They have together constructed a progressive alliance, insisting on a collective leadership that endorses the rich diversity of radical and socialist traditions.
In a drastically damaged world in which received political ideologies have been exhausted, anti-imperialist agenda and far-reaching remedies have been initiated in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela to check the erratic play of market forces. Chavez has been particularly hard hitting through his move of cutting off oil supplies to the US and his unquestionable allegiance with Castro. He has not hesitated to build trade relations with China and to back Iran's nuclear ambitions. The dream of an anti-imperialist union has finally come true by the induction of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Chile into the club headed by Castro and Chavez, and underpinned by the age-old vision for a strong Leftist opposition to the interventionist policies of the U.S. Inspired by great heroes like Simon Bolivar and Che Guevara, Chavez has been fighting for regional integration and a society that bases itself on the ideology of the new South American Left.

What issues, according to the passage, should form the basis for the Left to rise and be counted?

Solution:

Refer to the last sentence of the first paragraph.
"...issues concerning economic deprivation... foundation of any reinvention of the Left." So, option C is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 17

In the wake of the varying forms which the idea of the end of history has taken, the intellectual history of disillusionment and resignation has been countered with a Leftist framework. But, with almost 10 million nonwhite people in the EU, the rising number of impoverished masses in Brazil, or in South Asia, as well as the problems of health and illiteracy, the Left has a formidable task before it; issues concerning economic deprivation, the brutalisation of workers, increasing spending on nuclear enhancement and the need for all ethnic minorities to explicitly feature in a pluralistic vision needs to be the foundation of any reinvention of the Left.
The long drawn out economic and political tensions, for instance, in Latin America have moved the Hugo Chavez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales trio towards an international agenda for social reconstruction within which socialism does not need to be replaced but must be put forward as a programme to salvage a world from inequality and the abuse of power, especially the hegemony of the White House. They have together constructed a progressive alliance, insisting on a collective leadership that endorses the rich diversity of radical and socialist traditions.
In a drastically damaged world in which received political ideologies have been exhausted, anti-imperialist agenda and far-reaching remedies have been initiated in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela to check the erratic play of market forces. Chavez has been particularly hard hitting through his move of cutting off oil supplies to the US and his unquestionable allegiance with Castro. He has not hesitated to build trade relations with China and to back Iran's nuclear ambitions. The dream of an anti-imperialist union has finally come true by the induction of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Chile into the club headed by Castro and Chavez, and underpinned by the age-old vision for a strong Leftist opposition to the interventionist policies of the U.S. Inspired by great heroes like Simon Bolivar and Che Guevara, Chavez has been fighting for regional integration and a society that bases itself on the ideology of the new South American Left.

What do you feel is the political ideology of leaders like Hugo Chavez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales?

Solution:

Refer to the first sentence of the second paragraph.
It clearly states that the three have moved towards the international agenda for social reconstruction within which socialism must be put forward as a programme to salvage a world from inequality, abuse of power and the hegemony of the US. So, option (b) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 18

In the wake of the varying forms which the idea of the end of history has taken, the intellectual history of disillusionment and resignation has been countered with a Leftist framework. But, with almost 10 million nonwhite people in the EU, the rising number of impoverished masses in Brazil, or in South Asia, as well as the problems of health and illiteracy, the Left has a formidable task before it; issues concerning economic deprivation, the brutalisation of workers, increasing spending on nuclear enhancement and the need for all ethnic minorities to explicitly feature in a pluralistic vision needs to be the foundation of any reinvention of the Left.
The long drawn out economic and political tensions, for instance, in Latin America have moved the Hugo Chavez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales trio towards an international agenda for social reconstruction within which socialism does not need to be replaced but must be put forward as a programme to salvage a world from inequality and the abuse of power, especially the hegemony of the White House. They have together constructed a progressive alliance, insisting on a collective leadership that endorses the rich diversity of radical and socialist traditions.
In a drastically damaged world in which received political ideologies have been exhausted, anti-imperialist agenda and far-reaching remedies have been initiated in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela to check the erratic play of market forces. Chavez has been particularly hard hitting through his move of cutting off oil supplies to the US and his unquestionable allegiance with Castro. He has not hesitated to build trade relations with China and to back Iran's nuclear ambitions. The dream of an anti-imperialist union has finally come true by the induction of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Chile into the club headed by Castro and Chavez, and underpinned by the age-old vision for a strong Leftist opposition to the interventionist policies of the U.S. Inspired by great heroes like Simon Bolivar and Che Guevara, Chavez has been fighting for regional integration and a society that bases itself on the ideology of the new South American Left.

