Test: Work, Life & Leisure - 2

20 Questions MCQ Test History for Class 10 | Test: Work, Life & Leisure - 2

Attempt Test: Work, Life & Leisure - 2 | 20 questions in 20 minutes | Mock test for UPSC preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study History for Class 10 for UPSC Exam | Download free PDF with solutions

How can we prove the popularity of the underground railway in London?


It started in 10th january 1963, and on the first day 10 thousand people travelled and in the whole year it was 4 million.
It became great succes due to the following advantages:
They were cheaper.
People can now come from outer London to main city for work.
Women use this for going to opera and programs.
Transported goods .


The underground railway was not very popular in the beginning. The reasons were :


The underground railway was not appreciated in early days due to these few reasons:
1) the maintenance of the station was bad. It has poor ventilation system as the air quality of London below ground is 70 times more worse than the above which make breather underground more difficult.
2) the first escalator was installed in the Holloway Road station in 1906 which was unworkable hence never kept for the use of the public one of the reason behind.
3) two people have the funeral procession along the underground railway.
4) the cost of the ticket for the railway was far expensive then it should be.


‘Individualism’ is a theory which promotes :


Industrialisation brought many people to the city in search of work and a better life. The life in the city encouraged a spirit of individualism. The term Individualism refers to a theory that promotes the liberty, rights or independent action of the individual, rather than of the community.


The congestion in the 19th century industrial city led to a yearning for :


The following points sum up how the Londoners got their wish for a clean air fulfilled.
• Due to the increasing pollution level, Londoners made demands for new 'lungs' for the city. Some attempts were made to bridge the gap between city and countryside through ideas like the Green Belt around London.
• The notion of the Garden City came into being, which was a pleasant space full of plants and trees, where people would both live and work.
• Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847 and 1853 were passed to clear the air. 


The working class people spent their holidays and leisure time in the late 18th century :


(i) There had long been an annual ‘London Season’ for wealthy Britishers. In the late eighteenth century, several cultural events, such as the Opera, the theatre and the classical music performances were organized for an elite group of 300-400 families.

(ii) Pubs were the main areas for working classes to meet to have a drink, exchange news and sometimes also to organize for political action.

(iii) Music halls were popular among the lower classes and by the early twentieth century, cinema became the great mass entertainment for mixed audiences.

(iv) British industrial workers were increasingly encouraged to spend their holidays by the sea, so as to derive the benefits of the Sun and the bracing winds.

(v) Libraries, art galleries and museums were established in the nineteenth century.


The various steps taken to clear up London were :


Steps to clean up London :
(i) Attempts were made to decongest localities.
(ii) To have more green spaces or green belts.
(iii) To adopt measures to prevent or reduce pollution.
(iv) Landscaping the city by planting more trees and plants. Planning poor people’s houses, etc.


Name the entertainment which became the great mass entertainment for mixed audiences by the early 20th century


Various forms of entertainment were:-
1) there used to be a annual london season for the wealthy britishers in which several cultural events were organised
2) working classes met in pubs to drink, exchange of news and sometimes also to organise poltical actions.
3) liberaries, arts gallaries and museums were established.
4) music halls were popular among lower classes.
5) cinema became great mass of entertainment for the mixed audiences.


Presidency cities in India in the early 19th century were


Those cities were Presidency cities which were multifunctional. They had major ports, warehouses, houses and offices, army camps as well as educational institutions, museums and libraries.

In India Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were Presidential cities.

Bombay had become the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819, after the Maratha defeat in the Anglo-Maratha war.


The premier city in India in the 19th century was


Bombay was called a premier city because in mid 17th century, Bombay became East India company's principal western port, replacing Surat.

Later by the end of the 19th century, it had become an important administrative as well as industrial centre.

All through these years, the prospects for trade and commerce and employment kept increasing, Thereby making Bombay an attractive destination for migrants.


Bombay came under the control of the British when


Bomabay came under the control of British in the following manner:

  • 1661: The control of Bombay passed into the British hands after the marriage of Britain’s King Charles II to the Portuguese princess.
  •  Bombay became the principal Western port for the East India Company. At first, Bombay was the major outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat.
  • It became an important administrative and industrial centre of Western India.
  • 1819: Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency after the Maratha defeat in the Anglo-Maratha war.

The main reasons why people migrated to Bombay in the 19th century were :


(i) Bombay became the capital city of the Bombay presidency in 1819, hence more people began to settle in Bombay.

(ii) Growth of trade in cotton and opium led large communities of traders, bankers, artisans and shopkeepers to settle in Bombay.

(iii) In 1854, cotton mills were established in Bombay. Most of the workers came from outside.

(iv) Large number of people came to work at the seaport and the railways which encouraged migration. 

(v) Famines in dry regions brought more people to Bombay. Bombay attracted many people to work in films too.


The two calamities which affected Bombay in the late 19th century were :


The Famine of Kutch (1888-89) and the plague of 1898 affected Bombay in the late 19th century.


A metropolis (mother city) is a large, densely populated city of a country or state, often called the _____ of the region.


How could the problem of scarcity of land in Bombay be solved?


The problem of scarcity was solved by different reclamation projects as:-
development of marine drive:- in 1864 the back bay reclamation company got the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar hill to the end of colaba. Reclamation meant the levelling of the hills around Bombay . By the 1870s the city had expanded to about 22 square miles


“Reclamation” means :


Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.


‘Akharas’ were :


Akharas : Traditional wrestling schools, generally located in every neighbourhood, where young people were trained to ensure both physical and moral fitness.


Which Indian city was the first to get a smoke nuisance legislation?


Burning of dung and wood fuel were the main sources of air pollution.
Colonial authorities at first intended to clear I the place of miasmas, or harmful vapours, but the railway lines introduced in 1855, brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture — coal from Raniganj. The high content of ash in the Indian coal was a problem Many pleas were made to banish the dirty mills from the city, but without any results,
Calcutta (Kolkata) was the first city to get | smoke nuisance legislation in 1863.
The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance I Commission finally managed to control the industrial smoke. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was for more difficult.


Which of the following statements supports the view that Calcutta has a long history of air pollution?


Calcutta had a long history of air pollution. 

(i)Its inhabitants inhaled grey smoke, particularly in the winter. Since the city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to generate thick black smog. 

(ii)High levels of pollution were a consequence of the huge population that depended on dung and wood as fuel in their daily life. 

(iii)But the main polluters were the industries and establishments that used steam engines run on coal.


The rice mills of Tolleygunge tackled the problem of pollution by


In 1920, the rice mills of Tollygunge began to burn rice husk instead of coal. The residents complained about the air filled with black soot which fell like drizzling rain from morning till night. The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission finally managed to control industrial smoke.


Who finally controlled industrial smoke in Calcutta?


 The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance I Commission finally managed to control the industrial smoke. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was for more difficult.

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