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Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - UPSC MCQ


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50 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test for UPSC Prelims 2025 - Practice Test: Modern History- 2

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Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 1

With reference to the poem “„Chchello Katoro Jerno Aa: Pi Jayo Bapu!‟ (Even this last cup of poison, you must drink, Bapu!), consider the following statements:
1. It was written by Zaverchand Kalidas Meghani.
2. The poem gave expression to the nationalist misgivings regarding the 2nd Round Table Conference.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 1

The great Gujarati poet, Zaverchand Kalidas Meghani, in a famous poem gave expression to the nationalist misgivings regarding the 2nd Round Table Conference. Addressing Gandhiji on the eve of his departure for London, he sang in the first line : ̳Chchello Katoro Jerno Aa : Pi Jayo Bapu!‘ (Even this last cup of poison, you must drink, Bapu!) Mahatma Gandhi spontaneously gave him the title of Raashtreeya Shaayar.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 2

Which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Harijan Sevak Sangh was founded by Mahatma Gandhi.
2. Gandhiji‟s Harijan campaign included promotion of education, cleanliness and hygiene.
3. After the Poona Pact, Gandhiji decided to commence an „Untouchability Prevention Movement‟.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 2

Harijan Sevak Sangh was founded by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji‘s Harijan campaign included a programme of internal reform by the Harijans: promotion of education, cleanliness and hygiene, giving up the eating of carrion and beef, giving up liquor and the abolition of untouchability among themselves. After the Poona Pact, Gandhiji decided to commence an ̳Untouchability Prevention Movement‘

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 3

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Jawaharlal Nehru?
1. He organized the Independence for India League with Subhas Chandra Bose.
2. He criticized Gandhiji for preaching harmony among the exploiters and the exploited.
3. He headed the Karachi Session of the Congress in 1931.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 3

 In 1928, Jawaharlal joined hands with Subhas Chandra Bose to organize the Independence for India League. Nehru developed a complex relationship with Gandhiji during this period. He criticized Gandhiji for refusing to recognize the conflict of the classes, for preaching harmony among the exploiters and the exploited, and for putting forward the theories of trusteeship by, and conversion of, the capitalists and the landlords. He headed the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1930. The Karachi Session of the Congress was held in March 31, 1931, under the presidentship of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 4

With reference to the Meerut Conspiracy Case, consider the following statements:
1. British communists, Philip Spratt, Ben Bradley and Lester Hutchinson helped organizing the Trade Union Movement in India.
2. The defence of the prisoners related to the case was to be taken up by many nationalists, including Jawaharlal Nehru, M.A. Ansari and M.C. Chagla.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 4
  • By 1929, the government was deeply worried about the rapidly growing Communist influence in the National and Trade Union Movements.
  • It decided to strike hard. In a sudden swoop, in March, 1929, it arrested 32 radical political and trade union activists, including three British Communists — Philip Spratt, Ben Bradley and Lester Hutchinson — who had come to India to help organize the Trade Union Movement.
  • The basic aim of the government was to behead the Trade Union Movement and to isolate the Communists from the National Movement.
  • The 32 accused were put up for trial at Meerut.
  • The Meerut Conspiracy Case was soon to become a cause celebre.
  • The defence of the prisoners was to be taken up by many nationalists, including Jawaharlal Nehru, M.A. Ansari and M.C. Chagla. Gandhiji visited the Meerut prisoners in the jail to show his solidarity with them and to seek their co-operation in the coming struggle.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 5

Consider the following statements:
1. The All India Students Federation (AISF) is the first student organization of India.
2. The Progressive Writers‟ Association was established in London by the Indian writers and intellectuals.
3. The first session of the All India States Peoples' Conference was held in Bombay under the leadership of Nehru.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 5
  • The All India Students Federation (AISF) is the first student organization of India. It was founded by the students in 1936.
  • The Progressive Writers‘ Association was established in London in 1935 by the Indian writers and intellectuals, with the encouragement and support of some British literary figures. It was in the central London that a group of writers, including Mulk Raj Anand, Sajjad Zaheer and Jyotirmaya Ghosh drafted a manifesto which stated their aims and objectives.
  • The All India States Peoples' Conference (AISPC) was a conglomeration of the political movements in the princely states of the British Indian Empire. In Bombay, in December 1927, the first session of the organization was held. (Nehru became its President in 1939).
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 6

Consider the following statements regarding the Nehru Report:
1. It was the first major attempt by the Indians to draft a Constitutional Framework for the country.
2. The Report was based on the recommendation by a Sub-Committee under the Chairmanship of Jawahar Lal Nehru.
3. The Report confined itself to British India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 6

The Nehru Report – As an answer to Lord Birkenhead‘s challenge, an All Parties Conference met in February, 1928, and appointed a Sub-Committee under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to draft a Constitution. This was the first major attempt by the Indians to draft a Constitutional Framework for the country. The Committee included Tej Bahadur Sapru, Subhash Bose, M.S. Aney, Mangal Singh, Ali Imam, Shuab Qureshi and G.R. Pradhan as its members. The Report was finalized by August, 1928. The recommendations of the Nehru Committee were unanimous except in one respect – while the majority favoured the ―Dominion Status‖ as the basis of the Constitution, a section of it wanted ―Complete Independence‖ as the basis, with the majority section giving the latter section liberty of action. Main Recommendations – The Nehru Report confined itself to British India, as it envisaged the future link-up of British India with the princely states on a federal basis. For the Dominion it recommended:
(i) The Dominion Status on the lines of self-governing dominions as the form of government desired by the Indians (much to the chagrin of the younger, militant section – Nehru being prominent among them).
(ii) Rejection of separate electorates which had been the basis of the constitutional reforms so far. Instead, a demand for joint electorates with reservation of seats for the Muslims at the Centre and in the Provinces where they were in minority (and not in those where the Muslims were in majority, such as Punjab and Bengal) in proportion to the Muslim population there with a right to contest additional seats.
(iii) Linguistic provinces.
(iv) 19 fundamental rights, including equal rights for the women, right to form unions and universal adult suffrage.
(v) Responsible government at the Centre and in the Provinces.
(vi) Full protection to cultural and religious interests of the Muslims. (vii) Complete dissociation of the state from religion.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 7

Which of the following reflects/reflect the influence of the Socialist ideas on the Congress?
1. The Resolution on Fundamental Rights passed by the Karachi Session.
2. The formation of the National Planning Committee in 1938.
3. Election manifesto of the Congress in 1936.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 7

The impact of the Socialist ideas on the National Movement was reflected in the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy passed by the Karachi Session of the Congress in 1931; the Resolutions on Economic Policy passed at the Faizpur Session in 1936; the Election Manifesto of the Congress in 1936; the setting up of a National Planning Committee in 1938; and the increasing shift of Gandhiji towards radical positions on economic and class issues.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 8

Which among the following were the social reforms undertaken by the Congress Ministries in the brief period of 28 months‟ rule in the Provinces during 1937-39?
1. Measures for the welfare of the Harijans taken in temple entry.
2. Attention given to the primary, technical and higher education.
3. Encouragement given to the indigenous enterprises.
4. Efforts taken to develop planning through the National Planning Committee, set up under the Congress President Subhash Bose in 1938.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 8

The Social Welfare Reforms undertaken by the Congress Ministries in the brief period of 28 months’ rule in the Provinces during 1937-39 – Prohibition imposed in certain areas. Measures for the welfare of the Harijans taken – temple entry, use of public facilities, scholarships, an increase in their numbers in government services and police, etc. Attention given to the primary, technical and higher education, and to public health and sanitation. Encouragement given to Khadi through subsidies and other measures. Prison reforms undertaken. Encouragement given to the indigenous enterprises. Efforts taken to develop planning through the National Planning Committee, set up under the Congress President Subhash Bose in 1938.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 9