Why have remedial measures been taken in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela?

Solution:

Refer to the first sentence of the third paragraph. It clearly says that the measures have been taken to check the erratic plays or unpredictable moves of market forces. So, option (c) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 19

In the wake of the varying forms which the idea of the end of history has taken, the intellectual history of disillusionment and resignation has been countered with a Leftist framework. But, with almost 10 million nonwhite people in the EU, the rising number of impoverished masses in Brazil, or in South Asia, as well as the problems of health and illiteracy, the Left has a formidable task before it; issues concerning economic deprivation, the brutalisation of workers, increasing spending on nuclear enhancement and the need for all ethnic minorities to explicitly feature in a pluralistic vision needs to be the foundation of any reinvention of the Left.
The long drawn out economic and political tensions, for instance, in Latin America have moved the Hugo Chavez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales trio towards an international agenda for social reconstruction within which socialism does not need to be replaced but must be put forward as a programme to salvage a world from inequality and the abuse of power, especially the hegemony of the White House. They have together constructed a progressive alliance, insisting on a collective leadership that endorses the rich diversity of radical and socialist traditions.
In a drastically damaged world in which received political ideologies have been exhausted, anti-imperialist agenda and far-reaching remedies have been initiated in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela to check the erratic play of market forces. Chavez has been particularly hard hitting through his move of cutting off oil supplies to the US and his unquestionable allegiance with Castro. He has not hesitated to build trade relations with China and to back Iran's nuclear ambitions. The dream of an anti-imperialist union has finally come true by the induction of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Chile into the club headed by Castro and Chavez, and underpinned by the age-old vision for a strong Leftist opposition to the interventionist policies of the U.S. Inspired by great heroes like Simon Bolivar and Che Guevara, Chavez has been fighting for regional integration and a society that bases itself on the ideology of the new South American Left.

What has Chavez been struggling for?

Solution:

Refer to the last sentence of the third paragraph.
"... Chavez has been fighting for regional integration and a society that bases itself on the ideology of the new South American Left". So, option (a) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 20

In the wake of the varying forms which the idea of the end of history has taken, the intellectual history of disillusionment and resignation has been countered with a Leftist framework. But, with almost 10 million nonwhite people in the EU, the rising number of impoverished masses in Brazil, or in South Asia, as well as the problems of health and illiteracy, the Left has a formidable task before it; issues concerning economic deprivation, the brutalisation of workers, increasing spending on nuclear enhancement and the need for all ethnic minorities to explicitly feature in a pluralistic vision needs to be the foundation of any reinvention of the Left.
The long drawn out economic and political tensions, for instance, in Latin America have moved the Hugo Chavez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales trio towards an international agenda for social reconstruction within which socialism does not need to be replaced but must be put forward as a programme to salvage a world from inequality and the abuse of power, especially the hegemony of the White House. They have together constructed a progressive alliance, insisting on a collective leadership that endorses the rich diversity of radical and socialist traditions.
In a drastically damaged world in which received political ideologies have been exhausted, anti-imperialist agenda and far-reaching remedies have been initiated in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela to check the erratic play of market forces. Chavez has been particularly hard hitting through his move of cutting off oil supplies to the US and his unquestionable allegiance with Castro. He has not hesitated to build trade relations with China and to back Iran's nuclear ambitions. The dream of an anti-imperialist union has finally come true by the induction of Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Chile into the club headed by Castro and Chavez, and underpinned by the age-old vision for a strong Leftist opposition to the interventionist policies of the U.S. Inspired by great heroes like Simon Bolivar and Che Guevara, Chavez has been fighting for regional integration and a society that bases itself on the ideology of the new South American Left.

Hegemony means

Solution:

'Hegemony' means influence or control over another country, a group of people, etc.

