UPSC Exam  >  UPSC Tests  >  Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025  >  Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - UPSC MCQ

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - UPSC MCQ


Test Description

50 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025 - Practice Test: Modern History- 1

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 for UPSC 2024 is part of Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025 preparation. The Practice Test: Modern History- 1 questions and answers have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus.The Practice Test: Modern History- 1 MCQs are made for UPSC 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 below.
Solutions of Practice Test: Modern History- 1 questions in English are available as part of our Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025 for UPSC & Practice Test: Modern History- 1 solutions in Hindi for Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025 course. Download more important topics, notes, lectures and mock test series for UPSC Exam by signing up for free. Attempt Practice Test: Modern History- 1 | 50 questions in 60 minutes | Mock test for UPSC preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025 for UPSC Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you? Download the App
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 1

In the context of the development of education during British India, arrange the following education commissions/ committees in chronological order of their establishment.
1. Hunter Education Commission
2. Sadler University Commission
3. Hartog Committee
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 1
  • In 1882, the Government appointed a commission under the chairmanship of W.W. Hunter to review the progress of education in the country since the Despatch of 1854. The Hunter Commission mostly confined its recommendations to primary and secondary education.
    • It emphasized that state’s special care is required for the extension and improvement of primary education and that primary education should be imparted through vernacular.
    • It recommended the transfer of control of primary education to newly set up district and municipal boards.
    • It recommended that secondary (High School) education should have two divisions— literary—leading up to university and vocational—for commercial careers.
    • It drew attention to inadequate facilities for female education, especially outside presidency towns and made recommendations for its spread.
  • The Sadler commission was set up in 1917 to study and report on problems of Calcutta University but its recommendations were applicable more or less to other universities also. It reviewed the entire field from school education to university education. It held the view that, for the improvement of university education, the improvement of secondary education was a necessary pre-condition. Its observations were as follows:
    • School course should cover 12 years. Students should enter university after an intermediate stage (rather than matric) for a three-year degree course in university.
    • A separate board of secondary and intermediate education should be set up for the administration and control of secondary and intermediate education.
    • There should be less rigidity in framing university regulations.
    • A university should function as centralized, unitary residential-teaching autonomous body, rather than as scattered, affiliated colleges.
    • Female education, applied scientific and technological education, teachers’ training including those for professional and vocational colleges should be extended
  • The Hartog Committee was set up in 1929 to report on the development of education. Its main recommendations were as follows.
    • Emphasis should be given to primary education but there need be no hasty expansion or compulsion in education.
    • Only deserving students should go in for high school and intermediate stage, while average students should be diverted to vocational courses after VIII standard.
    • For improvements in the standards of university education, admissions should be restricted.
  • Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 2

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Karachi Session of 1931?
1. The Congress met in this Session to endorse the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
2. For the first time, Congress defined what Swaraj would mean for the masses.
3. The Resolution on Fundamental Rights and the National Economic Programme were passed.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 2

The Congress met at Karachi in March, 1931, to endorse the Gandhi- Irwin or the Delhi Pact. The Karachi Session became memorable for its Resolution on Fundamental Rights and the National Economic Programme. Even though the Congress had, from its inception, fought for the economic interests, civil liberties and political rights of the people. This was the first time that the Congress defined what Swaraj would mean for the masses.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 3

With reference to the Communal Award- 1932, consider the following statements:
1. The Award allotted to each minority a number of seats in the legislatures, to be elected on the basis of a separate electorate.
2. The Award declared the Depressed Classes to be a minority community.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 3

The British policy of ̳Divide and Rule‘ found another expression in the announcement of the Communal Award in August, 1932. The Award allotted to each minority a number of seats in the legislatures, to be elected on the basis of a separate electorate, that is the Muslims would be elected only by the Muslims and the Sikhs only by the Sikhs, and so on. Muslims, Sikhs and Christians had already been treated as minorities. The Award declared the Depressed Classes (The Scheduled Castes of today) also to be a minority community entitled to separate electorate and, thus, separated them from the rest of the Hindus. The Congress took the position that though it was opposed to separate electorates, it was not in favour of changing the Award without the consent of the minorities. Consequently, though strongly disagreeing with the Communal Award, it decided neither to accept it nor to reject it

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 4

Consider the following statements:
1. All Communists were the members of the Workers‟ and Peasants‟ Party (WPP).
2. The basic objective of the Workers‟ and Peasants‟ Party (WPP) was to work within the Congress to give it a more radical orientation.
3. Jawaharlal Nehru opposed the WPP‟s efforts to radicalize the Congress.
4. The government had tried to cripple the Communist Movement by trying S.A. Dange in the Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 4

The main form of political work by the early Communists was to organize the peasants‘ and workers‘ parties, and work through them. The basic objective of the Workers‘ and Peasants‘ Party (WPP) was to work within the Congress to give it a more radical orientation. The first such organization was the Labour-Swaraj Party of the Indian National Congress, organized by Muzaffar Ahmed, Qazi Nazrul Islam, Hemanta Kumar Sarkar and others in Bengal in November, 1925.

  • In late 1926, a Congress Labour Party was formed in Bombay and a Kirti- Kisan Party in Punjab. A Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan had been functioning in Madras since 1923.
  • By 1928, all of these provincial organizations had been renamed the Workers‘ and Peasants‘ Party (WPP) and knit into an All India party. All Communists were the members of this party. Moreover, Jawaharlal Nehru and other radical Congressmen welcomed the WPPs’ efforts to radicalize the Congress. In 1924, the Government had tried to cripple the nascent Communist Movement by trying S.A. Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupa and Shaukat Usmani in the Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case. All four were sentenced to four years of imprisonment.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 5

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Congress Socialist Party (CSP)?
1. The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was founded under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev and Minoo Masani.
2. The CSP, as a whole, accepted a basic identification of socialism with Marxism.
3. Acharya Narendra Dev wrote the book “Why Socialism?”
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 5
  • The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was founded under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev and Minoo Masani at Bombay in October, 1934.
  • Despite the ideological diversity among the leaders, the CSP, as a whole, accepted a basic identification of socialism with Marxism.
  • Jayaprakash Narayan wrote the book “Why Socialism?”
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 6

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Simon Commission?
1. It was formed on the basis of the provision of the Government of India Act, 1919.
2. The Secretary of State for India, Lord Stanley Baldwin, was responsible for the appointment of the Simon Commission.
3. The Hindu Mahasabha and the majority faction of the Muslim League, under Jinnah, decided not to boycott the Commission.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 6
  • The Government of India Act, 1919, had a provision that a Commission would be appointed 10 years from the date to study the progress of the governance scheme and suggest new steps. An all-White, seven-member Indian Statutory Commission, popularly known as the Simon Commission (after the name of its Chairman, Sir John Simon), was set up by the British government under Stanley Baldwin‘s Prime Ministership in 1927.
  • The Commission was to recommend to the British government whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms and along what lines. Although the constitutional reforms were due only in 1929, the Conservative Government, then in power in Britain, feared defeat by the Labour Party and, thus, did not want to leave the question of the future of Britain‘s most priced colony in ―irresponsible Labour hands‖.
  • The Conservative Secretary of State for India, Lord Birkenhead, was responsible for the appointment of the Simon Commission. What angered the Indians the most was the exclusion of the Indians from the Commission and the basic notion behind the exclusion that the foreigners would discuss and decide upon India‘s fitness for self-government. This notion was seen as a violation of the principle of self- determination and as a deliberate insult to the self-respect of the Indians. The Congress Session in Madras (December, 1927), meeting under the Presidency of M.A. Ansari, decided to boycott the Commission ―at every stage and in every form‖. Meanwhile, Nehru succeeded in getting a snap resolution passed at the Session, declaring ―Complete Independence‖ as the goal of the Congress. Those who decided to support the Congress call of boycott of the Simon Commission included the liberals of the Hindu Mahasabha and the majority faction of the Muslim League under Jinnah.
  • The Muslim League had two sessions in 1927 – one under Jinnah at Calcutta, where it was decided to oppose the Simon Commission and another at Lahore under Muhammad Shafi, who supported the government. Some others, such as the Unionists in Punjab and the Justice Party in the south, decided not to boycott the Commission.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 7