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Government of India Act of 1935?
1. The Act provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation to be based on the Union of the British Indian Provinces and the Princely States.
2. The representatives of the States to the Federal Legislature were to be appointed directly by the Princes.
3. The franchise was limited to about one-sixth of the adults.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 9

In August, 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act of 1935. The Act provided for the establishment of an All-India Federation to be based on the Union of the British Indian Provinces and the Princely States. The representatives of the States to the Federal Legislature were to be appointed directly by the Princes, who were to be used to check and counter the nationalists. The franchise was limited to about one-sixth of the adults. Defence and foreign affairs would remain outside the control of the Federal Legislature, while the Viceroy would retain special control over other subjects.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 10

Consider the following statements:
1. The Indian National Liberal Federation was founded by Tej Bahadur Sapru.
2. The Radical Democratic Party was founded by B.R. Ambedkar.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 10

Major/Minor Parties in India –
(1) The Indian National Liberal Federation (in Bengal, the Moderate Party) was founded by Tej Bahadur Sapru and M. R. Jayakar.
(2) The Jamiat ul Ulama-i-Hind was founded by Maulana Mahmudal Hasan Shaikh-ul-Hind, of the Deoband School, a nationalist Muslim clergy.
(3) The Radical Democratic Party was founded by M. N. Roy. 

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 11

Consider the following statements about the significance of the Firangi Mahal during the freedom struggle:
1. It is based in New Delhi.
2. The Ulemas of the Firangi Mahal played an important role in the Khilafat Movement.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 11

 The Firangi Mahal – The Firangi Mahal is a madrasa based in Lucknow. The Ulemas of the Firangi Mahal Abdul Bari supported the Ali brothers. They were the principal supporters of the Khilafat Movement. They had close relations with Gandhiji.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 12

Consider the following statements about the Cabinet Mission:
1. The Cabinet Mission accepted the idea of a sovereign Pakistan.
2. According to the Mission, the Union Government at the top was to control defence, foreign affairs and communication.
3. A Constituent Assembly was to be elected by the newly formed Provincial Assemblies, in order to draft the Constitution for the whole of India.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 12
  • The Labour Ministry (British Government) sent a three-member Mission, the Cabinet Mission, to India in March, 1946, to negotiate the terms of transfer of power. The Cabinet Mission was headed by Sir Pethick Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India and included Sir Stafford Cripps, now the President of the Board of Trade and First Lord Admiralty A. V. Alexander. The Mission had two main tasks—to discuss the principles and procedures of framing a new Constitution in order to grant independence to India and to form an Interim Government on the widest possible agreement among the political parties to facilitate the transfer of power. The Cabinet Mission rejected the idea of a sovereign Pakistan composed of six provinces. It offered, instead, a loose three-tiered federal structure for the Union of India, that was to include the Provinces and the Princely States.
  • The Union Government at the top was to control defence, foreign affairs and communication, and have the necessary power to raise revenue to conduct such affairs. All other residual powers were to be vested in the Provincial Governments that were given the right to form groups. Each group again could have its own executive and legislature, and the freedom to decide on what provincial subjects to handle. A Constituent Assembly was to be elected by the newly formed Provincial Assemblies, in order to draft the Constitution for the whole of India. It was to meet first at the Union level and then split into three sections— Section A with the Hindu-majority provinces; Section B with the Muslim- majority provinces of the north-west; and Section C with Bengal and Assam.
  • The Princely States were ensured sufficient representation in the Central Constituent Assembly. After the Constitution was drafted for all the three levels – the Union; Group; and the Province – a Province would have the right to move out of one group and into another. It could not, however, opt out of the Indian Union. There was a provision for the review of the Constitution after 10 years. While all this was being put in place, an Interim Government would carry on the work of everyday administration. India, declared Sir Pethick Lawrence, was to be independent soon and the Indians were to decide whether they wanted to stay within or move out of the British Commonwealth. Eventually, the Muslim League formally accepted the Cabinet Plan that had rejected its demand for a sovereign Pakistan. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 13

Consider the following statements:
1. E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker had raised the demand for a separate „Dravidian state‟.
2. C. Rajagopalachari-led Congress government tried to introduce Hindi in Madras.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 13

E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker had joined the Justice Party in 1937.He had raised the demand for a separate ̳Dravidian state‘ in his presidential address in 1938. This was a direct reaction to the Gopalachari- led Congress government‘s move to introduce Hindi in Madras. The demand did not gather momentum till the time it was taken up by Naicker‘s close associate C. N. Annadurai in independent India. 

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 14

Which of the following political leaders had advocated establishing a Post-War Commission to demarcate the adjacent districts of north-west and north-east India with the Muslim majority, hold a plebiscite among the adult inhabitants of these areas to decide if they wanted a separate Pakistan and finally, implement a scheme of co-operation needed to run essential services in case a separate Pakistan was created after the full transfer of power?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 14

In April, 1944, C. Rajagopalachari, the veteran Congress leader, had advocated establishing a Post- War Commission to demarcate the adjacent districts of north- west and north-east India with the Muslim majority, hold a plebiscite among the adult inhabitants of these areas to decide if they wanted a separate Pakistan and finally, implement a scheme of co- operation needed to run essential services in case a separate Pakistan was created after the full transfer of power. Partition was, for Rajagopalachari, ̳by far the lesser evil than forcing the Muslim provinces to stay in‘. That way, the Congress could be assured of a strong centre and the League would probably fade ̳into oblivion‘ once the two Muslim majority provinces were separated. When Gandhi approached Jinnah for a settlement in accordance with the C. R. formula, Jinnah reiterated the demand for a full separation of all the six Muslim provinces and asserted that the separation could not be deferred till the full transfer of power. Some scholars hold a vital difference in perspective among the two leaders responsible for the breakdown of the talks. For Gandhi, the separation was ̳within the family‘ and required the retention of some elements of partnership, while for Jinnah ̳sovereignty‘ was essential and that could come only with total separation. 

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 15

Consider the following statements about the Indian National Army trials:
1. Of the three INA Generals arraigned for the first trial were Prem Kumar Sehgal, Shah Nawaz Khan and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon.
2. The cause of their defence was taken up by the Congress, whose leaders toured the country, mobilizing support for the soldiers awaiting the trial.
3. Jawaharlal Nehru was among the defence lawyers.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 15
  • When the Japanese routed the Allies in south-east Asia, they took some 60,000 soldiers of the British Indian army prisoners. 20,000 of them agreed to switch sides and go to war against their former masters – the British, in the Indian National Army, under the command of Subhas Chandra Bose. After the Allies won the war, the INA (The Indian National Army) soldiers, once again, became prisoners – this time of the British. The military logic of the British India government was clear – they considered the INA joinees to be traitors, deserving of severe punishment. The furious, self-righteous government decided to make an example of the INA leaders by performing their court martial and treason trial – the first one was to take place in Delhi‘s iconic Red Fort, the same place from where Bose promised that INA would declare India‘s independence. Of the three INA Generals arraigned for the first trial were a Hindu (Prem Kumar Sehgal), a Muslim (Shah Nawaz Khan) and a Sikh (Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon).
  • The cause of their defence was taken up by the Congress, whose leaders toured the country, mobilizing support for the soldiers awaiting the trial. Jawaharlal Nehru was among the defence lawyers. While the defence lost the case and the defendants were declared guilty, the British sensed the popular mood, including within the British India Army, which was far from unsympathetic toward the INA. This was a time when the Muslim League was on the threshold of winning Pakistan, by dividing the territory of British India along communal lines. Yet, the Indians, irrespective of religion, were united in feeling that the ruling power was out for vengeance and in heaping curses upon it. The government was forced to commute the sentences of the convicted trio and release them.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 16