QUESTION: 21

Low wages, large numbers of casual and contract workers, authoritarianism in the workplace, unjust victimisation of workers who are at the forefront of resistance, the coming together of company and state to put down worker resistance with a heavy hand and the lack of a fighting spirit on the part of the central trade unions affiliated to the mainstream political parties - these are what the workers are up against, even in the public sector.
One is reminded of the 44-day strike that began in April this year of thousands of contract workers, of the public sector Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), who have been struggling for many years to win wage parity with the company's permanent workers and the regularisation of their jobs. Sadly, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) and the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) allied with it did not even give a call for the permanent workers to ally with these contract workers. Instead, all the AITUC did was to appeal to Jayalalithaa, the chief minister of Tamil Nadu, in which the NLC is located, to intervene on behalf of the workers and prevail upon the central government to help settle the strike in their favour. This, when the Tamil Nadu police had been ordered to arrest the striking workers after their strike had been declared "illegal" through a court order.
The political parties, to which the AITUC and the CITU are affiliated, had entered into a thoroughly opportunistic alliance with Jayalalithaa's AIADMK in the state assembly elections last year and wanted to keep the alliance going. Indeed, it was the AIADMK government along with the central government, which controls the NLC that was instrumental in the defeat of the strike when the AITUC decided to call it off after some vague promises of regularisation were made, without, of course, any agreement on pay parity. If this then is the plight of workers in leading enterprises in the private and public sector, Maruti Suzuki and NLC, one can only imagine what their predicament is in labour-intensive manufacturing like apparel and footwear, and in the sweatshops of diamond cutting and polishing, all industries where the growth of exports is faltering.

Which of the following options has not been mentioned as some of the challenges that workers face?

Solution:

In order to arrive at the answer, the first two paragraphs can be referred to. Option (a) can be inferred from the first sentence of the passage - 'authoritarianism in the workplace, unjust victimisation of workers who are at the forefront of resistance'. The passage mentions "the lack of a fighting spirit on the part of the central trade unions affiliated to the mainstream political parties". Thus, option (b) can be inferred. Option (c) is incorrect because the passage speaks about unjust victimization of workers who are at the 'forefront of resistance'. There is no information on consistent victimization of employees. Option (d) can be inferred from the second line of the first paragraph and the last lines of the second paragraph.

QUESTION: 22

Low wages, large numbers of casual and contract workers, authoritarianism in the workplace, unjust victimisation of workers who are at the forefront of resistance, the coming together of company and state to put down worker resistance with a heavy hand and the lack of a fighting spirit on the part of the central trade unions affiliated to the mainstream political parties - these are what the workers are up against, even in the public sector.
One is reminded of the 44-day strike that began in April this year of thousands of contract workers, of the public sector Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), who have been struggling for many years to win wage parity with the company's permanent workers and the regularisation of their jobs. Sadly, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) and the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) allied with it did not even give a call for the permanent workers to ally with these contract workers. Instead, all the AITUC did was to appeal to Jayalalithaa, the chief minister of Tamil Nadu, in which the NLC is located, to intervene on behalf of the workers and prevail upon the central government to help settle the strike in their favour. This, when the Tamil Nadu police had been ordered to arrest the striking workers after their strike had been declared "illegal" through a court order.
The political parties, to which the AITUC and the CITU are affiliated, had entered into a thoroughly opportunistic alliance with Jayalalithaa's AIADMK in the state assembly elections last year and wanted to keep the alliance going. Indeed, it was the AIADMK government along with the central government, which controls the NLC that was instrumental in the defeat of the strike when the AITUC decided to call it off after some vague promises of regularisation were made, without, of course, any agreement on pay parity. If this then is the plight of workers in leading enterprises in the private and public sector, Maruti Suzuki and NLC, one can only imagine what their predicament is in labour-intensive manufacturing like apparel and footwear, and in the sweatshops of diamond cutting and polishing, all industries where the growth of exports is faltering.

From the passage, it can be inferred that the AITUC called off the strike because

Solution:

The passage mentions that "The political parties to which the AITUC and the CITU are affiliated had entered into a thoroughly opportunistic alliance with Jayalalithaa's AIADMK in the state assembly elections last year and wanted to keep the alliance going". And since it is mentioned that the AIADMK government was "instrumental in the defeat of the strike", it can be inferred that had the AITUC taken a stand contrary to that of the government, their alliance could have been jeoparalized. Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 23