Which of the following were part(s) of the Congress manifesto for elections to the Provincial Assemblies held in 1937?
1. Total rejection of the Government of India Act 1935.
2. Removal of disabilities on the basis of gender and caste.
3. Radical transformation of the agrarian system.
4. Right to form trade unions and to strike.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 7

Congress Manifesto for the Elections – The Congress manifesto reaffirmed total rejection of the Government of India Act 1935 and promised the release of the prisoners, the removal of the disabilities on the basis of gender and caste, radical transformation of the agrarian system, substantial reduction of rent and revenue, scaling down of rural debts, cheap credit and right to form trade unions and to strike. Gandhi did not attend a single election meeting. Note: In February, 1937, elections to the Provincial Assemblies were held. Elections were held in 11 Provinces – Madras, the Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, the United Provinces, the Bombay Presidency, Assam, the NWFP, Bengal, Punjab and Sindh.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 8

With reference to the agrarian reforms undertaken by the Congress Ministries in the brief period of 28 months‟ rule in the Provinces during 1937-39, consider the following statements:
1. There was a complete overhaul of the agrarian structure by completely abolishing the Zamindari.
2. Most of these benefits went to the statutory and the occupancy tenants, while the sub-tenants did not gain much. 3. Agricultural labourers did not benefit, as they had not been mobilized.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 8

The Agrarian Reforms – There were certain basic constraints due to which the Congress Ministries could not undertake a complete overhaul of the agrarian structure by completely abolishing the Zamindari. These constraints were –
(i) The Ministries did not have adequate powers.
(ii) There were inadequate financial resources, as a lion‘s share was appropriated by the Government of India.
(iii) Strategy of class adjustments was another hurdle, since the Zamindars, etc., had to be conciliated and neutralized.
(iv) There was constraint of time, since the logic of the Congress politics was confrontation and not co-operation with colonialism.
(v) War clouds had started hovering around 1938.
(vi) The reactionary Second Chamber (The Legislative Council), dominated by the landlords, moneylenders and capitalists in the United Provinces, Bihar, Bombay, Madras and Assam, had to be conciliated, as its support was necessary for the legislations.
(vii) The agrarian structure was too complex. In spite of these constraints, the Congress Ministries managed to legislate a number of laws relating to land reforms, debt relief, forest grazing fee, arrears of rent, land tenures, etc. But, most of these benefits went to the statutory and the occupancy tenants, while the sub-tenants did not gain much. Agricultural labourers did not benefit, as they had not been mobilized

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 9

At which of the following Congress Sessions, did the Congress dissociate itself from the British policy which supported fascism in Europe, and approved a medical mission to China?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 9

The 1930s saw the rise of fascism in Europe and the struggle against it. The nationalists saw imperialism and fascism as the organs of capitalism. They lend support to the struggle against fascism in other parts of the world, in Ethiopia, Spain, China and Czechoslovakia. In 1939, at the Tripuri Session, the Congress dissociated itself from the British policy, which supported fascism in Europe. In 1939, the Japanese attack on China was condemned by the nationalists. The Congress also sent a medical mission under Dr. Atal to China. Note: Among the resolutions at Tripuri was an interesting one relating to China: ―The Congress sends its greetings to the people of China and its deepest sympathy in their trials and privations in their struggle against ruthless and inhuman imperialism. It congratulates them on their heroic resistance.‖ ―The Congress expresses its approval of the sending of a Medical Mission on its behalf to the people of China and trusts that this Mission will continue to receive full support, so that it may carry on its work of succour effectively and be a worthy symbol of Indian solidarity with China

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 10

Consider the following pairs with respect to the newspapers/journals in different regions during 28 months‟ Congress rule in the Provinces:


Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 10

The formation of the above Congress Ministries (in the Provinces) and the vast extension of civil liberties unleashed popular energies everywhere. The Kisan Sabhas sprang up in every part of the country and there was an immense growth in trade union activities and membership. Student and Youth Movements revived and burgeoned. A powerful fillip was given to the State Peoples‘ Movement. The Left parties were able to expand manifold. Even though it was under a Central Government ban, the Communist Party was able to bring out its weekly organ, The National Front, from Bombay. The Congress Socialist Party brought out The Congress Socialist and several other journals in Indian languages. Of particular interest is the example of Kirti Lehar, which the Kirti Communists of Punjab brought out from Meerut, U.P., because they could not do so in Unionist-ruled Punjab. Note: In early 1915, Annie Besant launched a campaign through her two papers, New India and Commonweal, and organized public meetings and conferences to demand that India be granted self-government on the lines of the White Colonies after the War.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 11

Consider the following statements:
1. The Arya Mahila Samaj was founded by Pandita Ramabai.
2. Gangabehn Majumdar discovered the spinning wheel.
3. Sarala Devi Chaudhurani founded the Bharat Stree Mahamandal.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 11

The Arya Mahila Samaj was the first independent women's organization in India. It was founded by Pandita Ramabai. It received enthusiastic support from Kashibai Kanitkar and Ramabai Ranade, who went from door to door, persuading the Hindu women to join the meetings of the Samaj. Sarala Devi Chaudhurani founded the Bharat Stree Mahamandal in Allahabad in 1910. Gangabehn discovered the spinning wheel in Vijapur in Baroda. This was later popularised as the Charkha and promoted for spinning Khadi.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 12

Consider the following pairs about authors and their works:

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 12

Let's evaluate the correctness of each pair:

  1. Henry Salt - A Plea for Vegetarianism

    • This is correctly matched. Henry Salt is known for his work "A Plea for Vegetarianism."
  2. Edward Carpenter - Civilisation: Its Cause and Cure

    • This is correctly matched. Edward Carpenter authored "Civilisation: Its Cause and Cure."
  3. Emerson - The Kingdom of God is Within You

    • This is incorrectly matched. "The Kingdom of God is Within You" was written by Leo Tolstoy, not Ralph Waldo Emerson.
  4. Tolstoy - Unto This Last

    • This is incorrectly matched. "Unto This Last" was written by John Ruskin, not Leo Tolstoy.