Consider the following statements:
1. The Praja Mandal of the princely state of Talcher, under the leadership of Pabitra Mohan Pradhan, took a very prominent part in the Quit India Movement.
2. The Jatiya Sarkar was established in Tamluk taluka in Midnapur during the Quit India Movement.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 16

The Praja Mandal of the small princely state of Talcher, under the leadership of Pabitra Mohan Pradhan, took a very prominent part in the Quit India Movement. The Jatiya Sarkar or the National Government, established in Tamluk taluka in Midnapur in September, 1942, resisted ̳relentless repression‘ and lasted till late August, 1944. The ̳National Government‘ was composed of the members drawn from the Congress Sub- Divisional Committee and had ̳fewer than 1,000 full-time adherents‘. It, however, enjoyed tacit middle-class and peasant support, and managed to carry on several disruptive actions.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 17

Consider the following statements:
1. The Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha had to politically fight during its formative years, the manoeuvres of the United Party.
2. The Hindu Mahasabha was against the abolition of landlordism.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 17

 The Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha had to politically fight during its formative years, the manoeuvres of the United Party, formed by the Zamindars and the planters of Bihar, with the blessings of the British Government. At the all India level, the Zamindars of Bihar, like the Maharaja of Darbhanga, had important links with the Hindu Mahasabha. The Hindu Mahasabha, apart from being a communal body, was against the abolition of landlordism. The landlords in Bihar represented conservative Hindu outlook and organized themselves.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 18

 Consider the following statements about the Cripps Mission:
1. Stafford Cripps was a Labour Party member of the British War Cabinet, headed by the Conservative Party leader, Winston Churchill.
2. The Congress demand for complete independence was agreed upon by the Cripps Mission.
3. The Provinces were given the right to secede.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 18

The Cripps Mission: In March, 1942, a Mission, headed by Stafford Cripps, was sent to India with the constitutional proposals to seek Indian support for the war. Stafford Cripps was a left-wing Labourite, the leader of the House of Commons and a member of the British War Cabinet, who had actively supported the Indian National Movement. The main proposals of the Mission were as follows –
(1) An Indian Union with a Dominion Status would be set up. It would be free to decide its relations with the Commonwealth, and free to participate in the United Nations and other international bodies.
(2) After the end of the war, a Constituent Assembly would be convened to frame a new Constitution. The members of this Assembly would be partly elected by the Provincial Assemblies, through proportional representation and partly nominated by the Princes.
(3) The British Government would accept the new Constitution, subject to two conditions –

  • Any province, not willing to join the Union, could have a separate Constitution and form a separate Union; and
  • the new Constitution making body and the British Government would negotiate a Treaty to effect the transfer of power, and to safeguard racial and religious minorities.

(4) In the meantime, the defence of India would remain in the British hands and the Governor-General‘s powers would remain intact. Note: Stafford Cripps was a Labour Party member of the British War Cabinet, headed by the Conservative Party leader, Winston Churchill.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 19

Consider the following statements:
1. B.R. Ambedkar‟s education in the USA was sponsored on a British Government scholarship.
2. Ambedkar formed the All India Depressed Classes League.
3. Ambedkar's Independent Labour Party won majority of seats reserved for the depressed classes in the 1937 elections in Bombay.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 19

B.R. Ambedkar went to the USA on a scholarship by the Maharaja of Baroda, on the condition that Ambedkar would serve the Baroda state upon his return to India. The All India Depressed Classes League was formed in 1935, with Jagjivan Ram, a Dalit leader from Bihar, affiliated with the Congress, as the President. Dalit distrust of the Congress got reflected in the great success of Ambedkar‘s Independent Labour Party in Bombay – it won 13 out of 15 reserved seats and demonstrated the strength of Babasaheb‘s leadership.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 20

 Consider the following statements about the Rajah Moonje Pact:
1. It was a Pact between the Congress and the Dalit leaders.
2. The Pact endorsed joint electorates and reservation of seats for the Dalits.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 20

The Rajah Moonje Pact – The Pact was signed between M. C. Rajah, who was a Dalit leader from Tamil Nadu and Moonje, who was the head of the Hindu Mahasabha. The Pact agreed on joint electorates and reservation of seats for the Dalits in India. It was a precursor of the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 21

Consider the following statements regarding 11 points Gandhiji made to Lord Irwin:
1. 11-point ultimatum to Irwin by Gandhi was a compromise formula.
2. It included the abolition of salt tax and government monopoly over salt.
3. It did envisage change in the political structure.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 21

 Gandhi advanced a compromise formula – he sent an 11-point ultimatum to Irwin. If the 11 points were met by, Civil Disobedience would not be launched. The 11 points did not envisage any change in the political structure – they included 6 issues of general interest, related to reducing military expenditure and civil salaries, changes in the Arms Act and reform of the Central Investigation Department; three bourgeois demands, such as the lowering of the rupee–sterling exchange rate, protective tariff on foreign cloth and the reservation of coastal traffic for the Indian shipping companies; and two claims that directly touched the peasants, the reduction of land revenue by half and its subjection to legislative control, and the abolition of salt tax and government monopoly over salt.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 22

With reference to the Civil Disobedience Movement, consider the following statements:
1. The Muslim League dismissed the proposed Movement as a ploy to establish Hindu Raj.
2. The Hindu Mahasabha and the Justice Party declared their support to Civil Disobedience.
3. Some 'Congress Muslims’ were unhappy, because there was no discussion of the Hindu-Muslim unity.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 22

The ̳Congress Muslims‘, such as Dr. Ansari, were unhappy, because there was no discussion of the Hindu- Muslim unity, a prime condition for any all-India Movement, and the Muslim League and the Muslim Conference dismissed the proposed Movement as a ploy to establish Hindu Raj. The Hindu Mahasabha and the Justice Party declared their opposition to Civil Disobedience, and the Sikhs and the Indian businessmen showed uncertainty.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 23

Which of the following statements is/are correct about the Quit India Movement?
1. During the Movement, Gandhi said, 'We shall either free India or die in the attempt”.
2. The Congress, as a whole, was outlawed during the Quit India Movement.
3. Gandhi was detained in the Agha Khan Palace in Poona.
 

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 23

In a passionate ̳Do or Die‘ speech delivered on the occasion, Gandhi stated that since this was going to be the final battle – a ̳fight to the finish‘ – ̳mere jail going‘ was not enough. ̳We shall either free India or die in the attempt; we shall not leave to see the perpetuation of our slavery‘ The government also sequestered the AICC‘s (The All India Congress Committee) files and funds, and although the Congress, as a whole, was not outlawed, its National and Provincial Committees were banned and most of the members arrested. Gandhi was detained in the Agha Khan Palace in Poona and the others were sent to the Ahmednagar Fort. 

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 24

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the 'Direct Action’ day?
1. 16th August, 1946, had been set as the day for 'Direct Action’ by the Muslim League.
2. The 'Direct Action’ day witnessed the 'Great Calcutta Killing’.
3. Suhrawardy had promised the crowd immunity from police interference.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 24

16th August, 1946 had been set as the day for ̳Direct Action‘ by the Muslim League, a day that was to mark the formal commencement of the fight for Pakistan by means of a nation-wide hartal, protests and demonstrations. The ̳Direct Action‘ day witnessed the ̳Great Calcutta Killing‘. The day had been declared a holiday by the Muslim League Ministry, headed by H. S. Suhrawardy. It had also organized a huge public rally at the Ochterlony Monument in central Calcutta. Suhrawardy had promised the crowd immunity from police interference.

