Test: Water Resources- Source Based Type Questions


15 Questions MCQ Test Geography Class 12 | Test: Water Resources- Source Based Type Questions


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Attempt Test: Water Resources- Source Based Type Questions | 15 questions in 30 minutes | Mock test for Humanities/Arts preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Geography Class 12 for Humanities/Arts Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Available water resources are degrading rapidly. The major rivers of the country generally retain better water quality in less densely populated upper stretches in hilly areas. In plains, river water is used intensively for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. The drains carrying agricultural (fertilizers and insecticides), domestic (solid and liquid wastes), and industrial effluents join the rivers. The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season when flow of water is low. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources at 507 stations. The data obtained from these stations show that organic and bacterial contamination continues to be the main source of pollution in rivers. The Yamuna river is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are: the Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, the Gomti at Lucknow, the Kali, the Adyar, the Cooum (entire stretches), the Vaigai at Madurai and the Music of Hyderabad and the Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi.

Ground water pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride and nitrates at different parts of the country.

Why the available water resources are degrading rapidly?

Solution: The available water resources are degrading rapidly because concentration of pollutants is very high.
QUESTION: 2

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Available water resources are degrading rapidly. The major rivers of the country generally retain better water quality in less densely populated upper stretches in hilly areas. In plains, river water is used intensively for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. The drains carrying agricultural (fertilizers and insecticides), domestic (solid and liquid wastes), and industrial effluents join the rivers. The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season when flow of water is low. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources at 507 stations. The data obtained from these stations show that organic and bacterial contamination continues to be the main source of pollution in rivers. The Yamuna river is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are: the Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, the Gomti at Lucknow, the Kali, the Adyar, the Cooum (entire stretches), the Vaigai at Madurai and the Music of Hyderabad and the Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi.

Ground water pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride and nitrates at different parts of the country.

When was the CPCB established?

Solution: The CPCB was established in 1974.
QUESTION: 3

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

In which state is Ralegan Siddhi situated?

Solution: Ralegan Siddhi is situated in Maharashtra.
QUESTION: 4

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

What name was given to the youth group formed?

Options:

(a) Youth Ekta

(b) Yuva Mandal

(c) Tarun Mandal

(d) Students to Soldiers


Solution: The name “Tarun Mandal” was given to the youth group formed.
QUESTION: 5

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Watershed management basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources. It involves prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater through various methods like percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc. However, in broad sense watershed management includes conservation, regeneration and judicious use of all resources – natural (like land, water, plants and animals) and human with in a watershed. Watershed management aims at bringing about balance between natural resources on the one hand and society on the other. The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.

The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and management programmes in the country. Some of these are being implemented by non-governmental organisations also. Hariyali watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.

Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc., through people’s participation.

______ basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources.

Solution: Watershed management basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources.
QUESTION: 6

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Watershed management basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources. It involves prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater through various methods like percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc. However, in broad sense watershed management includes conservation, regeneration and judicious use of all resources – natural (like land, water, plants and animals) and human with in a watershed. Watershed management aims at bringing about balance between natural resources on the one hand and society on the other. The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.

The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and management programmes in the country. Some of these are being implemented by non-governmental organisations also. Hariyali watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.

Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc., through people’s participation.

Who has sponsored the Project Hariyali?

Solution: Central Government has sponsored the Project Hariyali
QUESTION: 7

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Watershed management basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources. It involves prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater through various methods like percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc. However, in broad sense watershed management includes conservation, regeneration and judicious use of all resources – natural (like land, water, plants and animals) and human with in a watershed. Watershed management aims at bringing about balance between natural resources on the one hand and society on the other. The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.

The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and management programmes in the country. Some of these are being implemented by non-governmental organisations also. Hariyali watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.

Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc., through people’s participation.

The success of watershed development largely depends upon :

Solution: The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.
QUESTION: 8

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Available water resources are degrading rapidly. The major rivers of the country generally retain better water quality in less densely populated upper stretches in hilly areas. In plains, river water is used intensively for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. The drains carrying agricultural (fertilizers and insecticides), domestic (solid and liquid wastes), and industrial effluents join the rivers. The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season when flow of water is low. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources at 507 stations. The data obtained from these stations show that organic and bacterial contamination continues to be the main source of pollution in rivers. The Yamuna river is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are: the Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, the Gomti at Lucknow, the Kali, the Adyar, the Cooum (entire stretches), the Vaigai at Madurai and the Music of Hyderabad and the Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi.