So, the pairs that are correctly matched are:

1 and 2 only

Therefore, the correct answer is:

2. 1 and 2 only

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 13

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 13

In a manner somewhat similar to Gandhi, Jinnah emerged as the Muslims‘ ̳national‘ leader, particularly because he did not have strong  ̳local‘ support. The Muslim-majority provinces of Punjab and Bengal had their own provincial leaders and parties – the Unionist Party under Sikander Hyat Khan in Punjab and the Krishak Praja Party of Fazlul Huq in Bengal, the parties that catered to the ̳local‘ interests of their supporters, and had an ambiguous and contentious relationship with the League.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 14

Consider the following statements about the Tebhaga Movement:
1. The Tebhaga Movement of the share- croppers belonged primarily to the tribal and the Dalit groups of the Rajbansis and the Namasudras.
2. The Movement got its name from the fact that the share-croppers demanded one-third of the produce.
3. It demonstrated class consciousness and concern about individual rights to such an extent that the Rajbansi and the Muslim share-croppers did not have any qualms in attacking the Rajbansi and the Muslim jotedars.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 14

The Tebhaga Movement of the share- croppers belonged primarily to the tribal and the Dalit groups of the Rajbansis and the Namasudras. The Movement got its name from the fact that the share-croppers demanded two-thirds (Tebhag) of the produce, instead of the customary half. Even though there was the organization of the Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), the Tebhaga Movement demonstrated class consciousness and concern about individual rights to such an extent that the Rajbansi and the Muslim share-croppers did not have any qualms in attacking the Rajbansi and the Muslim jotedars

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 15

Consider the following statements about the Quit India Movement:
1. The Quit India Movement failed to ensure the participation of certain groups of the Dalits and the non- Brahmans.
2. The leaders of the Hindu Mahasabha condemned the Quit India Movement as „sterile, unmanly and injurious to the Hindu cause‟.
3. The Muslim League supported the Movement.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 15

The 1942 Quit India Movement was a mixture of opposites. Unusual both on account of the magnitude of popular participation and the lack of clear directives from the Congress High Command, as well as for the articulation of anger and ̳hatred‘ against the British rule, the Movement brought the subjects of British India and the states‘ people in a joint action against the Raj. At the same time, it failed to ensure the participation of the Muslims and certain groups of the Dalits and the non- Brahmans. The Muslims remained aloof; they did not actively oppose it. The leaders of the Hindu Mahasabha condemned the Quit India Movement as ̳sterile, unmanly and injurious to the Hindu cause‘. V. D. Savarkar, B. S. Munje and Shyama Prasad Mukherjee stoutly stood behind the British government, which was harassed by the War and the Congress campaign. Punjab too, saw little anti- British activity between 1942 and 1945, since the ̳lines of tripartite communal conflict among the Muslims, the Sikhs and the Hindus had so hardened as to make resistance to the Raj secondary‘. The Muslim League supported the Movement.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 16

Consider the following statements about the Liaquat-Nehru Pact, 1950:
1. It was agreed that both the governments would ensure complete and equal right of citizenship, and security of life and properties to their minorities.
2. Ensuring full fundamental human rights, which included the rights of freedom of movement, freedom of thoughts and expression, and the right of religion, was part of the Pact.
3. A Minorities Commission was to be set up to make sure that they would be represented.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 16

 In April, 1950, the Delhi Pact (The Liaquat-Nehru Pact) was signed. It was the outcome of 6 days of talks between India and Pakistan. The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan, Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan, wanted to ensure the rights of the minorities in both the countries. Most importantly, they wanted to avert another war, which seemed to be brewing since the partition in 1947. It was agreed that both the governments would ensure complete and equal right of citizenship, and security of life and properties to their minorities. Ensuring full fundamental human rights, which included the rights of freedom of movement, freedom of thoughts and expression, and the right of religion, was part of the deal. A Minorities Commission was to be set up to make sure that they would be represented. They vowed not to violate the rules of the Pact and to make all efforts to reinforce it. If the minorities faced any problem, it would be the duty of both the governments to redress their problems without delay. In short, this Pact agreed to guarantee full right to their minorities and to accord them the status of citizens.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 17

 Which of the following statements is correct about the Lees Mody Pact?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 17

The Bombay Group of Industrialists had concluded the Lees Mody Pact in 1933, in an effort to present a united front of the Lancashire and the Bombay cotton mill interests against Japanese competition.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 18

 Consider the following statements about the Provincial Elections of 1937:
1. The Congress was the single largest party in Bengal, but failed to form the government.
2. The Muslim League performed very well in the Muslim majority states of Sind, Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province.
3. The Congress Socialist Party was not in favour of the formation of the ministries.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 18

The Congress captured 758 out of the 1585 seats in the Provincial Legislatures and formed governments in 7 out of the 11 Provinces. The Congress won absolute majority in 6 provinces – Madras, Bihar, Orissa, the Central Provinces, the North- West Frontier Province and the United Provinces – a near majority in Bombay (86 seats out of 175) and emerged as the single largest party in Assam and Bengal. The Muslim League, it is worth remembering, performed miserably in Sind, Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, and not too well in Bengal, a fact that negated its claim of being the sole representative of the Muslims. The Congress Socialist Party was not in favour of the formation of the Congress Ministries. The amendment, proposed by Jayaprakash Narayan of the Congress Socialist Party, that rejected the acceptance of the office, was defeated.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 19

 Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Civil Disobedience Movement?
1. Complete Civil Disobedience is a state of refusal to obey eveiy single State- made law.
2. It was to begin with the immediate boycott of the legislatures and foreign cloth, followed by non-payment of taxes.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 19

Complete Civil Disobedience is a state of peaceful rebellion – a refusal to obey every single State-made law. In Gandhi‘s estimation, Civil Disobedience was ̳certainly more dangerous than an armed rebellion‘, because it ̳can never be put down if the civil resisters are prepared to face extreme hardships‘. Civil Disobedience ̳is based upon an implicit belief in the absolute efficiency of innocent suffering‘ (Gandhi). Civil Disobedience was to begin with immediate boycott of the legislatures and foreign cloth. This was to be followed by non-payment of taxes. The call for boycott met with lukewarm response.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 20

With reference to the Quit India Movement, consider the following statements:
1. Gandhiji urged the British to leave India to God, stating that he was willing to risk 'complete lawlessness’ in place of the ‘orderly disciplined anarchy’.
2. The Congress Working Committee, at its meeting in Wardha in 1942, passed the historic ‘Quit India’ Resolution.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 20

Gandhiji repeatedly urged the British to leave India to God, stating that he was willing to risk ̳complete lawlessness‘ in place of the ̳orderly disciplined anarchy‘ of the British. Gandhi had initially used the phrase ̳orderly withdrawal‘, but soon changed over to Quit India. The Congress Working Committee, at its meeting in Wardha, passed the historic ̳Quit India‘ Resolution and formulated a ̳National Demand‘—that the British transfer power immediately to the Indians and quit India.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 21

Which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Leopold Amery was the Secretary of State for India during the Quit India Movement.
2. Guerilla warfare along the India-Nepal border was carried on by a radical group under Jayaprakash Narayan during the Quit India Movement.
3. The Communists decided to support the British and stayed away from the Quit India Movement.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 21

Leopold Amery was the Secretary of State for India during the Quit India Movement. Guerilla warfare along the India–Nepal border was carried on by a radical group under Jayaprakash Narayan. The Communists decided to support the British and stayed away from the Quit India Movement.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 22

Consider the following statements:
1. Congress Interim Government, under Vallabh Bhai Patel, was sworn-in in 1946.
2. The Muslim League boycotted the Constituent Assembly.
3. Jawahar Lal Nehru and the Congress rejected Plan Balkan by Mountbatten.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 22

Congress Interim Government, under Jawahar Lal Nehru, was sworn-in in 1946. The Constituent Assembly started meeting from 9th December, but the Muslim League withdrew because the Congress refused to accede to its demand of sectional meetings to draft group constitutions. Lord Mountbatten arrived in India with clear directives for a fast withdrawal and powers to decide things on the spot. Mountbatten was ready with ̳Plan Balkan‘—it advocated the division of Punjab and Bengal, and the handover of power to the provinces and the sub-provinces, free to join one or more of the group Constituent Assemblies on the basis of self-determination. The Interim Government was to remain in force till June, 1948, to oversee the arrangements. Nehru and the Congress rejected Plan Balkan, because, in their view, a weak centre and autonomous provinces would indeed lead to a ̳Balkanization‘ of India, promoting ̳disruptive tendencies‘, and chaos and disorder everywhere. Jinnah, for his part, was not satisfied with just two Muslim- majority provinces that would constitute a ̳truncated or mutilated, a moth-eaten Pakistan‘.