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 25

Consider the following statements about Rajendra Prasad:
1. He founded the „Bihar Law Weekly‟.
2. He gave up his law practice to join the Non-Cooperation Movement.
3. He was sworn in as the Minister for Industries and Supplies in the Interim Government, 1946.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 25
  • Raised in a land-owning family of modest means, Prasad was a graduate of the Calcutta Law College. He practised at the Calcutta High Court and, in 1916, transferred to the Patna High Court and founded the Bihar Law Weekly. In 1917, he was recruited by Gandhi to help in a campaign to improve the conditions of the peasants exploited by the British indigo planters in Bihar. He gave up his law practice in 1920 to join the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • Becoming an active journalist in the nationalist interest, he wrote for Searchlight in English, founded and edited the Hindi weekly Desh (―Country‖), and started his lifelong campaign to establish Hindi as the national language. In September, 1946, Prasad was sworn in as the Minister for Food and Agriculture in the Interim Government preceding full independence. From 1946 to 1949, he presided over the Indian Constituent Assembly and helped to shape the Constitution. He was unanimously elected the President in 1950 and, after the first general election (1952), was chosen by an overwhelming majority of the new Electoral College. In 1957, he was elected to a third term.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 26

With reference to the revolt of the Poligars (1799-1805), consider the following statements:
1. The revolt took place in the region of present day Tamil Nadu.
2. Nawab of Arcot joined Poligars in their revolt against British.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 26
  • The earliest expressions of opposition to British rule in Tamil Nadu came in the form of revolt of Poligars (Palayakkarar) during the 18th century and which continued throughout till 1805. The Palayakkarar system had evolved with the extension of Vijayanagar rule into Tamil Nadu. Each Palayakkarar was the holder of a territory or Palayam (usually consisting of a few villages), granted to him in return for military service and tribute. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The problem started in 1781, when the Nawab of Arcot gave the management and control of Tinneveli and the Carnatic Provinces to the East India Company. This arrangement caused resentment among the poligars who had, for long considered themselves as independent sovereign authorities within their respective territories. The Palayakkarars regarded themselves as independent, sovereign authorities within their respective Palayams, arguing that their lands had been handed down to them across a span of sixty generations. Such claims were brushed aside by the East India Company.
  • Among the Palayakkarars, there were two blocs, namely the Western and the Eastern blocs. The Western bloc had Marava Palayakkarars and the Eastern bloc had Telugu Palayakkarars. Puli Thevar of Nerkkattumseval headed the former and Kattabomman of Panchalamkuruchi led the latter. These two Palayakkarars refused to pay the kist (tribute) to the Nawab of Arcot and rebelled against the Company and the Nawab. Hence, the issue of payment of tribute was the root cause of rebellions.
  • Yusuf Khan was the military commander employed by the British and the Nawab to curb the revolt of poligars.The poligar rebellions were led by Palayakkars like Kattabomma Nayak who was the playakkarar of Panchalankurichi, Puli Thevar of Nerkkattumseval and Marudu Pandyan of Sivaganga. However, the rebellions were violently crushed by the British and the Palayakkarar (poligari) system was replaced by the Zamindari system. Hence statement 2 is not correct. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 27

Which of the following is correct regarding the Age of Consent Act, 1891?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 27
  • The Age of Consent Act, 1891, also known as Act X of 1891, was legislation enacted in British India in 1891 which raised the age of consent for sexual intercourse for all girls, married or unmarried, from ten to twelve years in all jurisdictions, its violation subject to criminal prosecution as rape. Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.
  • While an 1887 case in a Bombay high court of a child bride Rukhmabai renewed discussion of such a law it was the death of an eleven-year-old Bengali girl Phulmoni Dasi in 1889 that drove intervention by the British. The act was passed in 1891.
  • Behramji M. Malabari (1853- 1912) spoke vigorously against child marriage and widow remarriage among Hindus. It was his efforts that led to the Age of Consent Act regulating the age of consent for females.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak opposed the Age of Consent Bill. His objection was mainly that such reforms must come from people governing themselves and not under an alien rule.
  • The Age of Consent Act was signed in 1891 during the viceroyship of Lord Lansdowne.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 28

In the context of British India's expansionist policy, arrange the following events in chronological order starting from the earliest:
1. Second Anglo Afghan war
2. Annexation of Burma
3. Younghusband expedition to Tibet
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 28

From 1878 onwards, the Government of India undertook a number of large-scale military expeditions outside India’s frontiers and its armed forces were used in some of the wars waged by the British Government in Asia and Africa.

  • Throughout the 19th century, the British Government was convinced that the extension of Russian influence over Central Asia constituted a real threat to its Indian domains. This had led Britain to first invade Afghanistan in 1839 with disastrous consequences. In 1876, the specter of Russian interference appeared once more when the Emir of Afghanistan, Sher Ali, was visited by a Russian diplomatic mission. When he then refused to accept a British envoy, the Viceroy of India, Lord Lytton, decided to act.
    • Viceroy Lytton decided to launch the Second Anglo-Afghan War on November 21, 1878, with a British invasion. Sher Ali fled his capital and country, dying in exile early in 1879. The British army occupied Kabul, as it had in the first war, and a treaty signed at Gandamak on May 26, 1879, recognized Sher Ali's son, Yaʿqūb Khan, as emir. He subsequently agreed to receive a permanent British embassy at Kabul. In addition, he agreed to conduct his foreign relations with other states in accordance “with the wishes and advice” of the British government.
  • King Thibaw Min of Burma attempted to strengthen himself with the help of foreign powers. In January 1855, Burma signed a trade treaty with France. British had the monopoly over the trade in Burma and, in no case, were they prepared to share it with the French.
    • The English traders, therefore, put pressure on the English government to annex Burma to the British Empire. The English government could not reject the demand of its trading community as it had sufficient control over the politics of the country. Thus by the end of 1885, the British attacked and annexed Burma.
  • In 1903 Curzon decided to send a military expedition into Tibet led by Col. Francis Younghusband. A brigade of Gurkhas and Tommies went over the Nathu La into the Chumbi valley and advanced unhindered till Xigatse.
    • A Tibetan military force met them there but offered what can only be described as passive resistance at a place called Guru near Gyantse. Not a shot was fired back as the British Indian troops rained bullets on them killing thousands. From Xigatse, Younghusband made a leisurely march into Lhasa.
    • The British got the Tibetans to agree to end their isolation and having extracted trade concessions withdrew in 1904, the way they came. In 1907 Britain and Russia formally agreed that it was in their interests to leave Tibet “in that state of isolation from which, till recently, she has shown no intention to depart.”
  • Hence option (c) is the correct answer. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 29

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Third Anglo Maratha war?
1. The chief reason for this war was the British conflict with the Pindaris.
2. After the war, Maratha confederacy was dissolved and the peshwaship was abolished.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 29
  • After the second Anglo-Maratha war, the Marathas made one last attempt to rebuild their old prestige. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1819) was the final and decisive conflict between the English East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
  • Marathas wanted to retake all their old possessions from the English. They were also unhappy with the British resident's interference in their internal matters. The chief reason for this war was the British conflict with the Pindaris whom the British suspected were being protected by the Marathas. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The Peshwa was defeated at Khirki, Bhonsle at Sitabuldi, and Holkar at Mahidpur. Some important treaties were signed. These were:
    • June 1817, Treaty of Poona, with Peshwa. o November 1817, Treaty of Gwalior, with Sindhia.
    • January 1818, Treaty of Mandsaur, with Holkar.
  • In June 1818, the Peshwa finally surrendered and the Maratha confederacy was dissolved. The peshwaship was abolished. Peshwa Bajirao became a British retainer at Bithur, near Kanpur. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The territories annexed from the Pindaris became the Central Provinces under British India.
  • This war led to the end of the Maratha Empire. All the Maratha powers surrendered to the British.This was one of the last major wars fought and won by the British. With this, the British controlled most parts of India barring Punjab and Sindh directly or indirectly. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 30