Ground water pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride and nitrates at different parts of the country.

What is the main role of CPCB?

Solution: The main role of CPCB includes Environmental assessments and research, Maintaining national standards under a variety of environmental laws and conduct monitoring of water quality.
QUESTION: 9

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

What happened to the embankment wall in 1975?

Solution: The embankment wall in 1975 leaked.
QUESTION: 10

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Available water resources are degrading rapidly. The major rivers of the country generally retain better water quality in less densely populated upper stretches in hilly areas. In plains, river water is used intensively for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. The drains carrying agricultural (fertilizers and insecticides), domestic (solid and liquid wastes), and industrial effluents join the rivers. The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season when flow of water is low. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources at 507 stations. The data obtained from these stations show that organic and bacterial contamination continues to be the main source of pollution in rivers. The Yamuna river is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are: the Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, the Gomti at Lucknow, the Kali, the Adyar, the Cooum (entire stretches), the Vaigai at Madurai and the Music of Hyderabad and the Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi.

Ground water pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride and nitrates at different parts of the country.

Why does the concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season?

Solution: The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season due to low flow of water.
QUESTION: 11

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

How much donation was arranged to construct school building?

Solution: No donation was arranged to construct school building.
QUESTION: 12

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Watershed management basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources. It involves prevention of runoff and storage and recharge of groundwater through various methods like percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc. However, in broad sense watershed management includes conservation, regeneration and judicious use of all resources – natural (like land, water, plants and animals) and human with in a watershed. Watershed management aims at bringing about balance between natural resources on the one hand and society on the other. The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation.

The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and management programmes in the country. Some of these are being implemented by non-governmental organisations also. Hariyali watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.

Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) programme (in Andhra Pradesh) and Arvary Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc., through people’s participation.

The concept of _________envisages creation of awareness amongst the people to ensure their participation and to facilitate conservation efforts of various government departments.

Solution: The concept of Neeru-Meeru envisages creation of awareness amongst the people to ensure their participation and to facilitate conservation efforts of various government departments.
QUESTION: 13

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

Which trade proliferated in the village in mid 1970s?

Solution: Illicit liquor trade proliferated in the village in the mid 1970s.
QUESTION: 14

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

The term Nyaya Panchayats refers to:

Solution: The term Nyaya Panchayats refers to informal courts .
QUESTION: 15

Direction: Read the case study given below and answer the questions that follow:

Ralegan Siddhi is a small village in the district of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. It has become an example for watershed development throughout the country.

In 1975, this village was caught in a web of poverty and illicit liquor trade. The transformation took place when a retired army personnel, settled down in the village and took up the task of watered development. He convinced villagers about the importance of family planning and voluntary labour; preventing open grazing, felling trees, and liquor prohibition.

Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on the government for financial aids. “It socialised the costs of the projects”, explained the activist. Even those who were working outside the village contributed to the development by committing a month’s salary every year. Work began with the percolation tank constructed in the village. In 1975, the tank could not hold water. The embankment wall leaked. People voluntarily repaired the embankment. The seven wells below it swelled with water in summer for the first time in the living memory of the people. The people reposed their faith in him and his visions.

A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed. The group worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and untouchability. Liquor distilling units were removed and prohibition imposed. Open grazing was completely banned with a new emphasis on stall-feeding. The cultivation of water intensive crops like sugarcane was banned. Crops such as pulses, oil seeds and certain cash crops with low water requirements were encouraged. All elections to local bodies began to be held on the basis of consensus. “It made the community leaders complete representatives of the people.” A system of Nyay Panchayats (informal courts) were also set up. Since then, no case has been referred to the police. A Rs. 22 lakh school building was constructed using only the resources of the village. No donations were taken. Money, if needed, was borrowed and paid back. The villagers took pride in this self-reliance. A new system of sharing labour grew out of this infusion of pride and voluntary spirit. People volunteered to help each other in agricultural operation. Landless labourers also gained employment. Today the village plans to buy land for them in adjoining villages. At present, water is adequate; agriculture is flourishing, though the use of fertilizers and pesticides is very high. The prosperity also brings the question of ability of the present generation to carry on the work after the leader of the movement who declared that, “The process of Ralegan’s evolution to an ideal village will not stop. With changing times, people tend to evolve new ways. In future, Ralegan might present a different model to the country.”

What was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on government?

Solution: Voluntary labour was necessary to ensure minimum dependence on government
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