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 23

With reference to the National Manuscripts Authority (NMA), which was envisioned in the National Manuscripts Bill, 2023, consider the following statements:
1. It would be the apex policy making body for manuscripts.
2. It will have the powers of a civil court.
​​​​​​​Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 23

Government plans law on protection of Indian manuscripts:

  • The government is planning to introduce the National Manuscripts Bill, 2023, with the aim to document and catalogue Indian heritage texts wherever they may be, in India or abroad, maintain accurate and up-to-date information about them, and detail the conditions under which they may be consulted.
  • It envisages setting up a 10-member National Manuscripts Authority (NMA).
  • The Culture Minister as a Chairperson and the other members would include the Secretaries of Culture, Finance and Education, the Vice-Chancellor of Central Sanskrit University, special invitees representing the States, and private agencies.
  • Statement 1 is correct About National Manuscripts Authority (NMA): It would be the apex policy making body with regard to digitisation, conservation, preservation, editing, and publication work of manuscripts.
  • Statement 2 is correct: • NMA would have the powers of a civil court to regulate the allocation of access to manuscripts and would also have an investigation wing for the purpose of conducting an inquiry into thefts and desecration of texts 
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 24

The term “Outstanding Universal Value” is related to which of the following institutions?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 24

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites are designated as having “Outstanding Universal Value” under the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. This document was adopted by UNESCO in 1972 and formally took effect in 1975.

  • It provides a framework for international cooperation in preserving and protecting cultural treasures and natural areas throughout the world. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 25

Consider the following statements regarding the Trade Disputes Act (TDA), 1929:
1. The Act provided for a system of tribunals and a ban on strikes.
2. Bhagat Singh threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly against the passage of this enactment.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 25

Alarmed at the increasing strength of the trade union movement under the extremist influence, the government resorted to legislative restrictions. It passed the Public Safety Ordinance (1929) and the Trade Disputes Act (TDA), 1929.

  • The TDA, 1929 provided for o the compulsory appointment of Courts of Inquiry and Consultation Boards for settling industrial disputes o and made illegal the strikes in public utility services like posts, railways, water and electricity unless each individual worker planning to go on strike gave advance notice of one month to the administration; o forbade trade union activity of coercive or purely political nature and even sympathetic strikes. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt were asked to throw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill which would reduce the civil liberties of citizens in general and workers in particular. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 26

With reference to the nature and spread of the revolt of 1857, consider the following statements:
1. The territory Rohilkhand remained undisturbed by the revolt.
2. The Bombay army remained loyal to the British East Company during the revolt.
3. The ruler of Afghanistan, Dost Mohammad supported the rebels against the East India Company.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 26

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India in 1857–58against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

  • Though the revolt was formidable and widespread though the revolt was, it was yet to a great extent localized, limited and ill-organized. The Mutiny was not universal.
  • According to Dr. R.C Mazumdar, it was never an all-India character but was localized, restricted, and poorly organised. The area affected was Punjab, the United Provinces, Rohilkhand, Oudh, the territory between the Narmada and the Chambal, and the Western parts of Bengal and Bihar on the North-East. Sindh was quite, and Rajputana was loyal. Under Dost Mohammad, Afghanistan was friendly to the British. He refrained from assisting rebels. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
    • At Bareilly, Khan Bahadur, a descendant of the former ruler of Rohilkhand, was placed in command. Not enthusiastic about the pension being granted by the British, he organized an army of 40,000 soldiers and offered stiff resistance to the British. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • India South of the river Narmada made no movement of importance, though the native regiments mutinied at Kolhapur in the Southern Marathan country and there were also many dangerous outbursts of feelings at Hyderabad, the Nizam's Capital. Central and Eastern Bengal were undisturbed and Nepal rendered the British valuable assistance in putting down the revolt. The Bombay and Madras armies remained loyal to the British. Thus, the revolt was only local and not nation-wise. Hence statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 27

With reference to the Ilbert Bill during the British colonial rule in India, which one of the following statements is correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 27
  • The Ilbert Bill was proposed in 1883 by the British Government headed by Lord Ripon. C.P Ilbert, the law member in his council, introduced in February 1883 what is known as the infamous Ilbert Bill. The bill sought to abolish “judicial disqualification based on race distinctions”. It proposed to give Indian district magistrates and session judges the power to try European offenders in the mofussil (small towns), as they already did in the presidency towns. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
  • However, the bill was met with opposition from the European community. In January 1884 Ripon ultimately succumbed to the pressure and withdrew the bill, substituting it with a milder compromise formula, which somehow sought to preserve the principle by adding a provision of trial by a mixed jury in such cases involving European offenders. It became clear to the nationalists that justice and fair play could not be expected where the interests of the European community were involved. The Ilbert Bill controversy proved an eye-opener to the Indian intelligentsia. It became clear to them that justice and fair play could not be expected where the interests of the European community were involved.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 28

With reference to trading stations/factories established by various European powers, consider the following pairs: Location of Associated European power factory
1. Shrirampur : Danish
2. Chinsura : Dutch
3. Chandranagore : French
4. Chittagong Portuguese
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 28
  • The Danish East India Company o The Danes entered as traders in 1616 but with no ambition to establish an Empire. They managed to secure the Tranquebar port from the Nayak of Tanjore in 1620 and built a fort there. They also established their factories at Masulipatam, Porto Novo and Shrirampur(1755). However, their success was limited, and ultimately they sold off their factories to the English and finally quit India in 1845. Hence pair 1 is correctly matched.
  • The Dutch East India Company o The Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602 through a charter. The Dutch were primarily interested in spice trade. Therefore, they paid more attention to the Far East. India was just a trading depot for them. They established their factories at Pulicat (1610), Cambay (1620), Surat and Agra (1621), Hariharpur (1633), Patna (1638). Dacca (1650), Udaiganj (1651), Chinsura (1653), Qasimbazar, Baranagore, Balasore and Negapatam (1659-60). Hence pair 2 is correctly matched.
  • The French East India Company
    • The French were late comers to the Eastern trade. The French East India Company was founded in 1664. The first French factory was establish at Surat in 1668. This was the place of prime importance to the English. In 1669, the French established their second factory at Masulipatam. In 1673, they got Pondicherry, and in 1674 the Nawab of Bengal granted them a site near Calcutta where in 1690-92 they built the town of Chandranagore. Hence pair 3 is correctly matched.
  • The Portuguese East India Company o The Portuguese were the very first European naval adventurers on the scene, who had started out on daring sea voyages down the coast of Africa back from 1415 AD. In 1528, the Sultan of Bengal permitted the Portuguese to establish factories and customs houses in the Port of Chittagong. A fort and naval base was established in Firingi Bandar. The settlement grew into the most prominent Eurasian port on the Bay of Bengal during the Age of Discovery. Hence pair 4 is correctly matched.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 29

