Test: Biology - 1


20 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE | Test: Biology - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements about Vechur cattle breed
1. Vechur is the world’s largest cow.
2. It is indigenous breed found in Kerala.
3. Its milk protein has medicinal value.
4. Commonly used in farming as draught animal.

Q. Which of the statements given above are correct?

Solution:

The Vechur cattle is a rare breed of Bos indicus, named after the village Vechoor in Kottayam district of the state of Kerala in India. Its average length is 124 cm and height is 87 cm, according to the Guineas Book of Records, it’s the smallest cattle breed in the world. Its milk is considered to have medicinal properties. Unlike other cattle, they can resist drought by being hardy towards it.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements:
1. Warm-blooded animals can remain active in cold environment in which cold-blooded animals can hardly move.
2. Cold-blooded animals require much less energy to survive than warm-blooded animals.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Cold-blooded animals require much less energy to survive than warm-blooded animals

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements:
1. Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
2. Sex chromosome in human male is named XX.
3. Chromosomes are best seen in metaphase.

Q. Which of the statements given above are false about chromosomes?

Solution:

Humans are diploid organisms by having two members or homologous chromosomes in a pair. Total 23 pairs of chromosomes exist in each somatic cell of the body. Total 46 chromosomes occur. One particular pair individually in male and female determines their respective sex. This one pair is XX in females and XY in males. All the 46 chromosomes in pairs can be seen under microscope at metaphase stage in the cells which are undergoing mitosis.

QUESTION: 4

Match List-I (animals) with List-II (class/ phylum) and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

Octopus belongs to Mollusca.

Jellyfish belongs to Coelenterata.

Silver fish belongs to Arthropoda.

Bombay Duck belongs to Pisces.

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following professionals are more likely to run the risk of a permanent change in their cell’s DNA?
1. Researchers from carbon-14 isotope
2. X-ray technician
3. Coal miner
4. Dyer and painter

Q. Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

X-Ray technique, C14 and Dyer technique is a very important technique for a permanent change in DNA. But in coal miner, C14 amount is very very less. So, there is no risk of change in DNA.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements about gene
1. Word ‘Gene’ was given by Johanssen.
2. Genes are situated on chromosomes.
3. Genes located at different locus and having different expression are multiple alleles.

 Q. Which of the statements given above are true?

Solution:

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to make molecules called proteins.
An allele is a variant form of a gene. Explained in greater detail, each gene resides at a specific locus (location on a chromosome) in two copies, one copy of the gene inherited from each parent. The copies, however, are not necessarily the same. When the copies of a gene differ from each other, they are known as alleles. A given gene may have multiple different alleles, though only two alleles are present at the gene’s locus in any individual.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements:
1. Frogs can breathe by lungs as well as skin.
2. Gills are not present in any stage of lifespan of frogs.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements:
Assertion(A): In humans, female sex is determined by XX-chromosomes.
Reason(R): Male sex is determined by YY-chromosomes.

Solution:

Humans are diploid with 23 pairs of chromosomes. Of this, 22 pairs are somatic and the one pair is sex chromosomes. This particular pair exists as XX in human females and XY in males. The presence of two X chromosomes contributes to the female phenotype while presence of only one Y chromosome is responsible for the human to be male. Females produce only X-type haploid gametes and males produce two types (X and Y) of haploid gametes. Fusion of either X or Y of male gamete with the female gamete determines the sex of the offspring.

QUESTION: 9

With reference to the work of human kidney, consider the following statements:
1. After the waste is removed in the kidney, the cleaner blood is sent back through renal artery.
2. From Bowman’s capsule, the filtered liquid passes through tiny tubes where much of the glucose is reabsorbed and sent back to the blood in the renal vein.

Q. Which of the statements is/are correct?

Solution:

After the removal of wastes from the kidneys, the cleaner blood is sent back through the renal veins. From Bowman’s capsule, the filtered liquid passes through tiny tubes where much of the glucose is reabsorbed and sent back to the blood in the renal vein.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements:
Assertion (A): Drinking of whisky increases the frequency of urination.
Reason (R): Alcohol intake speeds up the secretion of vasopressin in the body.

Solution:

Alcohol acts as a diuretic. It actually promotes urine production by inhibiting the release of antidiuretic hormone, or vasopressin from the pituitary gland. In turn, reduced levels of antidiuretic hormone prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing water and thereby increase urine production.