Low wages, large numbers of casual and contract workers, authoritarianism in the workplace, unjust victimisation of workers who are at the forefront of resistance, the coming together of company and state to put down worker resistance with a heavy hand and the lack of a fighting spirit on the part of the central trade unions affiliated to the mainstream political parties - these are what the workers are up against, even in the public sector.
One is reminded of the 44-day strike that began in April this year of thousands of contract workers, of the public sector Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), who have been struggling for many years to win wage parity with the company's permanent workers and the regularisation of their jobs. Sadly, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) and the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) allied with it did not even give a call for the permanent workers to ally with these contract workers. Instead, all the AITUC did was to appeal to Jayalalithaa, the chief minister of Tamil Nadu, in which the NLC is located, to intervene on behalf of the workers and prevail upon the central government to help settle the strike in their favour. This, when the Tamil Nadu police had been ordered to arrest the striking workers after their strike had been declared "illegal" through a court order.
The political parties, to which the AITUC and the CITU are affiliated, had entered into a thoroughly opportunistic alliance with Jayalalithaa's AIADMK in the state assembly elections last year and wanted to keep the alliance going. Indeed, it was the AIADMK government along with the central government, which controls the NLC that was instrumental in the defeat of the strike when the AITUC decided to call it off after some vague promises of regularisation were made, without, of course, any agreement on pay parity. If this then is the plight of workers in leading enterprises in the private and public sector, Maruti Suzuki and NLC, one can only imagine what their predicament is in labour-intensive manufacturing like apparel and footwear, and in the sweatshops of diamond cutting and polishing, all industries where the growth of exports is faltering.

The passage mentions Maruti Suzuki and NLC in order to

Solution:

The author mentions Maruti Suzuki and NLC as examples of companies where the plight of workers is such as has been described by the author in the passage. The companies have not be mentioned specifically to highlight the situation of only their workers. Option (a) is negative. The author merely says that given such workers' conditions in these two companies "one can only imagine what their predicament is in labour-intensive manufacturing". He is not making any comparison. Rather it is more of an assertion. Thus, option (c) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 24

Low wages, large numbers of casual and contract workers, authoritarianism in the workplace, unjust victimisation of workers who are at the forefront of resistance, the coming together of company and state to put down worker resistance with a heavy hand and the lack of a fighting spirit on the part of the central trade unions affiliated to the mainstream political parties - these are what the workers are up against, even in the public sector.
One is reminded of the 44-day strike that began in April this year of thousands of contract workers, of the public sector Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), who have been struggling for many years to win wage parity with the company's permanent workers and the regularisation of their jobs. Sadly, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) and the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU) allied with it did not even give a call for the permanent workers to ally with these contract workers. Instead, all the AITUC did was to appeal to Jayalalithaa, the chief minister of Tamil Nadu, in which the NLC is located, to intervene on behalf of the workers and prevail upon the central government to help settle the strike in their favour. This, when the Tamil Nadu police had been ordered to arrest the striking workers after their strike had been declared "illegal" through a court order.
The political parties, to which the AITUC and the CITU are affiliated, had entered into a thoroughly opportunistic alliance with Jayalalithaa's AIADMK in the state assembly elections last year and wanted to keep the alliance going. Indeed, it was the AIADMK government along with the central government, which controls the NLC that was instrumental in the defeat of the strike when the AITUC decided to call it off after some vague promises of regularisation were made, without, of course, any agreement on pay parity. If this then is the plight of workers in leading enterprises in the private and public sector, Maruti Suzuki and NLC, one can only imagine what their predicament is in labour-intensive manufacturing like apparel and footwear, and in the sweatshops of diamond cutting and polishing, all industries where the growth of exports is faltering.

Consider the following statements:
(i) Footwear is not a labour intensive industry.
(ii) The strike at NLC continued for over two months.
According to the above passage, which of the statements is/are valid?

Solution:
QUESTION: 25

All astronauts look forward to living in the lonely and unpredictable environment of space. In low earth orbit, for instance, you get to see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets! For the day fades into night every 45 minutes as the spacecraft rotates slowly to keep its solar panels facing the sun. Viewers in Delhi shared a bit of this excitement with Sunita Williams aboard the international Space Station, when she tele chatted with them earlier this month.
Astronauts spend long periods in weightlessness of 'zero gravity'. It may be fun for us sitting in our gravity cocooned rooms and watching them on TV, as they float around. But inside their bodies things are happening that aren't any fun at all. Scientists study the effects of outer space on the human body to see how it behaves in zero gravity and then re-adapts to earth's gravity at the end of the spaceflight. In space the number of red blood cells, bone and muscle tissues are all altered and the metabolic process upset.
On Earth, gravity pulls blood to lower body, away from the head. Nerves called the baroreceptors detect this and redirect blood flow, ensuring that the brain gets enough oxygen and sugar. In space baroreceptors don't sense any pressure difference and the astronaut flies with an atypical redistribution of blood. On earth we build bones by running or jumping. But without gravity, the bones begin to lose calcium, which is absorbed in the body. (Bedridden and paraplegics suffer the same problem, losing 30% of their lower body bone mass within months). The minerals lost from the leg and hipbones aren't excreted and they migrate to the head, making the skull dense. This is the body's way of making better use of its resources: legs are useless in space, so the body moves to protect the brain!.
Unlike on earth there is no muscle tension in space. Muscles are relaxed, stretched and actually grow by five to seven inches in a space flight. Surprisingly one gets taller while one sleeps, too, because of relaxed muscles - sometimes enough to readjust one's car's rear-view mirror in the morning. To offset this, the astronauts aboard the ISS exercise on a treadmill every day. So every space payload has a large component of medical experiments to help scientists figure out what we gain-or lose-up there.

