Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4


30 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4


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This mock test of Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4 for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 30 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Class 10 General Science NCERT Based - 4 extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Different sources are used in India to meet the energy requirement. Depending on the consumption of energy from different sources, select the correct answer from the code given below in descending order:

Solution: The following sources of energy are used to meet the energy requirements in India, in descending order: Coal > Water > Petroleum and Natural Gas > Nuclear energy.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements:

1. Hydro power plants convert the potential energy of falling water into electricity.

2. Construction of big dams generates greenhouse gas.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Hydro power plants convert the potential energy of falling water into electricity. In order to produce hydroelectricity, high-rise dams are constructed on the river to obstruct the flow of water and thereby collect water in larger reservoirs.

  • The water level rises and in this process the kinetic energy of flowing water gets transformed into potential energy. But, constructions of big dams have certain problems associated with it.

  • Large ecosystems get destroyed when submerged under the water in dams. The vegetation which is submerged, rots under anaerobic conditions and gives rise to large amounts of methane which is a greenhouse gas.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements:

1. The fuels which are produced by plants and animals are called biomass.

2. The main Constituent of Biogas is Methane.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Cow dung cakes serve as a steady source of fuel. Since, these fuels are derived from plants and animals hence they constitute – Biomass.

  • These fuels, however, do not produce much heat on burning but a lot of smoke is given out when they are burnt. Cow-dung, various plant materials like crops residue, vegetable waste and sewage are decomposed in the absence of oxygen to give Biogas. Since the starting material is mainly cow-dung, it is popularly known as ‘gobar-gas’.

  • Bio-gas is produced in a dome-shaped plant. Bio-gas is an excellent fuel as it contains up to 75% methane. It burns without smoke, leaves no residue like ash in wood, charcoal and coal burning. Its heating capacity is high.

QUESTION: 4

The slurry left behind in a biogas plant, contains which of the following elements?

Solution: The slurry left behind in a bio-gas plant is removed periodically and used as excellent manure, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus.

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following countries is called the country of 'winds'?

Solution: Denmark is called the country of ‘winds’. More than 25% of their electricity needs are generated through a vast network of windmills. In terms of total output, Germany is the leader, while India is ranked fifth in harnessing wind energy for the production of electricity.

QUESTION: 6

Which of the following elements is/are used in making solar cells?

1. Silicon

2. Astatine

3. Sirium

4. Vanadium

Solution:
  • Solar cells convert solar energy into electricity. Silicon is used for making solar cells, which is abundant in nature, but availability of the special grade silicon for making solar cells is limited.

  • The entire process of manufacture is still very expensive, silver used for interconnection of the cells in the panel further adds to the cost. The principal advantages associated with solar cells are that they have no moving parts, require little maintenance and work quite satisfactorily without the use of any focusing device.

  • Another advantage is that they can be set up in remote and inaccessible hamlets or very sparsely inhabited areas in which laying of a power transmission line may be expensive and not commercially viable.

QUESTION: 7

Sea energy can be converted into electricity in ocean-thermal-energy-conversion plants when–

Solution:
  • The water at the surface of the sea or ocean is heated by the Sun while the water in deeper sections is relatively cold. This difference in temperature is exploited to obtain energy in ocean-thermal energy conversion plants.

  • These plants can operate if the temperature difference between the water at the surface and water at depths up to 2 km is 293 K (20°C) or more. The warm surface-water is used to boil a volatile liquid like ammonia.

  • The vapours of the liquid are then used to run the turbine of the generator. The cold water from the depth of the ocean is pumped up and condenses vapour again to liquid.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements:

1. In the nuclear fission, the nucleus of a heavy atom can be split apart into lighter nuclei.

2. In a nuclear reactor designed for electric power generation, nuclear ‘fuel’ releases energy at a controlled rate.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • In Nuclear fission, the nucleus of a heavy atom (such as uranium, plutonium or thorium), when bombarded with low-energy neutrons, can be split apart into lighter nuclei. When this is done, a tremendous amount of energy is released if the mass of the original nucleus is just a little more than the sum of the masses of the individual products.

  • The fission of an atom of uranium, for example, produces 10 million times the energy produced by the combustion of an atom of carbon from coal. In a nuclear reactor designed for electric power generation, such nuclear 'fuel' can be part of a self-sustaining fission chain reaction that releases energy at a controlled rate.

  • The released energy can be used to produce steam and further generate electricity.

QUESTION: 9

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below:

List-I (Nuclear power reactors)

A. Kalpakkam

B. Narora

C. Kakrapar

D. Tarapur

List-II (States)

1. Uttar Pradesh

2. Gujarat

3. Tamil Nadu

4. Maharashtra

Solution:

Nuclear power reactors located at Tarapur (Maharashtra), Rana Pratap Sagar (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (UP), Kakrapar (Gujarat) and Kaiga (Karnataka) have the installed capacity of less than 3% of the total electricity generation capacity of our country.