Which of the following is/are the Famine committees appointed by British India?
1. Campbell Commission
2. MacDonnell Commission
3. Strachey Commission
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 30
  • The government of India set up a famine commission under Sir George Campbell after the Orissa famine of 1866-67. His report is considered as the first detailed report on the famine relief policy.
  • During the period of Lord Lytton, a Strachey Commission of 1880 was created to develop a general strategy and principles to deal with the famines. The Strachey Commission came out with the recommendation on whose basis a Famine Code was developed.
    • It was appointed after the famine of 1876-78 which affected Madras, Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab.
  • When the people were dying out of starvation and diseases, a MacDonnell Commission was appointed for investigation of the 1899-1900 famine, by Lord Curzon in 1901 which submitted its report in the same year. This commission came out with a “Moral Strategy”, distribution of advances and loans to the peasants and setting up a Famine Commissioner in the famine-affected provinces
  • Hence option (c) is the correct answer. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 31

With reference to the Kitchener-Curzon dispute, consider the following statements:
1. The dispute was related to the removal of the post of military-member from Viceroy's Executive Council.
2. The dispute finally led to the resignation of Lord Kitchener.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 31
  • In order to establish civilian authority over the army, the Charter Act of 1793 very clearly gave the ultimate control over all matters of war and peace to the Board of Control. The commander-in-chief was made subservient to the Governor General, but the functional relationship between the two always a sticky point ever since the beginning of the East India Company’s army. This relationship continued to be unpleasant during the period of Crown rule, and became ugly during the notorious Curzon- Kitchener controversy in 1904-05.
  • The military member in the Viceroy’s Council, generally a senior officer of the army, served as the “eyes and ears” on all matters militaries for the Governor General. The Commander-in-Chief, Lord Kitchener, wanted to abolish the position of the military member in the viceroy’s council (duality of control) and centralise control and command of the army in his own hands. In his opinion the post of military member could be easily dispensed with and his charter of responsibilities could be merged with that of the Commander-in-Chief. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Viceroy Lord Curzon objected to it and when the home government offered a compromise formula of reducing the powers of the military member without abolishing the position, he offered his resignation. To his surprise, the resignation was quickly accepted, indicating the power of the army establishment. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • However later in 1905 the position of the military member was abolished and the commander-in-chief became directly responsible to the viceroy’s council. But the crucial financial control of the army was not left in his hands; for this a separate Military Finance Department was created, with a civilian chain of command going up to the Finance Member of the Council. This system remained in place until the end of colonial rule. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 32

Consider the following pairs: Tribal Revolt Associated Leaders
1. Santhal Rebellion : Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu
2. Ramosi Uprisings : Thamman-Dora
3. Munda Uprisings : Birsa Munda
4. Koya Revolts Chittur Singh
How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 32
  • The Santhal, who lived in the area between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal hills, known as 'Daman-i-koh', rose in revolt; made a determined attempt to expel the outsiders the dikus, and proclaimed the complete ‘annihilation’ of the alien. In 1855, the Santhals gathered in the Bhagnadihi Village under the leadership of the brothers - Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu - and declared themselves free from the colonial rule. At the outset, the British rule was paralyzed in the area and the native agents were killed. The rebellion covering the districts of Birbhum, Singbhum, Bankura, Hazaribagh, Bhagalpur, and Monghyr in Orissa and Bihar was precipitated mainly by economic causes. This great insurrection is known as the ‘Hul’. Hence pair 1 is correctly matched.
  • The Ramosi's, the hill tribes of the Western ghats had not reconciled to the British Rule and the British pattern of administration. They rose under Chittur Singh in 1822 and plundered the country around Satara. Again, there were eruptions in 1825-26 and the disturbances continued till 1829. Hence pair 2 is not correctly matched.
  • Munda Rebellion is one of the prominent 19th-century tribal rebellions in the subcontinent. Birsa Munda led this movement in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region south of Ranchi from 1899-1900. The ulgulan, meaning 'Great Tumult', sought to establish Munda Raj and independence. The Mundas traditionally enjoyed a preferential rent rate as the khuntkattidar or the original clearer of the forest. But in course of the 19th century, they had seen this khuntkatti land system being eroded by the jagirdars and thikadars coming as merchants and moneylenders. Hence pair 3 is correctly matched.
    • The government attempted to redress the grievances of the Mundas through the survey and settlement operations of 1902-10. The Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act of 1908 provided some recognition to their khuntkatti rights and banned beth begari. Chhotanagpur tribals won a degree of legal protection for their land rights.
  • The Koyas of the eastern Godavari track (now Andhra) revolted frequently against the administration aided by Khonda Sara leaders. The revolt started against the 'Muttadars' (zamindars) who formed a chain of rent collectors from the colonial rulers in the year 1862.
    • The Britishers deprived the tribals of their traditional rights over the toddy trees -the most valuable property of the tribals for they yielded drinks. The traders from the region took advantage of the situation, by extending loans to the tribals they confiscated their produce and cattle.
    • As a result, the tribals attacked the authorities under the leadership of Thamman-Dora in 1879. Their grievances included police and moneylender persecution, new restrictions, and rejection of their traditional rights to forest regions.
    • Hence pair 4 is not correctly matched.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 33

With reference to the Indian Social Conference, consider the following statements:
1. It was founded by M.G. Ranade and Raghunath Rao.
2. Its first session was held in Bombay in December 1885 along with the first session of the Indian National Congress.
3. It launched the famous 'Pledge Movement' to inspire people to take an oath to prohibit child marriage.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 33
  • When the Indian National Congress (INC) was formed in 1885, it was led by ardent social reformers such as M.G.Ranade and R.Ragunath Rao who were under the impression that the Congress would be concerned with social, economic, and political issues. However, it soon became clear that a strong faction in Congress was opposed to including social reform as part of the procedure.
  • The gist of the argument was that social reform was divisive and contentious, whereas Congress's goal was political unity. As a result, social issues were omitted. M.G.Ranade and R.Ragunath Rao's response to the INC's argument was the formation of the Indian Social Conference. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Indian Social Conference met for the first time in Madras in 1887. M.G.Ranade’s clear intention was to bind the social reform movement as closely as possible to Congress, even if it remained organizationally separate. It acts virtually as the social reform cell of the Indian National Congress. Later Ranade arranged sessions of the conference every year, immediately following the session of Congress, and at the same location. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • The Conference's goal was to bring together representatives of progressive Indian opinion on social issues, much like the Indian National Congress did for politics.
  • The Conference's mission was to stimulate and strengthen the forces of reform by bringing together every year in mutual consultation representatives of the various associations and movements that, scattered across India, were struggling with social evils.
  • The Conference advocated intercaste marriages and opposed kulinism and polygamy. It launched the famous “Pledge Movement” to inspire people to take an oath to prohibit child marriage. Hence statement 3 is correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 34

He was a soldier of the Mahratta Light Infantry who served in Italy during World War II (1939- 1945). He was killed in action fighting on the heights of Upper Tiber Valley. Which of the following personalities is described above?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 34

In News

  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh paid tributes at the VC Yeshwant Ghadge Sundial Memorial in Montone, Italy About Yeshwant Ghadge
  • He was a soldier of the Mahratta Light Infantry who served in Italy during World War II (1939- 1945).
  • He was killed in action fighting on the heights of Upper Tiber Valley.
    • He was not even 23 when he succumbed to German sniper fire in Montone, a commune in the Italian province of Perugia.
  • He had been in service for at least four years at the time, and had been promoted to the rank of Naik, commanding his own rifle section.
  • He was posthumously awarded Victoria Cross (VC), the UK’s highest military decoration, for his uncommon courage in one of the fiercest battles of the Italian campaign. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 35

With reference to the Jagannatha Puri Temple, consider the following statements:
1. It was built in the 10th century by Anangabhima of the Chodaganga dynasty.
2. Deities within the shrine are believed to be much older than the temple.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 35

Statement 1 is not correct: 

  • Jagannatha Puri Temple was built by Anantavarman of the Chodaganga dynasty in the 10th century.
  • Subsequently, in 1230, king Anangabhima III dedicated his kingdom to the deity and proclaimed himself as the ‘deputy’ of the god.