QUESTION: 11

With reference to the human body, consider the following statements:
1. The production of somatropin goes up when a person exercises.
2. Men’s testes produce progesterone.
3. Women’s adrenal glands secret testosterone.
4. Stress causes the adrenal to release very less amount of cortisol than usual.

Q. Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:

During exercise, the level of somatotropin goes up. Testes secrete testosterone and females’ adrenal glands secrete progesterone. Stress causes the adrenal glands to release very less amount of cortisol (a steroid hormone) than usual.

QUESTION: 12

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

Werner Arber along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, had won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. For the first time, Feldmann and Marks had demonstrated the production of transgenic plants without invitro step. They just grew the Arabidopsis seeds with the gene containing Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Kary Mullis is the inventor of the technique PCR for in vitro synthesis of DNA fragments. Reverse transcriptase was discovered by Howard Temin and independently isolated by David Baltimore in 1970.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:
Assertion (A): Human diet should compulsorily contain glycine, serine and tyrosin.
Reason (R): Essential amino acids can’t be synthesized in the human body.

Solution:

Essential amino acids or indispensable amino acids are those amino acids which cannot be synthesized de novo by any particular organism. In humans also, some amino acids are essential and must be supplied in the diet. The amino acids regarded as essential for humans are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine.

QUESTION: 14

Oxygen transportation in a human body takes place through
1. Blood
2. Lungs
3. Tissue
The correct sequence of transportation is

Solution:

Lungs are the organs which actually oxygenate up the blood by exchanging the carbon dioxide to outside and taking up oxygen which comes to them by breathing in by the organism. This oxygen in the blood is then transported to each tissue of the body. Integrated and coordinated works of circulatory and respiratory systems are responsible for this.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements:
Assertion (A): Scientists can cut apart and paste together DNA molecules at will, regardless of the source of the molecules.
Reason (R): DNA fragments can be manipulated from restriction endonucleases and DNA ligases.

Solution:

In genetic engineering, a DNA segment from any foreign source can be inserted into any other genetic material. The enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, act like scissors that cut apart a particular or specific part of the DNA. This cut out DNA piece can be inserted into other genetic material which has been cut to make space for containing the foreign DNA. The DNA once inserted can be ligated by enzymes known as ligases.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements:
Assertion (A): ‘DNA fingerprinting’ has become a powerful tool to establish paternity and identity of criminals in rape and assault cases.
Reason (R): Trace evidences, such as hairs, saliva and dried semen, are adequate for DNA analysis.

Solution:

DNA is the core material which constitutes the genetic makeup of an individual. The DNA of every individual shows unique properties of nucleotide bases that renders a particular fingerprint. DNA is found in all types of body cells.
Thus both the statements are correct.

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following sectors is not included in the NITI Aayog’s focus regarding “National AI Strategy”:

1.  Agriculture 

2. MSME 

3. Education 

4. Infrastructure 

5. Oil and Natural Gas 

Select the correct code: 

Solution:

NITI Aayog has decided to focus on five sectors that are envisioned to benefit the most from AI (in solving societal needs): 

Healthcare: Increased access and affordability of quality healthcare. 

Agriculture: Enhanced farmers’ income, increased farm productivity and reduction of wastage. 

Education: Improved access and quality of education. 

Smart Cities and Infrastructure: Efficient connectivity for the burgeoning urban population. 

Smart Mobility and Transportation: Smarter and safer modes of transportation and better traffic and congestion management.

QUESTION: 18

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

Sternum is the breast bone. Clavicle is the collar bone. Patella is the knee cap. Scapula is the shoulder blade.

QUESTION: 19

Match the hormones in List-I with items in List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

Adrenalines are secreted in the situations of exercise, fear or any kind of dangerous situation. Oestrogens are steroid hormones or female primary sex hormones. Insulin is responsible for the metabolism of sugar in the body. Pheromones are the compounds which are secreted generally from insect; go out to affect the other insects. Some of the pheromones include alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, and sex pheromones.

QUESTION: 20

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

Ptyalin digests the starch in the mouth. Pepsin is a proteolytic enzyme which breaks down the proteins into simple peptides. Renin is responsible for converting angiotensinogen to angiotensin. Oxytocin is a hormone that stimulates the contraction of smooth muscles of the body.

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