With reference to Indian history, the ‘balutedari system’ was

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 29
  • The Balutedari system was a reciprocal arrangement between village artisans and the wider village community, for the supply of goods and services under the Maratha rule in Deccan in the 18th century. The artisans provided services to the villages and in return were paid through the share in agricultural production by the village community.
  • The village servants were primarily artisans and formed an important section of the rural society in Deccan. They were called balutedars and their income, which was a share in the agricultural produce, was known as balutas. Balutedars also played an important part in the village council which will be discussed in the next section.The Balutedars were the counterparts of the Kamins of North India. However, compared to the kamins, their status was better off in the Deccan rural society. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
  • The system of revenue farming introduced by the Nawabs in Bengal during the 18th century was known as Ijara farming. Ijarah system was introduced during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahandar Shah. It was introduced by his powerful noble Zulfiqar Khan.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 30

Which of the following events took place during reign of Viceroy Lord Curzon?
1. Aravippuram movement
2. Enactment of Indian Universities Act
3. Establishment of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 30
  • Aravipuram Movement was launched by Sri Narayana Guru on Shivaratri day of 1888. On that day, Sri Narayana Guru defied the religious restrictions traditionally placed on the Ezhava community and consecrated an idol of Shiva at Aravipuram. In 1888, he installed an idol of Siva at Aravippuram in Kerala in an effort to show that the consecration of god’s image was not a monopoly of the brahmins.
  • Lord Curzon succeeded Lord Elgin and served as India’s Viceroy between 1899 and 1905. He became the youngest Viceroy of India at the age of 39.
    • The British Viceroy, Lord Curzon, passed the Indian Universities Act in 1904 on the recommendations of the Raleigh Commission, which tightened control over Indian universities. The Indian Universities Act made the universities and colleges completely under the Government's control. The Governor General was now empowered to decide a University’s territorial limits and also affiliation between the universities and colleges.
    • The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), popularly known as Pusa Institute, began in 1905 at Pusa (Bihar) with a generous grant of 30,000 pounds from an American philanthropist, Henry Phipps. The Foundation stone of the Institute was laid by the then Viceroy Lord Curzon on 1st April 1905. It is India's national Institute for agricultural research, education, and extension. The IARI was responsible for the research leading to the "Green Revolution in India" of the 1970s.
  • Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 31

Consider the following statements with respect to the recommendations of Wood's Despatch, 1854:
1. It upheld the 'downward filtration theory' that provided education for the upper classes.
2. It advocated the imparting of secular education in educational institutions.
3. It recommended English as the medium of instruction at all levels. 4. It recommended the establishment of universities in presidency towns.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 31
  • Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India in 1854. This document, known as the "Magna Carta of English Education in India," was the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India. o Charles Wood was a British Member of Parliament and a member of the Liberal Party. From 1846 to 1852, he was Chancellor of the Exchequer. Later, he was appointed President of the East India Company's Board of Control. He sent the "Wood's despatch" to Governor-General Lord Dalhousie in 1854.
  • Wood’s Despatch - Recommendations o It asked the government of India to assume responsibility for the education of the masses, thus repudiating the ‘downward filtration theory’, at least on paper. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
    • For the first time, Wood's Despatch recommended the establishment of a Department of Public Instruction in each of Bengal's five provinces: Bombay, Madras, Punjab, and the North-Western provinces.
    • The expansion of mass education was another major recommendation of the Despatch. Because it was discovered that the common people lacked educational opportunities, much emphasis was placed on increasing the number of primary, middle, and high schools.
    • The establishment of universities in the three Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras was recommended by the Despatch. The universities were to be modeled after the University of London. Hence statement 4 is correct.
    • Departments of Arabic, Sanskrit, and Persian, as well as law and civil engineering, were to be established at the universities. Wood's Despatch advocated for the establishment of a grant-in-aid system in Indian education for private educational institutions.
    • The Wood's Despatch emphasized the importance of teaching English while also emphasizing the importance of teaching Indian languages. It recommended that school education should be imparted in vernacular language. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
    • The Despatch recommended that the government always support women's education.
    • It recommended that teacher training schools be established in each province. Engineering, medicine, and law teachers should be trained in special schools.
    • The Wood's Despatch advocated for the establishment of a nationwide network of graded schools.
    • It advocated for imparting secular education in educational institutions. Hence statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 32

In the context of India's socio-religious reforms history, Paramahansa Mandali aimed at

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 32
  • Paramahansa Mandali Founded in 1849 in Maharashtra, the founders of the Paramahansa Mandali—Dadoba Pandurang, Mehtaji Durgaram and others—began as a secret society that worked to reform Hindu religion and society in general. The founders of the mandali were primarily interested in breaking caste rules. The ideology of the society was closely linked to that of the Manav Dharma Sabha. Besides believing that one god should be worshipped, society also said real religion is based on love and moral conduct. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • At their meetings, food cooked by lower caste people was taken by the members. This mandalis also advocated widow remarriage and women’s education. Branches of Paramahansa Mandali existed in Poona, Satara, and other towns of Maharashtra.
  • Mahatma Jyotiba Phule founded the Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth Seekers’ Society) in 1873, with the leadership of the samaj coming from the backward classes, malis, telis, kunbis, saris and dhangars. This movement gave a sense of identity to the depressed communities as a class against those upper-caste people who used religion and the blind faith of the masses to exploit the masses for personal monetary gain. Phule aimed at the complete abolition of the caste system and socio-economic inequalities; he was against Sanskritic Hinduism. The samaj rejected the approach of Vedic culture, Upanishads, and the predominance of Aryan society.
  • Narayan Malhar Joshi founded the Social Service League in Bombay with an aim to secure for the masses better and reasonable conditions of life and work. Joshi also founded the All India Trade Union Congress (1920) to organize workers against British policies.
  • Dharma Sabha was formed in 1830 in Calcutta by Radhakanta Deb. The organization was established mainly to counter the ongoing social reform movements led by protagonists such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Henry Derozio. The focus of the association was on the preservation of the status quo in socio- religious matters of Hindu Society against intrusion by the British administration.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 33

With reference to the Trade Union Act, of 1926, consider the following statements:
1. It recognized trade unions as legal associations.
2. It secured civil and criminal immunity for trade unions from prosecution for legitimate activities.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 33
  • In March, 1921, Shri N. M. Joshi, then General Secretary of the All India Trade Union Congress, successfully moved a resolution in the Central Legislative Assembly recommending that Government should introduce legislation for the registration and protection of trade unions. Opposition from employers to the adoption of such a measure was, however, so great that it was not untill 1926 that the Indian Trade Unions Act was passed.
  • The Trade Union Act, 1926 o recognized trade unions as legal associations; Hence, statement 1 is correct. o laid down conditions for registration and regulation of trade union activities; o secured immunity, both civil and criminal, for trade unions from prosecution for legitimate activities, but put some restrictions on their political activities. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 34

