Test: Biology - 2


20 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE | Test: Biology - 2


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QUESTION: 1

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer by from the codes given below the lists:

 List-I            List-II
A. EEG       1. Muscle
B. ECG       2. Eye
 C. EOG     3. Brain
 D. EMG     4. Heart

Solution:

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows in neurons of the brain. Electrocardiography (ECG) is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time detected by electrodes attached to the surface of the skin and recorded external device. Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique of measuring the corneoretinal standing potential existing between the front and the back of the human eye. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating physiologic properties of muscles.

QUESTION: 2

Which of the following diseases are infectious in milch animals?
1. Hand diseases
2. Anthrax
3. Black quarter
4. Cowpox

Q. Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

Solution:

Milch animals are those animals which are source of milk, e.g. cow, goat, buffalo. Foot-andmouth disease, caused by Aphthae epizooticae is an infectious disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Blackleg, black quarter is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei affecting cattle, sheep and goats. Cowpox is caused by cowpox virus and is infectious.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements:
1. Meningococcal meningitis is transmitted from person to person by mosquito bites.
2. Vomiting and neck pain are two of the symptoms of meningococcal meningitis. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Meningococcal meningitis is transmitted from person to person through air via droplets of respiratory secretions and direct contact with an infected person like oral contact with shared items.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
Assertion (A): If somebody stops taking green vegetables, he will suffer from night blindness.
Reason (R): He will suffer from vitamin A deficiency.

Solution:

Vitamin A has a major role in phototransduction. Its deficiency causes night blindness in humans. Xerophthalmia, keratomalacia can also occur with its deficiency. Green, yellow-orange-red (dark- coloured) fruits and vegetables, eggs, milk; fortified cereals are rich source of vitamin A. Their avoidance over a long period may cause the vit-A deficiency symptoms.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements:
1. Dengue is a protozoan disease transmitted by mosquitos.
2. Retro-orbital pain is not a symptom of dengue.
3. Skin rash and bleeding from nose and gums are some of the symptoms of the dengue.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Dengue is a viral disease transmitted through mosquito. Fever, headache, pain in joints, back muscles and eyeballs, skin rash for a few days, bleeding from nose and gums are some of the symptoms of the dengue fever.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statement about lymph

1. Lymph is another medium of circulation in the human body.
2. Lymph flows in only one direction - from the heart to body tissues.
3. Lymph protects the body by killing the germs drained out of the body tissues with the help of Lymphocytes.

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements:
1. ELISA test is employed as the first and most basic test for an individual to detect cancer.
2. Almost 50% human being have Rh+ blood while the remaining have Rh– blood.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is an important test for diagnosing viral diseases like AIDS (caused by HIV). Majority of the human beings are Rh+ while very few are Rh–.

QUESTION: 8

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below the lists:

Solution:

Plague is a deadly infectious disease, caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. Until 2007, plague, yellow fever, and cholera were the three epidemic diseases reported to WHO. AIDS is caused by human immunodeficiency virus. Baldness can be caused by a fungus Microsporum audouinii, a common cause of ringworm and associated hair loss. Malaria is mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans caused by protozoa of genus Plasmodium.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements
Assertion (A): An enzyme is basically a protein which acts like a catalyst in the metabolic reactions of an organism.
Reason (R): The pancreatic juice is basically composed from three enzymes trypsin, amylase and lipase.

Solution:

An enzyme is basically a protein which acts like a catalyst in the metabolic reaction and the juice of the pancreas is basically composed from three enzymes trypsin, amylase and lipase.

QUESTION: 10

Match the following columns:


  

Solution:

Leucocytes are white blood cells. These comprise of neutrophils which provide protection to the body through phagocytosis of bacteria and thus act as scavengers. The basophils are the granulocytes which contain histamines and heparin. Heparin thins blood to prevent clotting. Histamines dilate the blood vessels and increase the permeability of capillaries. Monocytes are of two types namely macrophages and dendritic cells. Acidophils take up role in anti-allergic reactions and wound healing. The lymphocytes are B cells, T cells and natural killer cells. These are mainly involved in the immune responses by producing specific antibodies.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements and choose the correct ones.
1. Once the HIV gains a foothold, it can never be eradicated from the body.
2. Many HIV patients, however, can manage the infection with a cocktail of drugs.
3. It is very mutable and infects the respiratory system itself.