Statement 2 is correct:

  • However, the deities within the shrine are believed to be much older and are associated with the great mythical ruler of the Satya-yuga, King Indrayumna, nephew of Lord Ram
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 36

With reference to Indian festivals, Consider the following pairs :
Festivals : State

1. Kathi Bihu : Assam
2. Shigmo : Karnataka
3. Dree : Arunachal Pradesh
How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 36

 Pair 1 and 3 are correctly matched and Pair 2 is incorrectly matched. Kathi Bihu

  • Kathi Bihu is marked annually on the first day of the Kati month in the Assamese calendar.The festival is also known as Kongali Bihu.
  • Significance:It marks a crucial phase of the year for every farmer’s family in Assam - the fresh start of the harvest season and the relocation time of rice saplings. Shigmo Festival • Shigmo festival is the spring festival in Goa.
  • The festival begins with the installation of the ‘ghumot’, a traditional Goan percussion instrument, which is considered to be a symbol of cultural heritage and identity. Dree festival
  • Dree festival is a popular festival in Arunachal Pradesh and it is an important agricultural festival of Apatani tribe. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 37

With reference to the Indian history, consider the following events:
1. Kheda Satyagraha
2. Non-Cooperation Movement
3. Civil Disobedience Movement
4. Quit India Movement
How many of the above events witnessed participation of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 37

Kheda Satyagraha (1917):

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel supported and assisted Mahatma Gandhi in organising and leading the Satyagraha.
  • He provided strong leadership and direction to the local community, encouraging them to join the protest against the British-imposed unjustified tax on land revenue. Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22):
  • Patel recruited approximately 300,000 members and raised 1.5 million rupees for the Noncooperation Movement. He advocated the boycott of British goods and use of Khadi as a symbol of economic and cultural self-sufficiency. Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34):
  • During the course of the movement, Patel promoted boycotts of British goods, refusal to pay taxes, and nonviolent protests and strikes.
  • He aligned himself with Gandhi in advocating for individual disobedience, and as a result, he was arrested and sentenced to prison for around 9 months. Quit India Movement (1942):
  • Patel organised protests and strikes against British rule, and delivered compelling and electrifying speeches throughout India, inspiring and mobilising people to join mass protests, engage in acts of civil disobedience, boycott tax payments, and stage civil service shutdowns.
  • He implemented strategies to safeguard national leaders from arrest along with spearheading fundraising campaigns to support the movement.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 38

Consider the following statements with reference to the Treaty of Amritsar (Treaty of Perpetual Friendship):
1. It was signed between Ranjit Singh and the British after the former's defeat in the Second Anglo-Sikh War.
2. It forbade the Sikh army to cross the Sutlej and took the states east of the river Sutlej.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 38
  • Ranjit Singh signed a treaty of perpetual friendship (Treaty of Amritsar) on April 25, 1809, which forbade Ranjit Singh to cross the Sutlej and took the states east of the river Sutlej. It was signed much before the occurrence of the Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49). Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • The Treaty of Amritsar was significant for its immediate as well as potential effects. It checked one of the most cherished ambitions of Ranjit Singh to extend his rule over the entire Sikh nation by accepting the river Sutlej as the boundary line for his dominions and the Companies. Now he directed his energies towards the west and captured Multan (1818), Kashmir (1819), and Peshawar (1834). Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The relations of Raja Ranjit Singh with the Company, from 1809 to 1839, clearly indicate the former‘s weak position. Although he was conscious of his weak position, he took no step to organize a coalition of other Indian princes or maintain a balance of power. Ranjit Singh died in June 1839 and with his death, the process of the decline of his empire began. In June 1838, Ranjit Singh was compelled by political compulsions to sign the Tripartite Treaty with the English; however, he refused to give passage to the British army through his territories to attack Dost Mohammad, the Afghan Amir. The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that that took place in 1848 and 1849. It resulted in the fall of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North-West Frontier Province, by the East India Company.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 39

 Consider the following statements regarding Jyotirao Govindrao Phule:
1. He established Satyashodhak Samaj.
2. He was critical of Congress for its neglect of weaker sections and lower castes.
3. He was given the title of Mahatma by M.G Ranade.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 39
  • Jyotirao Govindrao Phule was a social reformer who worked against social evils like untouchability and the caste system and was a strong advocate of women empowerment and education of girl child. Phule was born on April 11, 1827, in present-day Maharashtra and belonged to the Mali caste of gardeners. He and his wife Savitrirao Phule fought for the education of girl students and opened a school in 1848. Phule vehemently opposed child marriage and supported widow remarriage. In 1863, he, along with his wife, opened an infanticide prevention centre where pregnant widows could safely give birth and care for infants. Phule along with his followers formed Satyashodhak Samaj in 1873 which meant „Seekers of Truth‟ in order to attain equal social and economic benefits for the lower castes in Maharashtra. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
  • Jyotirao Phule was a propagator of rational thinking and encouraged the education of Dalits and the girl child. He dedicated his book Gulamgiri (slavery) to the African American movement to end slavery. It is believed by many that it was Phule who first used the term ̳Dalit‘ for the depiction of oppressed masses often placed outside the ̳varna system‘. Phule was critical of the Congress and National movement for its neglect of the conditions of weaker sections and oppressed classes. He believed that mostly the upper caste leaders were involved in the nationalist movement and dominated Congress. He believed that once the British would leave, the people of the upper caste would use their power and authority to oppress and subjugate the people belonging to lower castes. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Phule not only wanted the country to become independent of the British control but also from various social evils that had crept in the society. Phule was bestowed with the title of Mahatma in 1888, by a Maharashtrian social activist Vithalrao Krishnaji Vandekar. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 40

In the context of socio-religious movements, consider the following differences between Aligarh Movement and Deoband School:
1. Aligarh movement aimed at the welfare of the Muslim community through western education whereas the Deoband school emphasized Islamic principles and religious instruction.
2. Aligarh movement sought support from the British government while the Deoband school kept alive the spirit of struggle against the foreign rule.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 40
  • The orthodox section among the Muslim ulema who were the standard-bearers of traditional Islamic learning organized the Deoband movement. It was a revivalist movement with twin objectives – to propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of Quran and Hai and to keep alive the spirit of jihad against foreign rule. Whereas, the Aligarh school aimed at the welfare of the Muslim community through the support of the British government. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The school curricula shut out English education and Western education. The instruction was in the original Islamic religion whereas the Aligarh movement aimed at the welfare of the Muslim community through western education. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • In 1888, Deoband ulema issued a religious decree (fatwa) against Syed Ahmed Khan‟s organizations „the United Patriotic Association‟ and „The Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental Association. The main opposition by the Deoband school was against the activities of Syed Ahmed Khan as Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental colleges were established by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in Aligarh in 1875 for the education of Western Sciences and arts and Muslim religion.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 41