Consider the following statements regarding the Indian National Congress (INC):
1. The Surat Session, 1907 was presided over by Rash Behari Ghosh.
2. Alfred Webb was the first non-Indian President of the Indian National Congress.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 34
  • The foundation of the Indian National Congress in 1885 was not a sudden event or a historical accident. It was the culmination of a process of political awakening that had its beginning within the 1860s and 1870s and took a serious breakthrough within the late 1870s and early 1880s.
    • It was founded in December 1885 and was the first organized expression of the Indian National Movement on an all-India scale.
  • In the Surat session, conducted at the banks of river Tapi, Extremists demanded that Lala Lajpat Rai be elected as the president of the Congress. But the Moderates were successful in getting elected Rash Behari Ghose as the president. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • George Yule was the first non-Indian President of the Indian National Congress. He presided over the Allahabad session of 1888. Alfred Webb presided over the Madras session of 1894. Hence statement 2 is not correct. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 35

With reference to the Indian National Congress (INC) annual sessions, consider the following pairs: Session Event
1. Allahabad session, 1888 Merger of Indian Association with the INC
2. Madras : 'Vande Mataram' was sung for the first time in the INC session session, 1898
3. Calcutta : Resolution of 'Swaraj' as the goal of INC session, 1906
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 35
  • The final shape of the idea of an All-Indian organization was given by English Civil Servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilised leading intellectuals of the time. The Congress had been founded by A.O. Hume after consultations with Lord Dufferin. The first session of the Indian National Congress (INC) was attended by 72 delegates and presided over by Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee. Hereafter, the Congress met every year in December, in a different part of the country each time.
  • The Calcutta session of 1886 was presided over by Dadabhai Naoroji. In this session, the Indian Association merged with the Indian National Congress. ( The Indian National Association was founded by Surendranath Banerjee and Anand Mohan Bose in 1876.). Hence pair 1 is not correctly matched.
    • Allahabad session of 1888, was presided over by George Yule. He was the first non-Indian President of the Indian National Congress.
  • The Calcutta session, 1896 of INC was held under the presidentship of Rahimtullah Sayani. In this session, Vande Mataram was sung for the first time by Rabindranath Tagore. Hence pair 2 is not correctly matched.
    • Madras session of 1898, was the 14th session of INC. Ananda Mohan Bose was the Chairman of this session.
  • As the President of the Congress, in 1906, Dadabhai Naoroji laid down the goal of the national movement as “self-government or Swaraj,” on lines of self-governing colonies (Canada and Australia) of the British Empire. Hence pair 3 is correctly matched.
    • To prevent the split within Congress four resolutions on the Swadeshi, Boycott, National Education, and Self-Government demands were passed during the 1906 Calcutta session.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 36

Who among the following opposed the Partition of Bengal and actively participated in Swadeshi movement of 1905?
1. Nawab Khwaja Salimullah
2. Abdur Rasul
3. Liaqat Hussain
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 36
  • On 16th October 1905, Bengal was partitioned by Curzon on the pretext of it being too big to administer. Instead of dividing it on the basis of non-Bengali areas, the division was on the basis of Hindus and Muslims. British thought that by partitioning, they would succeed in dividing Hindu politicians of West and East Bengal and increase Hindu-Muslim tensions. A movement was launched under the moderates. Swadeshi and Swaraj became the slogan of the common man and the whole of India was drawn into the National movement.
  • The Indian National Congress, meeting in 1905 under the presidentship of G.K. Gokhale, resolved to condemn the partition of Bengal and the reactionary policies of Curzon, and support the anti-partition and Swadeshi Movement of Bengal.
  • Stand of Muslims: A group of educated liberal Muslims came forward and tendered support to the anti- partition agitation and the Swadeshi Movement. This broad-minded group supported the Indian National Congress and opposed the partition. The most prominent among this section of the Muslims were: o Khwaja Atiqullah, step-brother of Nawab Salimullah. At the Calcutta session of the Congress (1906), he moved a resolution denouncing the partition of Bengal.
    • Abdur Rasul, a prominent muslim leader. He presided over the Bengal Congress Conference held at Barisal in 1906. He published the Weekly Mussalman in 1906.
    • Liaqat Hussain, a liberal Muslim who vehemently opposed the 'Divide and Rule' policy of the British.
  • Most of the upper and middle class Muslims stayed away or, led by Nawab Khwaja Salimullah of Dacca, supported the partition on the plea that it would give them a Muslim-majority East Bengal. To further government interests, the All India Muslim League was propped up on December 30, 1905 as an anti- Congress front, and reactionary elements like Nawab Salimullah of Dacca were encouraged.
  • Hence option (b) is the correct answer. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 37

Consider the following statements:
1. The first railway line in British India was laid from Bombay to Thane in 1853.
2. The railways in India were built using British capital with a promise of a guaranteed minimum return of 5% on their paid-up capital.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 37

The phase of economic exploitation of India between the closing decades of the nineteenth century till 1947 has been termed the Period of Finance Capital. During this phase, the Capital inflow became another instrument of Indian exploitation.

  • There was no investment of British capital in India till 1833 i.e., throughout the period the Company traded. The flow of British capital into India became significant only after 1857 and penetrated into diverse economic fields in the latter half of the 19th century but tightened its tentacles over India in the 20th century in the form of finance capital. Thus, there was a capital flow though not significant prior to the revolt of 1857. For example, the first railway line was laid from Bombay to Thane in 1853 with the help of the British capital. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • British capital investment in India normally took two basic forms: o Loans were raised in England by the Secretary of State on behalf of the Indian Government and by semi-public organisations mostly for investment in railways, irrigation, developments of ports, and hydro-electric projects. o Foreign business investments in India.
  • In 1849, the colonial state of India entered an agreement with the Great Indian Peninsular Railway Company and the East India Railway Company to construct the railway from Bombay to Thane and from Howrah to Raniganj coal fields. These experimental agreements were then extended to other companies to develop railways in other parts of the country. They were given a state guarantee of a minimum return of 5% on their paid-up capital. Hence statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 38

The Revolt of the Jungle Mahal is the description of which of the following events?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 38
  • The Chuars were adivasis (indigenous people) who lived in the Jungle Mahals. During the early period of colonial rule, the Jungle Mahal extended from Midnapore to Ranchi, Bankura and parts of Purulia and Birbhum district. The Chuars offered stiff resistance to the colonial rulers from the 1770s.
  • Chuar rebellion or Chuar revolt, also known as the Jungle Mahal movement was a series of peasant movements between 1771 to 1809 by the tribal inhabitants of the countryside surrounding the Jungle Mahals settlements of Midnapore, Bankura and Manbhum against the rule of the East India Company (EIC). Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.
    • The introduction of a farming system in the Jungle Mahals brought misfortune to the traditional Zamindars of that region. The Company was also trying to establish its monopoly over the production of salt and as a result the Nimki Mahals too. The rebels rose in revolt in response to the East India Company’s oppressive land revenue policy, which endangered their economic survival leading to the Chuar rebellion.
  • The most significant uprising was under Durjan (or Durjol) Singh in 1798. Durjan Singh was the zamindar of Raipur from which he was dispossessed owing to the operations of Bengal Regulations. In May 1798, his followers, a body of 1,500 Chuars, indulged in violent activities in Raipur to halt the auction of the estate of Raipur. The revolt was brutally suppressed by the British.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 39