QUESTION: 10

With reference to nuclear fusion, consider the following statements:

1. During the nuclear fusion reaction two lighter nuclei are joined to make a heavier nucleus.

2. Nuclear fusion reactions take place in the Sun and Star. It takes considerable energy to force the nuclei to fuse.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Fusion means joining lighter nuclei to make a heavier nucleus, most commonly hydrogen isotopes are added together to create Helium. It releases a tremendous amount of energy, according to the Einstein equation, as the mass of the product is little less than the sum of the masses of the original individual nuclei.

  • Such nuclear fusion reactions are the source of energy in the Sun and other stars. It takes considerable energy to force the nuclei to fuse. The conditions needed for this process are extreme – millions of degrees of temperature and millions of pascals of pressure.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following statements best describes the term ecosystem?

Solution: All the Biotic Components in an area together with the abiotic constituents of the environment form an ecosystem. Biotic components comprising living organisms and abiotic components comprising physical factors like temperature, rainfall, wind, soil and minerals

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following ecosystems is/are examples of natural ecosystems?

1. Ponds

2. Lakes

3. Crop-fields

4. Gardens

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Forests, ponds and lakes are natural ecosystems while gardens and crop-fields are human made (artificial) ecosystems.

QUESTION: 13

Regarding the producers, consider the following statements:

1. They make organic compounds from inorganic substances in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

2. Fungi are Heterotrophs.

Which of the statements given below is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Organisms which can make organic compounds like sugar and starch from inorganic substances using the radiant energy of the Sun in the presence of chlorophyll are called the producers or autotrophs.

  • All green plants and certain blue green algae which can produce food by photosynthesis come under this category. All fungi are heterotrophs, they use enzymes to break down the materials on which they are growing, fungi are largely responsible for organic decomposition, they are also capable of fermentation.

QUESTION: 14

Regarding the categories of consumers in the ecosystem, which of the following types of organisms are called decomposers?

1. Virus

2. Bacteria

3. Fungus

Solution:
  • The microorganisms, comprising Bacteria and Fungi, break-down the dead remains and waste products of organisms. These microorganisms are the decomposers as they break-down the complex organic substances into simple inorganic substances that go into the soil and are used up once more by the plants.

QUESTION: 15

Regarding a food chain in an ecosystem, consider the following statements:

1. Food chain involves flow of energy from one component of the system to another.

2. The Food chain demonstrates the numbers of every organism that are eaten by others in line.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Food chain is the series of organisms feeding on one another. The food we eat acts as a fuel to provide us energy to do work.

  • Thus the interactions among various components of the environment involves flow of energy from one component of the system to another. The length and complexity of food chains vary greatly.

  • Each organism is generally eaten by two or more other kinds of organisms which in turn are eaten by several other organisms. So instead of a straight line food chain, the relationship can be shown as a series of branching lines called a food web.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements:

1. Producers convert solar energy into chemical energy.

2. The flow of energy is unidirectional in the food chain.

3. The green plants in a terrestrial ecosystem capture about 100% of the energy of sunlight that falls on their leaves and convert it into food energy.

Which of the statements given below is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The autotrophs capture the energy present in sunlight and convert it into chemical energy which remains stored in the form of Carbohydrates.

  • The flow of energy is unidirectional. The energy that is captured by the autotrophs does not revert back to the solar input and the energy which passes to the herbivores does not come back to autotrophs.

  • As it moves progressively through the various trophic levels it is no longer available to the previous level. The green plants in a terrestrial ecosystem capture about 1% of the energy of sunlight that falls on their leaves, rest gets dissipated.

QUESTION: 17

What is the average value for the amount of organic matter that is present at each step and reaches the next level of consumers?

Solution:
  • When green plants are eaten by primary consumers, a great deal of energy is lost as heat to the environment, some amount goes into digestion and in doing work and the rest goes towards growth and reproduction.

  • An average of 10% of the food eaten is turned into its own body and made available for the next level of consumers.Therefore, 10% can be taken as the average value for the amount of organic matter that is present at each step and reaches the next level of consumers.

QUESTION: 18

Which of the following statements defines Biological Magnification?

Solution:
  • The chemicals which are used to protect the crops from pests are either washed down into the soil or into the water bodies. From the soil, these are absorbed by the plants along with water and minerals, and from the water bodies these are taken up by aquatic plants and animals. Thus they enter the food chain. As these chemicals are not degradable, these get accumulated progressively at each trophic level.

  • As Human beings occupy the top level in any food chain, the maximum concentration of these chemicals get accumulated in our bodies. This phenomenon is known as Biological Magnification.

QUESTION: 19

Regarding the ozone layer, consider the following statements:

1. Ozone (O3) is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen.

2. Ozone shields the surface of the earth from ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.

3. Human synthesized chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have started declining the amount of ozone.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Ozone (O3) is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen. Ozone is a deadly poison.