Consider the following statements with reference to police reforms under Lord Cornwallis:
1. The zamindars were relieved of their police functions.
2. He established a system of circles or thanas headed by Britishers.
3. District Superintendent of Police was created to head the police organisation in a district.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 41
  • Lord Cornwallis realized the need for police reforms and he made many changes in the police organization. In this respect, he went back to, and modernised the old Indian system of thanas. This put India ahead of Britain where a system of police had not developed yet. He divested the Zamindars of their policing powers, divided the district into thanas or units of police jurisdiction of twenty to thirty miles. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Each unit was under an officer known as the Daroga who was appointed by the magistrates and placed under their supervision. Darogas came to be seen as the instrument of the Company's power and control over the rural areas. The daroga was an Indian. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • The post of the District Superintendent of Police was created to head the police organisation in a district. Hence, statement 3 is correct. In the villages, the duties of the police continued to be performed by the village watchmen who were maintained by the villagers.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 42

What are the economic impacts of British economic policies during colonial rule?
1. Commercialisation of agriculture
2. Emergence of the managing agency system
3. Flourishing of urban handicraft production
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 42
  • A Between 1793 and 1813, these British manufacturers launched a campaign against the company, its trade monopoly, and the privileges it enjoyed. Ultimately, they succeeded in abolishing the East India Company‟s monopoly of Indian trade. With this India became an economic colony of Industrial England. The decline of Urban Handicrafts: The consequence of these changes in the composition of India‘s exports and imports, was a rapid decline in the demand for products of various urban handicrafts which at one time were so famous and in a flourishing condition.
  • Now, these urban handicrafts in India were unable to successfully face the challenge posed by free imports into India of cheap manufactured goods produced on a large scale in factories in England. This resulted in the decline of urban handicrafts in India. Commercialization of Agriculture: A large number of commercial crops such as tea, coffee, indigo, opium, cotton, jute, sugarcane, and oilseed were introduced. subsistence farming began gradually to give place to what is known as ' commercialization of agriculture '. Instead of growing all types of crops for home consumption as was the traditional practice, farmers began to produce one or two crops suitable to the region and which could be sold for the highest profit.
  • The emergence of the Managing Agency System: The most important among the institutions that came into existence during the second half of the 19th century were the European Managing Agency Houses. ̳Managing Agency House‘ was the peculiar product of the Indo-British relations during the 19th century. The Managing Agency Houses raised funds in England and India and took responsibility on behalf of the clients (who had retired from service in India after making a lot of money and generally resided in England) to run industries or trading establishments in India. Increasing Pressure on Agriculture: Gradually several handicrafts in urban areas declined or in some cases vanished for all practical purposes.
  • The unfortunate men who were traditionally engaged in those handicrafts took mostly to agriculture, claiming a share in the family land, to which they were entitled according to the Hindu and Muslim laws of succession and inheritance. This sudden swelling in the number of agriculturists resulted in sub-division and fragmentation of agricultural land.
  • Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 43

In the context of international affairs of British India, which one of the following is correct about Lord Auckland‟s Forward Policy?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 43
  • At the time Auckland came to India as Governor-General in 1836, there were alarming reports from Teheran about Russian advances. Russian ambition in Central Asia dates from the acquisition of Georgia in 1801. The Russo-Persian wars of 1811-13 and 1826-28 greatly humbled Persia and she was compelled to surrender important territories round the Caspian Sea to Russia besides being forbidden to keep armed vessels in that sea.
  • Russian influence replaced British influence in Persia and thwarted an English scheme for the establishment of a new route by the Euphrates river to India. The increased Russian influence in Persia after the Treaty of Turkomanchai (1828) alarmed English mind about possible Russian design on India. There was a search for a 'scientific frontier'. The passes of the north-west seemed to hold the keys to the gateway of India. It was felt that Afghanistan should be under the control of a friendly prince. The politicians of the day felt that the fall of Herat meant, for both political and geographical reasons, the removal of the last barrier on any possible march to India. Both Lord Palmerston, British Foreign Secretary, and Auckland advocated a Forward Policy and thought in terms of bringing Afghanistan within their political ambit and signed a Tripartite treaty(June 1938) with Shah Suja and Ranjit Singh. The treaty provided that Shah Shuja would be reinstated on the throne of Kabul with the armed assistance of the Sikhs.
  • The Company was to remain in the background jingling the money bag'. In return Shah Shuja bound himself to conduct his foreign relations with the advice of the English and the Sikhs; he further recognised the Maharaja's claims over the afghan territories on the right bank of the Indus and also gave up his sovereign rights over the Amirs of Sind in return for a large sum of money. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 44

 A social reformer, He opposed the belief in the principles of niyati (destiny). He stated that every individual must work on his own for his salvation. He denounced idolatry and ritualistic worship and promoted the revivalism of the Vedas. He is famous as the first person to give the call of “India for Indians”.
Identify the personality from the above passage.

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 44
  • Born Mul Shankar Tiwari, Dayananda was a prolific socio-religious reformer. Dayananda understood that Hinduism had strayed away from its roots and had become tainted. He decided that to restore the true religion, it was needed to go back to the Vedas. He promised his Guru Virajananda, that he would strive hard to reinstate the position of the Vedas to its rightful honored place in the Hindu religion and way of life. He was staunchly against rituals and superstitions. He criticized the concept of humans attaining moksha (salvation) to seek union with God. Instead, he advocated that God, soul, and matter (Prakriti) are all distinct and eternal entities. He also opposed the belief in the principles of niyati (destiny).
  • He stated that every individual must work on his own for his salvation. He also exhorted the importance of cows for the prosperity of the nation and encouraged the adoption of Hindi for national integration. He founded the Arya Samaj on April 7, 1875.
  • Through this reform movement, he stressed One God and rejected idol worship. He also advocated against the extolled position of priests in Hinduism. He also established Vedic schools for the education of girls and boys of all castes. Arya Samaj was also involved in Shuddhi ceremonies to reconvert people who had converted from Hinduism to other faiths. He wrote three books, viz. Satyartha Prakash, Veda-Bhashya Bhumika, and Veda-Bhashya and toured India extensively to spread his teachings. He had given the slogan ̳India for the Indians‘.
  • This slogan became the basis of the Indian National Congress during the Calcutta session, remarkable for the slogan Swaraj. Hence option (c) is the correct answer. Please Note: India for Indians is also the title of a book authored by C.R Das. He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as "India for Indians" in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 45

Consider the following statements regarding Farrukhsiyar‟s granting of Farmans to the British East India Company:
1. The British East India Company was permitted to issue dastaks for the transportation of goods.
2. The coins of the British East India Company minted at Bombay were to be accepted as currency throughout the Mughal empire.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 45
  • In 1715, an English mission led by John Surman to the court of the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar secured three famous farmans, giving the Company many valuable privileges in Bengal, Gujarat, and Hyderabad. The farmans thus obtained were regarded the Magna Carta of the Company. Their important terms were: In Bengal, the Company‟s imports and exports were exempted from additional customs duties excepting the annual payment of 3,000 rupees as settled earlier. The Company was permitted to issue dastaks (passes) for the transportation of such goods. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The Company was permitted to rent more lands around Calcutta. In Hyderabad, the Company retained its existing privilege of freedom from duties in trade and had to pay the prevailing rent only for Madras. In Surat, for an annual payment of 10,000 rupees, the East India Company was exempted from the levy of all duties. It was decreed that the coins of the Company minted at Bombay were to be accepted as currency throughout the Mughal empire. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • But The Company‘s servants extended this privilege to their own coastal trade, inter- Asian trade, and finally the inland trade. This was an obvious usurpation. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 46