Which one of the following statements is not correct regarding the foreign policy of British India?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 39
  • In the early nineteenth century, increased Russian influence in Persia replaced British influence and thwarted an English scheme for the establishment of a new route by River Euphratesto India. Especially after the Treaty of Turkomanchai (1828), the English got alarmed about possible Russian plans regarding India. Soon, there was a search for a scientific frontier from the Indian side. Passes of the north-west seemed to hold the key to enter India. The need was felt for Afghanistan to be under the control of a ruler friendly to the British.
  • Lord Auckland who came to India as the governor-general in 1836, advocated a forward policy. o This implied that the Company government in India itself had to take initiatives to protect the boundary of British India from a probable Russian attack. o This objective was to be achieved either through treaties with the neighbouring countries or by annexing them completely. This prompted the British government to go ahead with the forward policy, and Tripartite Treaty (1838) was entered into by the British,Sikhs and Shah Shuja (who had been deposed from the Afghan throne in 1809 and had been living since then as a British pensioner at Ludhiana).
  • John Lawrence (1864-1869) started a policy of masterly inactivity which was a reaction to the disasters of the First Afghan War and an outcome of practical common sense and intimate knowledge of the frontier problem and of Afghanpassion for independence.
  • Lord Lytton started a new foreign policy of ‘proud reserve’, which was aimed at having scientific frontiers and safeguarding‘spheres of influence’. According to Lytton, the relations with Afghanistan could no longer be left ambiguous. Hence, option (c) is the correct answer.
  • Lytton made an offer of a favourable treaty to Sher Ali, but the Amir wanted friendship with both his powerful neighbours, Russia and British India, while keeping both of them at arm's length. Later, Sher Ali refused to keep a British envoy in Kabul while having earlier granted a similar concession to the Russians. o Lytton was displeased, and when the Russians withdrew their envoy from Kabul, Lytton decided to invade Afghanistan. o Sher Ali fled in face of the British invasion, and the Treaty of Gandamak (May 1879) was signed with Yakub Khan, the eldest son of Sher Ali.
    • Treaty of Gandamak (May 1879): The treaty signed after the Second-Anglo Afghan War provided that:
    • the Amir conduct his foreign policy with the advice of the Government of India;
    • a permanent British resident be stationed at Kabul; and
    • the Government of India gives Amir all support against foreign aggression and an annual subsidy.
  • Under Lord Curzon, the frontier policy was revised and a new system came into operation. He followed a realistic and common sense' policy towards the tribesmen. He would have nothing to do with the 'elastic and pliable adjectives' of Masterly Inactivity or Forward Policy or surrender to the “paralysing influence of these labels. He said: "Let our new frontier policy be called by any name that men choose. Only let it be based not upon obsolete political formulas, but upon up-to-date common sense."
    • In the light of past experience, Curzon hoped "to draft a code of frontier policy which could with consistency, and without violent interruptions, be applied to the whole line of North-Western frontier from the Pamirs to Baluchistan." Curzon's policy may be summed up as a policy of ‘military concentration as against diffusion, and of tribal conciliation in place of exasperation’.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 40

The Fowler Commission was appointed by the British government to

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 40
  • The Fowler Committee was appointed by the British government in 1898 to reform the Indian Currency system.
  • Until 1892, silver was the metal on which Indian currency and coinage had largely been based. The Fowler Committee recommended the continuance of the Indian Government proposals made in 1892 and implemented in 1893. It concurred with the Government of India in its decision not to revert to the silver standard. It further recommended establishing a gold currency, making the sovereign legal tender. Also recommended was opening the Indian mints to the unrestricted coinage of gold, receiving gold and reissuing them as coins. The exchange rate for gold was to be fixed at 15 rupees to the sovereign or is. 4d. per rupee (one shilling and four pence), as originally contemplated in 1893. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • In 1926 the Royal Commission on Indian Currency (Hilton Young Commission) recommended the establishment of a central bank to be called the 'Reserve Bank of India'.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 41

Which one of the following Governors- General of India is known as the Liberator of the Indian Press?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 41
  • Lord Metcalfe was the Governor-General of India from 1835-36. He repealed the obnoxious 1823 ordinance by introducing a new press act (1835) and earned the epithet, “liberator of the Indian press”.
    • Earlier, according to the Licensing Regulations, 1823 starting or using a press without a license was a penal offense. Later on, it was extended to cover journals, pamphlets and books.
    • These restrictions were directed chiefly against Indian-language newspapers or those edited by Indians. Rammohan Roy’s Mirat-ul-Akbar had to stop publication.
  • The New Press Act (1835) required a printer/publisher to give a precise account of the premises of a publication and cease functioning, if required by a similar declaration. The result of a liberal press policy was a rapid growth of newspapers. Hence option (d) is the correct answer. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 42

Consider the following events:
1. Abolition of the provincial courts of appeal
2. Introduction of English as the official language
3. Annexation of Mysore and Coorg by the British
Which of the following Governors-General/ Viceroys of India was associated with the events given above?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 42
  • Lord William Bentinck was Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. During his tenure of seven years as the Governor-General of India, many reforms were introduced by him in the field of finance, education, and social reforms.
  • He is credited with significant social and educational reforms in India, including the abolition of sati and the prohibition of women from witnessing cremations on Varanasi's ghats, as well as the suppression of female infanticide and human sacrifice. There was little opposition to Bentinck's Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829, which he passed after consulting with the army and officials. The most admirable measure taken by Bentinck, which contributed to the material well-being of the people, was the suppression of the 'thugs.'
  • He, along with Thomas Babington Macaulay, pioneered the use of English as a language of instruction in India. English was made the official language of India under his tenure in 1835.
    • The famous Lord Macaulay’s Minute settled the row in favour of Anglicists—the limited government resources were to be devoted to the teaching of Western sciences and literature through the medium of the English language alone.
    • ord Macaulayheld the view that “Indian learning was inferior to European learning”—which was true as far as physical and social sciences in the contemporary stage were concerned.
    • The government soon made English as the medium of instruction in its schools and colleges and opened a few English schools and colleges instead of a large number of elementary schools, thus neglecting mass education.
  • Lord Cornwallis had set up four Circuit Courts as provincial courts of appeal. But, Lord Bentinck abolished four Circuit Courts and their functions were transferred to collectors under the supervision of the commissioner of revenue and circuit.
    • Sadar Diwani Adalat and Sadar Nizamat Adalat were set up at Allahabad for the convenience of the people of the upper Provinces. Abolition of the provincial courts of appeal and circuit setup by Cornwallis, the appointment of commissioners of revenue and circuit.
  • During his tenure annexation of Mysore, Coorg, and Central Cachar happened. The Treaty of Roopnagar was signed with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1931.
  • Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 43

In the context of the proposal of introducing the ryotwari system in the south and southwestern India, what were the reasons behind implementing the ryotwari system over the zamindari system in these areas?
1. In these regions there were no zamindars present with a large estate with whom land settlement could be made.
2. Under the permanent settlement the company was the ultimate financial loser as it had to share revenue with zamindars.
3. It was a continuation of the state of affairs related to land revenue that had existed in the past for these areas.
Select the correct answer using code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 43
  • The establishment of British rule in South and South Western India brought new problems of land settlement. While framing land revenue policies for these areas British officials believed that in these regions, there were no Zamindars with large estates with whom settlement of land revenue could be made and the introduction of the zamindari system would upset the existing state of affairs. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Many Madras officials led by Reed and Thomas Munro recommended that settlement should therefore be made directly with actual cultivators.
  • They also pointed out that under the Permanent settlement the Company was a financial loser as it had to share the revenues with the zamindars and could not claim a share of the growing income from land. Moreover, the cultivator was left at the mercy of the zamindar who could oppress him at will. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Munro claimed that it is the system that has always prevailed in India. The supporters of the Ryotwari system also claimed that it was a continuation of the state of affairs that had existed in the past. Due to these factors, Munro introduced the Ryotwari system in the parts of Bombay and Madras presidency in the beginning of the 19th Century. Hence statement 3 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 44

Sadbhavana Diwas or Harmony Day is celebrated on the birth anniversary of which of the following personalities?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 44

The birth anniversary of India’s sixth prime minister Rajiv Gandhi is observed as Sadbhavana Diwas or Harmony Day every year on August 20 in the country.