It can be inferred from the passage that living in space

Solution:

There is no mention about the cost of living in space.
So option (a) is eliminated (b) is directly stated from the passage. (d) can be inferred as the author is talking about the negative effects of outer space on the human body such as bone mass loss due to disuse of the bones. So (d) can be inferred from the passage.

QUESTION: 26

All astronauts look forward to living in the lonely and unpredictable environment of space. In low earth orbit, for instance, you get to see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets! For the day fades into night every 45 minutes as the spacecraft rotates slowly to keep its solar panels facing the sun. Viewers in Delhi shared a bit of this excitement with Sunita Williams aboard the international Space Station, when she tele chatted with them earlier this month.
Astronauts spend long periods in weightlessness of 'zero gravity'. It may be fun for us sitting in our gravity cocooned rooms and watching them on TV, as they float around. But inside their bodies things are happening that aren't any fun at all. Scientists study the effects of outer space on the human body to see how it behaves in zero gravity and then re-adapts to earth's gravity at the end of the spaceflight. In space the number of red blood cells, bone and muscle tissues are all altered and the metabolic process upset.
On Earth, gravity pulls blood to lower body, away from the head. Nerves called the baroreceptors detect this and redirect blood flow, ensuring that the brain gets enough oxygen and sugar. In space baroreceptors don't sense any pressure difference and the astronaut flies with an atypical redistribution of blood. On earth we build bones by running or jumping. But without gravity, the bones begin to lose calcium, which is absorbed in the body. (Bedridden and paraplegics suffer the same problem, losing 30% of their lower body bone mass within months). The minerals lost from the leg and hipbones aren't excreted and they migrate to the head, making the skull dense. This is the body's way of making better use of its resources: legs are useless in space, so the body moves to protect the brain!.
Unlike on earth there is no muscle tension in space. Muscles are relaxed, stretched and actually grow by five to seven inches in a space flight. Surprisingly one gets taller while one sleeps, too, because of relaxed muscles - sometimes enough to readjust one's car's rear-view mirror in the morning. To offset this, the astronauts aboard the ISS exercise on a treadmill every day. So every space payload has a large component of medical experiments to help scientists figure out what we gain-or lose-up there.

The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

Solution:

As all the three are stated in the passage so option which says all of these are correct.

QUESTION: 27

All astronauts look forward to living in the lonely and unpredictable environment of space. In low earth orbit, for instance, you get to see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets! For the day fades into night every 45 minutes as the spacecraft rotates slowly to keep its solar panels facing the sun. Viewers in Delhi shared a bit of this excitement with Sunita Williams aboard the international Space Station, when she tele chatted with them earlier this month.
Astronauts spend long periods in weightlessness of 'zero gravity'. It may be fun for us sitting in our gravity cocooned rooms and watching them on TV, as they float around. But inside their bodies things are happening that aren't any fun at all. Scientists study the effects of outer space on the human body to see how it behaves in zero gravity and then re-adapts to earth's gravity at the end of the spaceflight. In space the number of red blood cells, bone and muscle tissues are all altered and the metabolic process upset.
On Earth, gravity pulls blood to lower body, away from the head. Nerves called the baroreceptors detect this and redirect blood flow, ensuring that the brain gets enough oxygen and sugar. In space baroreceptors don't sense any pressure difference and the astronaut flies with an atypical redistribution of blood. On earth we build bones by running or jumping. But without gravity, the bones begin to lose calcium, which is absorbed in the body. (Bedridden and paraplegics suffer the same problem, losing 30% of their lower body bone mass within months). The minerals lost from the leg and hipbones aren't excreted and they migrate to the head, making the skull dense. This is the body's way of making better use of its resources: legs are useless in space, so the body moves to protect the brain!.
Unlike on earth there is no muscle tension in space. Muscles are relaxed, stretched and actually grow by five to seven inches in a space flight. Surprisingly one gets taller while one sleeps, too, because of relaxed muscles - sometimes enough to readjust one's car's rear-view mirror in the morning. To offset this, the astronauts aboard the ISS exercise on a treadmill every day. So every space payload has a large component of medical experiments to help scientists figure out what we gain-or lose-up there.