He was one of the founders of the Indian Association of Calcutta. He was discontented with the pro-landlord policies of the British India Association. He was associated with Ripon College which was later named after his name. He was the first Indian to go to jail in performance of his duty as a journalist.
Who among the following personalities is being described in the above passage?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 46

Sir Surendranath Banerjee was one of the earliest Indian political leaders during British Rule. He founded a nationalist organization called the Indian Association of Calcutta, after getting discontented with the conservative and pro-landlord policies of the British Indian Association, through which he led two sessions of the Indian National Conference in 1883 and 1885, along with Anandamohan Bose. Banerjee later became a senior member of the Indian National Congress. Surendranath repudiated Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, unlike Congress, and with many liberal leaders, he left Congress and founded a new organization named Indian National Liberation Federation in 1919. He was one of the founding members of the Indian National Congress, He is given the epithet of Rashtraguru. Upon his return to India in June 1875, Banerjee became an English professor at the Metropolitan Institution, the Free Church Institution, and at the Rippon College, now Surendranath College, founded by him in 1882. He began delivering public speeches on nationalist and liberal political subjects, as well as Indian history. Surendranath was influenced by the writings of Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini. He studied the writings of Mazzini in his stay in England (1874-1875) on Anandmohan's suggestion. In 1879, he bought the newspaper, The Bengalee (founded in 1862 by Girish Chandra Ghosh) and edited it for 40 years. He became the first Indian to go to jail in performance of his duty as a journalist. Hence option (d) is the correct answer

  • Subhas Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempts during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
  • The honorific Netaji (Hindustani: "Respected Leader") was first applied to Bose in Germany in early 1942—by the Indian soldiers of the Indische Legion (English: Indian Legion) and by the German and Indian officials in the Special Bureau for India in Berlin. It is now used throughout India. Kashinath Trimbak Telang was an Indologist and Indian judge at Bombay High Court.
  • Telang was active in politics from 1872 to 1889. He was nominated to the Bombay legislative council in 1884 but declined a similar position on the viceroy's council. He and fellow Bombay lawyers, Pherozshah Mehta, and Badruddin Tyabji were the founders of the Bombay Presidency Association. He was the secretary of the reception committee for the inaugural meeting of the Indian National Congress in 1885. Romesh Chunder Dutt was an Indian civil servant, economic historian, writer, and translator of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
  • Dutt is considered a national leader of the pre-Gandhian era and was a contemporary of Dadabhai Naoroji and Justice Ranade. He was president of the Indian National Congress in 1899. He was also a member of the Bengal Legislative Council.
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 47

Consider the following statements about the annexation of Awadh in 1856:
1. It was annexed under the governor- generalship of Lord Dalhousie on grounds of misgovernance.
2. Wajid Ali Shah was the ruler of Awadh at the time of its annexation.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 47
  • Awadh remained an independent entity till 7 February 1856 when Lord Dalhousie annexed it to the British Empire in India. In simple terms, the doctrine stated that the adopted son could be the heir to his foster father‟s private property, but not the state; it was for the paramount power (the British) to decide whether to bestow the state on the adopted son or to annex it. The doctrine was stated to be based on Hindu law and Indian customs, but Hindu law seemed to be somewhat inconclusive on this point, and the instances of an Indian sovereign annexing the state of his vassal on account of ̳lapse‘ (i.e., leaving no issue as heir) were rather rare. Annexation of Awadh: Lord Dalhousie was keen on annexing the kingdom of Awadh. But the task presented certain difficulties. For one, the Nawabs of Avadh had been British allies since the Battle of Buxar, Moreover, they had been most obedient to the British over the years. The Nawab of Avadh had many heirs and could not, therefore, be covered by the Doctrine of Lapse. Some other pretext had to be found for depriving him of his dominions. Finally, Lord Dalhousie hit upon the idea of alleviating the plight of the people of Avadh. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was accused of having misgoverned his state and of refusing to introduce reforms. His state was therefore annexed in 1856. Hence both statements 1 and 2 are correct.
  • Undoubtedly, the degeneration of the administration of Avadh was a painful reality for its people. The Nawabs of Avadh, like other princes of the day, were selfish rulers absorbed in self-indulgence who cared little for good administration or for the welfare of the people. But the responsibility for this state of affairs was in part that of the British who had at least since 1801 controlled and indirectly governed Avadh. In reality, it was the immense potential of Awadh as a market for Manchester goods that excited Dalhousie's greed and aroused his „philanthropic‟ feelings. And for similar reasons, to satisfy Britain's growing demand for raw cotton, Dalhousie took away the cotton-producing province of Berav from the Nizam in 1853. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 48

Who among the following gave the call for „one religion, one caste and one God for mankind‟?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 48

A Sree Narayana Guru (1856-1928) preached the doctrine of „One caste, One religion, One God.‟ One of his atheist disciples, Sahadaran Ayyapan, changed it into „no religion, no caste and no God for mankind. Sree Narayan Guru started the SNDP (Sree Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana) Movement in 1903 among the Ezhavas of Kerala, who were a backward caste of toddy tappers and were considered to be untouchables. He took steps for several issues for the Ezhavas such as o the right of admission to Public schools. o recruitment to government services. o access to roads and entry to temples o political representations Hence option (a) is the correct answer. 

Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 49

Consider the following statements regarding Guruvayur Satyagraha:
1. It was a movement to allow untouchables to fetch water from the public wells.
2. It took place in the Bombay Presidency of the British period.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 49
  • Guruvayur Satyagraha took place in (1931–32) in the present Thrissur district, which was then part of Ponnani Taluk of Malabar district, now part of Kerala. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
  • It was an effort to allow entry for untouchables into the Guruvayur Temple. Hence, statement 1 is not correct It was led by K. Kelappan, who undertook a hunger strike for 12 days until it was abandoned because of a request from Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. Kelappan was popularly known as Kerala Gandhi. Mahad Satyagrah was launched by Ambedkar to establish the right of untouchables to draw water from public wells and tanks. 
Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 50

 In the context of colonial history, the 'Strachey Commission' and 'Woodhead Commission' were appointed to

Detailed Solution for Practice Test: Modern History- 2 - Question 50

The Company did not pay much attention to problems of famine and famine relief. It had no administrative machinery and experienced personnel to deal with the problems of famine. In the early 19th century, it did try to solve problems of famine-affected people by half-hearted measures.

  • First Famine Commission (1880): After the famine of 1876-78 Government of India appointed the first Famine Commission in 1778 under John Strachey, which submitted its Report in 1880. It formulated general principles of famine-relief policy and suggested preventive and protective measures for famine relief.
  • Second Famine Commission (1898): The famine of 1896-97 led to the appointment of the second commission under James Lyall. It mostly endorsed earlier recommendations and recommended a freer grant of gratuitous relief, a more liberal remission of land revenue, and special attention to weaker sections.
  • Third Famine Commission (1901): The famine of 1899-1900 led to the appointment of the Third Famine Commission in 1901 under Antony MacDonell. It emphasized the moral strategy of putting the heart into famine-affected people and building up their will-power by rendering assistance to them immediately after the danger of famine is scented.
  • Woodhead Commission (1944): The Bengal famine of 1943 led to the appointment of the Woodhead Commission. It recommended the creation of the All-India Food Council, monopoly procurement and distribution of food grains through a chain of fair-price shops, etc. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
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