  • ‘Sadbhavana’ in English means goodwill.
  • It is dedicated to the cause of encouraging peace, national integration, and communal harmony among all religions in the country.
  • The day was first observed in 1992, more than a year after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in a suicide bomb attack in Tamil Nadu.
  • Rajiv Gandhi became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he assumed the post at the age of 40.
  • He was posthumously awarded country’s highest civilian honour, Bharat Ratna in 1991.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 45

Consider the following pairs: Akademi Well known for
1. Sangeet Natak Akademi Theatre training institution
2. National School of Drama Performing arts
3. Sahitya Akademi Visual Arts
4. Lalit Kala Akademi Development of Indian letters
How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 45
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi: It is the apex body in the field of performing arts in the country. It was set up in 1953 for the preservation and promotion of India’s diverse culture expressed in forms of music, dance and drama.
  • The National School of Drama: It is one of the foremost theatre training institutions in the world and the only one of its kind in India. It was set up by the Sangeet Natak Akademi as one of its constituent units in 1959. In 1975, it became an independent entity.
  • The Sahitya Akademi (India’s National Academy of Letters): It was formally inaugurated on 12 March 1954 to work actively for the development of Indian letters and to set high literary standards, to foster and co-ordinate literary activities in all the Indian languages.
  • Lalit Kala Akademi (National Academy of Art): It was established on 5th August 1954 to focus on activities in the field of Visual Arts 
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 46

With reference to Indian art form, Consider the following pairs :

Art Form State
1. Burrakatha Andhra Pradesh
2. Seethakali Kerala
3. Yakshagana Rajasthan
How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 46

Pair 1 and 2 are correctly matched and Pair 3 is incorrectly matched. Burra Katha or Burrakatha

  • It is an oral storytelling technique in the Jangam Katha tradition, performed in villages of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
  • It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. Seethakali
  • It is a centuries-old Dravidian dance form which is a blend of songs, storytelling and fast movements.
  • Seethakali is believed to have originated at Perinad in Kollam district of Kerala.
  • This art form was first performed some 150 years back by the people of Vedar and Pulayar communities.The folk art form was a part of Onam festivities in the past. Yakshagana
  • Yakshagana is a traditional theatre, developed in Dakshina Kannada, Udupi,and western parts of Chikmagalur districts, in Karnataka and in Kasaragod district in Kerala.
  • It combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 47

With reference to ‘India Club’, Consider the following statements:
1. It was originally set up by the India League.
2. It has early roots in the Indian independence movement as a hub for nationalists including Krishna Menon.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 47

 The India Club in London, with its early roots in the Indian independence movement is a hub for nationalists including Krishna Menon This is a historic meeting venue and eatery and has its roots in the India League, which campaigned for Indian independence in Britain, with its founding members including Krishna Menon – who went on to become the first Indian High Commissioner to the UK

Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 48

With reference to the British India, consider the following statements regarding the Factory Acts of 1881 and 1891:
1. The Factory Act of 1891 regulated the working hours of women.
2. The early nationalists and moderates did not support the Factory Acts.
Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 48
  • The working conditions in factories and plantations in nineteenth-century India were miserable. Ironically, the first-ever demand for regulation of the condition of workers in factories in India came from the Lancashire textile capitalist lobby. They demanded the appointment of a commission for investigation into factory conditions. The first commission was appointed in 1875 although the first Factory Act was not passed before 1881.
  • The Indian Factory Act, 1881 dealt primarily with the problem of child labour (between 7 and 12 years of age). Its significant provisions were: o employment of children under 7 years of age prohibited, o working hours restricted to 9 hours per day for children, o children to get four holidays in a month, o hazardous machinery to be properly fenced off
  • The Indian Factory Act, 1891 o increased the minimum age (from 7 to 9 years) and the maximum (from 12 to 14 years) for children, o reduced maximum working hours for children to 7 hours a day, o fixed maximum working hours for women at 11 hours per day with a one-and-a-half hour interval (working hours for men were left unregulated). Hence statement 1 is correct. o provided weekly holiday for all
  • But these laws did not apply to British-owned tea and coffee plantations where the labour was exploited ruthlessly.
  • The early nationalists, especially the Moderates were indifferent to the labour’s cause. They believed that labour legislations would affect the competitive edge enjoyed by the Indian-owned industries. Also, did not want a division in the movement on the basis of classes. Hence, did not support the Factory Acts of 1881 and 1891 for these reasons. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 49

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 49
  • Socialist ideas began to spread rapidly, especially because many young persons, who had participated actively in the Non-Cooperation Movement, were unhappy with its outcome and were dissatisfied with the Gandhian policies and ideas, as well as the alternative Swarajist programme.
  • Several socialist and communist groups came into existence all over the country.
  • In Bombay, S.A. Dange published a pamphlet Gandhi vs Lenin, and started the first socialist weekly, The Socialist.
  • In Bengal, Muzaffar Ahmed brought out Navayug and later founded the Langal in co-operation with the poet NazruI Islam.
  • In Punjab, Ghulam Hussain and others published Inquilab.
  • In Madras, M. Singaravelu founded the Labour-Kisan Gazette.
Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 50

With reference to Subramania Bharathi, consider the following statements:
1. He was a poet, freedom fighter and social reformer from Bengal.
2. He was known as Mahakavi Bharathiyar.
3. He opposed child marriage, dowry and supported widow remarriage.
How many statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 - Question 50

Statement 1 is not correct: C. Subramania Bharathi was a poet, freedom fighter and social reformer from Tamil Nadu.
Statements 2 and 3 are correct: He was known as Mahakavi Bharathiyar and the laudatory epithet Mahakavi means a great poet.

  • His songs on nationalism and freedom of India helped to rally the masses to support the Indian Independence Movement in Tamil Nadu.
  • Bharathi was also against the caste system. He declared that there were only two castes-men and women and nothing more than that.
  • He believed in women’s rights, gender equality and women emancipation. He opposed child marriage, dowry and supported widow remarriage
16 videos|4 docs|70 tests
Information about Practice Test: Modern History- 1 Page
In this test you can find the Exam questions for Practice Test: Modern History- 1 solved & explained in the simplest way possible. Besides giving Questions and answers for Practice Test: Modern History- 1, EduRev gives you an ample number of Online tests for practice

Up next

Download as PDF

Up next

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers
Download the FREE EduRev App
Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!