Solution:

The correct option is: a 1 and 2 only
Explanation:All the statements are correct. HIV is highly mutable retrovirus and if remain dormant in the body for a long time it becomes all the more difficult to detect it and remove it from the body once detected. The most severe thing it does to the body is that  it directly attacks the immune system killing many T-cells. And it takes around 10 years to develop AIDS. However a patient can lead a normal life via taking antiretroviral therapies ARTs which can decrease the viral load to an undetectable level.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements and choose the correct code.
Assertion (A): A true nucleus is absent in E. coli and other prokaryotes.
Reason (R): An undifferentiated, unorganised fibrillar chromosome existsinside the prokaryotic cells.

Solution:

In the prokaryotes, all the genetic materials lie inside the cell, no clear or separate nuclear wall is recognized in these cells. In fact no membranebound organelles are found in the prokaryotes. While on the other hand, one of the characteristic features of the eukaryotic cells is the presence of membrane bound organelles. Clear and distinguished nuclear membrane bounds the genetic material inside.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements and choose the correct code.
Assertion (A): Regeneration in animals is one of the strategies to escape predation.
Reason (R): These strategies include the rearrangement of pre-existing tissue.

Solution:

Both assertion and reason are false. Regeneration is not itself a strategy but rather the shedding off of any organ is a strategy to avoid predation. The strategy to regenerate the body parts from the preexisting tissue or adult stem cells. This actually involves the de-differentiation of the mature cells to make them a sort of stem cells again which can then differentiate to make the lost part. The later strategy is different than the strategy involved in escaping predation.

QUESTION: 14

Which one of the following animals is correctly matched with its one characteristic and taxon?

Solution:

Duckbilled platypus is that rare mammal which is oviparous. Oviparous animals are those that lie eggs, inside which the young ones develop before hatching

QUESTION: 15

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

    
 

Solution:

Progesterone is released from the female gonads. It has roles in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy and embryogenesis. Growth hormone or somatropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals, the pituitary gland secretes this hormone. The pancreas secretes insulin that regulates the sugar metabolism in the body. Cortisol is released from the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in response to stress.

QUESTION: 16

Match the List-I and LIst-II:

Solution:
QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements and choose the correct code.
Assertion (A): Osteoporosis is a reduction in bone mass causing weakness of skeletal bones.
Reason (R): It is caused by excessive resorption of calcium and phosphorus from the bone.

Solution:

Osteoporosis is a disease of bones and cartilage in which there is a reduction in bone tissue mass causing weakness of skeletal bones and fragility. It is caused by excessive resorption of calcium and phosphorous from the bones.

QUESTION: 18

A cell membrane is ___________ ?

Solution:

Cell membranes are semipermeable, which means molecules can move through them. This is pretty important for cells to survive. Osmosis is where solvent molecules (usually water) move from one side of a cell membrane to the other. This happens because the concentration of a solute is higher on one side.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements and the correct ones.
(1) Fish that eradicates the mosquito larva is Gambusia.
(2) The instrument used to measure blood pressure is Autoanalyser.
(3) CT scanning was developed by Godfrey Hounsfield.

Solution:

The instrument used for measuring blood pressure is known as Sphygmomanometer or BP apparatus. Blood pressure is usually measured from left brachial artery. Autoanalyser is a computer controlled instrument for various biochemical tests on sample of blood, urine or other body fluids. CT scanning, developed by Godfrey Hounsfield in 1968, (Nobel Prize in 1979). Gambusia is a larvivorous fish, used as a biocontrol agent for mosquitoes.

QUESTION: 20

Match the List-I with List-II

Solution:

Phobia is a kind of intense fear from something. e.g., hydrophobia, ailurophobia is fear of cats, astraphobia is fear of thunder and lightning, achluophobia is fear of darkness. Neurosis is less severe than mental illness and is normal to overcome worry, fear, anxiety and feeling of insecurity. This can also develop due to maladaptive habits. Hypochondria is a condition in which there is undue concern about health by a person about himself. Insomnia is lack of sleep over many nights.

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