  • However, at the higher levels of the atmosphere, ozone performs an essential function. It shields the surface of the earth from ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. This radiation is highly damaging to organisms, for example, it is known to cause skin cancer in human beings.

  • The amount of ozone in the atmosphere began to drop sharply in the 1980s. This decrease has been linked to synthetic chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are used as refrigerants and in fire extinguishers. In 1987, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) succeeded in forging an agreement to freeze CFC production at 1986 levels.

QUESTION: 20

Hydrogen bomb is based on which of the following reactions?

Solution:
  • Hydrogen bomb is based on the 'nuclear fusion' technology. In order to release more energy, atoms have been fused together in the making of H-Bomb.Hydrogen Bombs use fusion, the same way that powers the Sun or any other star.

  • Isotopes of hydrogen are forced together to release a much bigger blast — hundred times powerful than the nuclear weapon that has been used in warfare.

QUESTION: 21

The Ganga Action Plan was first introduced in which of the following years?

Solution:
  • The Ganga Action Plan was a multi-crore project which came about in 1985 because the quality of the water in the Ganga was very poor. The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal.

  • It is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal that pour their garbage and excreta into it. Largely untreated sewage is dumped into the Ganges every day.

  • In addition, pollution is caused by other human activities like bathing, washing of clothes and immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses. And then, industries contribute chemical effluents to the Ganga pollution load and the toxicity kills fish in large sections of the river.

QUESTION: 22

Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award is given in which of the following fields?

Solution: The Government of India instituted an ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for Wildlife Conservation’ in the memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi, who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of ‘khejri’ trees in Khejarli village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.

QUESTION: 23

Consider the following statements:

1. The Chipko movement is associated with forest conservation.

2. The Chipko movement originated from Himachal Pradesh.

3. The Chipko movement began during the early 1970s.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Sunderlal Bahuguna, a noted environmentalist initiated – The Chipko Andolan (Hug the Trees Movement). It was the result of a grassroot level effort to end the alienation of people from their forests. The movement originated from an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal, Uttarakhand. The movement began high-up in the Himalayas during the early 1970s.

QUESTION: 24

Match List-I with List-II:

Solution: Water harvesting is an age-old concept in India. Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan, Bandharas and Tals in Maharashtra, Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, Ahars and Pynes in Bihar, Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, Ponds in the Kandi Belt of Jammu region, Eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu, Surangams in Kerala, Kattas in Karnataka are some of the ancient water harvesting, including water conveyance, structures still in use today.

QUESTION: 25

Consider the following statements:

1. Coal and Petroleum have been derived from inorganic sources.

2. Carbon monoxide is the byproduct of limited supply of oxygen during combustion.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Coal and Petroleum have been formed from biomass, in addition to carbon, these contain hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. When these are burnt, the products are carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur.When combustion takes place in insufficient air (oxygen), carbon monoxide is formed instead of carbon dioxide.

QUESTION: 26

Which of the following does not lead to the depletion of groundwater?

Solution: Process of afforestation does not lead to the depletion of groundwater.

QUESTION: 27

Among the following choose the correct option which includes acts related to the three R's strategy which can be useful for conserving our natural resources?

Solution:
QUESTION: 28

In our country, there are attempts to increase the height of several existing dams like Tehri and Almatti dams across the Narmada. Choose the correct statements among the following that are a consequence of raising the height of dams

1. Terrestrial flora and fauna of the area is destroyed completely

2. Dislocation of people and domestic animals living in the area

3. Valuable agricultural land may be permanently lost

4. It will generate permanent employment for people

Choose the correct option from the following:

Solution: A large area of land is covered in building the dams which causes the devastation of the terrestrial flora and fauna. Masses of people have to be displaced to other locations and also there is a loss of a large part of the valuable agricultural land.

QUESTION: 29

Given below are a few statements related to biodiversity. Pick those that correctly describe the concept of biodiversity

1. Biodiversity refers to the different species of flora and fauna present in an area

2. Biodiversity refers to only the flora of a given area

3. Biodiversity is greater in a forest

4. Biodiversity refers to the total number of individuals of a particular species living in an area

Choose the correct option from the following:

Solution: The term biodiversity refers to the variety of life forms on Earth. Forests are rich in biodiversity as a number of forms of life are found in forests, including trees, plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms, and their roles in nature.

QUESTION: 30

Which among the statements given below is incorrect?

Solution:
  • The Sustainable Development Goals agenda was accepted by all members of the United Nations in 2012 at the Rio De Janeiro Council Meet with an aim to promote a healthy and developed future of the planet and its people.

  • It was in 2015 when the Sustainable Development Goals were implemented after a successful fifteen-year plan of development called the Millennium Development Goals. It is a group of 17 goals with 169 targets and 304 indicators, as proposed by the United Nation General Assembly’s Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030.

  • Post negotiations, an agenda titled “Transforming Our World: the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development” was adopted at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. SDGs is the outcome of the Rio+20 conference (2012) held in Rio De Janeiro and is a non-binding document.