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Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Class 5 MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test Science Class 5 - Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2

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Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 1

Bio-magnification is the process, in which

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 1
Bio-magnification:
Bio-magnification is a process that occurs in ecosystems where certain harmful and toxic chemicals accumulate and increase in concentration as they move up the food chain. This phenomenon can have detrimental effects on both the environment and organisms within the ecosystem.
Accumulation of harmful and toxic chemicals at each trophic level:
- Harmful and toxic chemicals, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and certain persistent organic pollutants, are introduced into the environment through various human activities.
- These chemicals can enter the food chain through sources like contaminated water, air, and soil.
- At the lower trophic levels, such as primary producers (plants), the concentration of these chemicals may be relatively low.
- However, as these chemicals are consumed by organisms at higher trophic levels, they become concentrated and accumulate in their tissues.
- This process continues as the organisms at each trophic level consume organisms from the lower trophic levels, resulting in a further increase in the concentration of these chemicals.
Consequences of bio-magnification:
- The accumulation of harmful chemicals can have adverse effects on organisms at higher trophic levels, including predators and humans.
- These chemicals can cause various health problems, including reproductive issues, developmental abnormalities, and increased susceptibility to diseases.
- Bio-magnification can disrupt the balance of ecosystems by causing population declines or even local extinctions of certain species.
- It can also lead to the bioaccumulation of chemicals in commercially important species, such as fish, posing risks to human health when consumed.
Conclusion:
Bio-magnification is a concerning process that leads to the accumulation of harmful and toxic chemicals at each trophic level in ecosystems. Understanding and addressing this phenomenon is crucial for the conservation of biodiversity and the protection of human health.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 2

The reading on Richter scale above which mark can severe damage

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 2
The reading on Richter scale above which mark can cause severe damage is 5.
Explanation:

  • The Richter scale is used to measure the magnitude or energy released by an earthquake.

  • It is a logarithmic scale, meaning that each whole number increase on the scale represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves.

  • Seismic waves are the vibrations that travel through the Earth's crust during an earthquake.

  • Severe damage is typically caused by earthquakes with a high magnitude, which produce strong and destructive seismic waves.

  • A reading of 5 on the Richter scale indicates a moderate earthquake, which can cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure.

  • At this level, walls can crack, chimneys may collapse, and weak buildings can suffer significant damage.

  • Earthquakes with a magnitude above 5 can cause even more severe damage, depending on factors such as the depth of the earthquake, proximity to populated areas, and the type of soil and building construction in the affected region.

  • It is important to note that the effects of an earthquake can vary depending on various factors, and it is crucial to be prepared and follow safety guidelines in earthquake-prone areas.


Therefore, the correct answer is B: 5.
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Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 3

Which of the following action is environment friendly to reduce pollution            

(i) Use of unleaded petrol in vehicles
(ii) Use of pesticides and insecticides in plants
(iii) Using sewer treatment plant
(iv) Restricting smoking in public to designated space

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 3

To reduce pollution and promote environmental friendliness, the following actions can be taken:
Use of unleaded petrol in vehicles:
- Unleaded petrol does not contain harmful substances like lead, which can contribute to air pollution.
- The use of unleaded petrol reduces the emission of harmful pollutants such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
Using sewer treatment plant:
- Sewer treatment plants help in treating and purifying wastewater before it is discharged into rivers or oceans.
- This reduces the pollution of water bodies and helps in maintaining the ecological balance of aquatic ecosystems.
Restricting smoking in public to designated spaces:
- This action helps in reducing the exposure of non-smokers to second-hand smoke, which can be harmful to their health.
- It also prevents the release of harmful chemicals into the air, thereby reducing air pollution.
Therefore, the correct answer is (i) (iii) and (iv) as these actions are effective in reducing pollution and promoting environmental sustainability.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 4