The main purpose of the author in the passage is to

Solution:

The author is talking of gravitational pull through out the passage. Therefore the crux of the passage is to highlight the importance of gravitational pull. Hence option (d) is the answer.

QUESTION: 28

All astronauts look forward to living in the lonely and unpredictable environment of space. In low earth orbit, for instance, you get to see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets! For the day fades into night every 45 minutes as the spacecraft rotates slowly to keep its solar panels facing the sun. Viewers in Delhi shared a bit of this excitement with Sunita Williams aboard the international Space Station, when she tele chatted with them earlier this month.
Astronauts spend long periods in weightlessness of 'zero gravity'. It may be fun for us sitting in our gravity cocooned rooms and watching them on TV, as they float around. But inside their bodies things are happening that aren't any fun at all. Scientists study the effects of outer space on the human body to see how it behaves in zero gravity and then re-adapts to earth's gravity at the end of the spaceflight. In space the number of red blood cells, bone and muscle tissues are all altered and the metabolic process upset.
On Earth, gravity pulls blood to lower body, away from the head. Nerves called the baroreceptors detect this and redirect blood flow, ensuring that the brain gets enough oxygen and sugar. In space baroreceptors don't sense any pressure difference and the astronaut flies with an atypical redistribution of blood. On earth we build bones by running or jumping. But without gravity, the bones begin to lose calcium, which is absorbed in the body. (Bedridden and paraplegics suffer the same problem, losing 30% of their lower body bone mass within months). The minerals lost from the leg and hipbones aren't excreted and they migrate to the head, making the skull dense. This is the body's way of making better use of its resources: legs are useless in space, so the body moves to protect the brain!.
Unlike on earth there is no muscle tension in space. Muscles are relaxed, stretched and actually grow by five to seven inches in a space flight. Surprisingly one gets taller while one sleeps, too, because of relaxed muscles - sometimes enough to readjust one's car's rear-view mirror in the morning. To offset this, the astronauts aboard the ISS exercise on a treadmill every day. So every space payload has a large component of medical experiments to help scientists figure out what we gain-or lose-up there.

According to the passage in the low earth orbit there are

Solution:

Answer is option (b) as it is stated in the passage (1st para).

QUESTION: 29

All astronauts look forward to living in the lonely and unpredictable environment of space. In low earth orbit, for instance, you get to see 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets! For the day fades into night every 45 minutes as the spacecraft rotates slowly to keep its solar panels facing the sun. Viewers in Delhi shared a bit of this excitement with Sunita Williams aboard the international Space Station, when she tele chatted with them earlier this month.
Astronauts spend long periods in weightlessness of 'zero gravity'. It may be fun for us sitting in our gravity cocooned rooms and watching them on TV, as they float around. But inside their bodies things are happening that aren't any fun at all. Scientists study the effects of outer space on the human body to see how it behaves in zero gravity and then re-adapts to earth's gravity at the end of the spaceflight. In space the number of red blood cells, bone and muscle tissues are all altered and the metabolic process upset.
On Earth, gravity pulls blood to lower body, away from the head. Nerves called the baroreceptors detect this and redirect blood flow, ensuring that the brain gets enough oxygen and sugar. In space baroreceptors don't sense any pressure difference and the astronaut flies with an atypical redistribution of blood. On earth we build bones by running or jumping. But without gravity, the bones begin to lose calcium, which is absorbed in the body. (Bedridden and paraplegics suffer the same problem, losing 30% of their lower body bone mass within months). The minerals lost from the leg and hipbones aren't excreted and they migrate to the head, making the skull dense. This is the body's way of making better use of its resources: legs are useless in space, so the body moves to protect the brain!.
Unlike on earth there is no muscle tension in space. Muscles are relaxed, stretched and actually grow by five to seven inches in a space flight. Surprisingly one gets taller while one sleeps, too, because of relaxed muscles - sometimes enough to readjust one's car's rear-view mirror in the morning. To offset this, the astronauts aboard the ISS exercise on a treadmill every day. So every space payload has a large component of medical experiments to help scientists figure out what we gain-or lose-up there.

The tone of the author is

Solution:

The author is telling us something about the gravitational pull and how it may affect the human body. Therefore the tone of the author is informational. Hence answer is option (b)

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