Which of the following is not a pollutant?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 4
Explanation:
Water vapour is not considered a pollutant because it is a natural component of the Earth's atmosphere and is essential for various ecological processes. Here is a detailed explanation:
- Lead oxide: Lead oxide is a pollutant that is released into the environment through human activities such as industrial processes and the burning of fossil fuels. It is harmful to human health and can cause various health issues, including damage to the nervous system, kidney damage, and developmental issues in children.
- Sulphur dioxide: Sulphur dioxide is a pollutant that is mainly emitted from burning fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil. It contributes to the formation of acid rain, which can damage ecosystems, harm vegetation, and corrode buildings and infrastructure. Inhaling sulphur dioxide can also cause respiratory problems and worsen existing respiratory conditions.
- Water vapour: Water vapour is the gaseous form of water and is a natural component of the Earth's atmosphere. It is created through the evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water. While excessive levels of humidity can have negative effects on human comfort and certain materials, water vapour itself is not considered a pollutant.
- Nitrogen oxide: Nitrogen oxide is a group of highly reactive gases that are produced by the burning of fossil fuels, as well as by certain biological and natural processes. Nitrogen oxide is a major contributor to air pollution, and it can react with other compounds in the atmosphere to form smog and contribute to the formation of acid rain. In high concentrations, it can also have harmful effects on human health, particularly respiratory issues.
In summary, among the given options, water vapour is not considered a pollutant.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 5

The liquid which comes out of an active volcano is called

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 5
Answer:
The liquid which comes out of an active volcano is called lava. Lava is molten rock that is expelled during a volcanic eruption. Here is a detailed explanation:
Lava:
- Lava is a liquid form of magma that erupts from a volcano during an eruption.
- It is composed of molten rock, minerals, gases, and other materials.
- Lava is extremely hot, with temperatures ranging from 700 to 1,200 degrees Celsius.
- It can flow down the sides of a volcano and spread across the surrounding area, causing destruction to anything in its path.
- As lava cools and solidifies, it forms igneous rocks.
Water Vapor:
- Water vapor is not the liquid that comes out of an active volcano.
- Water vapor is the gas phase of water and is released as steam during volcanic eruptions.
- It is formed when water is heated and evaporates into the air.
Magma:
- Magma is molten rock located beneath the Earth's surface.
- It is the source of lava during volcanic eruptions.
- Magma is composed of a mixture of molten rock, gases, and minerals.
- When a volcano erupts, magma rises to the surface and becomes lava.
Petroleum:
- Petroleum is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.
- It is not associated with volcanic activity and does not come out of an active volcano.
In conclusion, the correct answer is B: Lava. Lava is the liquid that comes out of an active volcano during an eruption.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 6

Two table of biodegradable and non-biodegradable are listed below. After reading the table, Ramesh has made some references. Which of them is correct?

Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 7

There many natural process which brings changes on surface of the earth. Which of the following process would bring the slowest change on earth surface?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 7
Which process would bring the slowest change on Earth's surface?
Answer: B - Wind
Explanation:
Wind is the process that would bring the slowest change on Earth's surface compared to the other options listed. Here's why:
1. Landslides: Landslides are rapid mass movements of rock, soil, or debris down a slope. They can cause significant changes to the Earth's surface in a short period of time.
2. Earthquake: Earthquakes are sudden shaking of the ground caused by the movement of tectonic plates. They can result in the formation of new landforms or the destruction of existing ones, causing relatively quick changes on the Earth's surface.
3. Volcano: Volcanoes are openings in the Earth's crust that allow molten rock, ash, and gases to escape. Volcanic eruptions can lead to the formation of new landforms such as mountains or islands, or the alteration of existing ones.
4. Wind: While wind erosion and deposition can shape the Earth's surface over time, the process is generally slow and gradual. The wind carries small particles such as sand, silt, and dust, which can cause erosion and deposition over long periods. However, the changes brought about by wind are usually less significant compared to landslides, earthquakes, or volcanic activities.
In conclusion, wind is the process that would bring the slowest change on Earth's surface, as its effects are typically less dramatic and occur over longer periods of time.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 8

Presence of undesirable substances in water is called

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 8
Water Pollution
Water pollution refers to the presence of undesirable substances in water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. These substances can have harmful effects on the environment, aquatic life, and human health. Here is a detailed explanation of water pollution:
Causes of Water Pollution:
- Industrial Discharges: Waste products from industries, such as chemicals, heavy metals, and toxins, can contaminate water sources.
- Domestic Sewage: Improperly treated sewage from households can introduce harmful bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens into water bodies.
- Agricultural Runoff: Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides in agriculture can wash off into rivers and lakes, leading to water pollution.
- Oil Spills: Accidental or deliberate release of oil into water bodies can have severe ecological consequences.
- Mining Activities: Mining operations can release toxic substances, such as heavy metals and acids, into nearby water sources.
- Landfill Leachate: Leachate from landfills can seep into groundwater, contaminating it with various pollutants.
Effects of Water Pollution:
- Environmental Impact: Water pollution can harm aquatic ecosystems, leading to the death of fish, plants, and other organisms. It can disrupt the balance of the ecosystem and reduce biodiversity.
- Human Health Concerns: Consuming contaminated water can lead to various waterborne diseases, such as cholera, typhoid, and dysentery. It can also affect the quality of drinking water.
- Economic Consequences: Water pollution can negatively impact industries that rely on clean water for their operations, such as fishing, tourism, and agriculture.
- Water Scarcity: Pollution can render water unfit for use, leading to water scarcity in affected areas.
Prevention and Control Measures:
- Proper Waste Management: Implementing effective waste management practices can reduce the amount of pollutants entering water bodies.
- Wastewater Treatment: Treating sewage and industrial wastewater before releasing it into water sources can significantly reduce water pollution.
- Sustainable Agriculture: Promoting organic farming practices and reducing the use of harmful chemicals can minimize agricultural runoff.
- Pollution Monitoring: Regular monitoring of water quality helps identify pollution sources and take appropriate actions.
- Public Awareness and Education: Spreading awareness about the importance of clean water and the consequences of pollution encourages individuals to take responsible actions.
In summary, water pollution refers to the presence of undesirable substances in water bodies, which can have detrimental effects on the environment and human health. It is crucial to implement preventive measures and promote responsible practices to protect and preserve our water resources.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 9

Toxic chemicals in soil can harm by

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 9
Toxic chemicals in soil can harm by:
- Changing weather: Toxic chemicals in the soil can contribute to changes in weather patterns. For example, certain chemicals can affect the ozone layer, leading to increased UV radiation and potential climate change impacts.
- More air pollution: Toxic chemicals in the soil can volatilize and become airborne, leading to increased air pollution. These chemicals can be released through processes such as evaporation, combustion, or wind erosion.
- Disturbing ground water: Toxic chemicals in the soil can contaminate groundwater sources. When these chemicals leach into the soil, they can seep into the underground water table, polluting drinking water sources and affecting ecosystems that rely on this water.
- Being absorbed in the food chain: Toxic chemicals in the soil can be taken up by plants and subsequently transferred to animals and humans through the food chain. This can lead to bioaccumulation and biomagnification, where the concentration of toxic chemicals increases as they move up the food chain, posing a risk to human health.
Overall, toxic chemicals in the soil have the potential to cause various harmful effects, including changes in weather patterns, increased air pollution, groundwater contamination, and risks to human health through the food chain. It is important to implement proper soil management practices and remediation techniques to minimize these risks and protect the environment and human well-being.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 10

Which of the following statement is correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 10

The correct statement among the given options is:
Volcano can be active, dormant, or extinct.
Explanation:
- Crust of the earth is made up of volcano: This statement is incorrect. The crust of the earth is not made up of volcanoes. The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth, consisting of solid rocks.
- Magnitude of tsunami is measured in Richter scale: This statement is incorrect. The magnitude of an earthquake is measured using the Richter scale, not the magnitude of a tsunami. Tsunamis are measured using other scales, such as the moment magnitude scale or the tsunami intensity scale.
- Volcano can be active, dormant, or extinct: This statement is correct. Volcanoes can be classified into three categories based on their activity levels:
- Active volcanoes: These volcanoes are currently erupting or have erupted within the last few decades.
- Dormant volcanoes: These volcanoes are not currently erupting but have the potential to erupt again in the future.
- Extinct volcanoes: These volcanoes are considered to be unlikely to erupt again in the future.
- The liquid that comes out of a volcano is magma: This statement is incorrect. The liquid rock that is found beneath the Earth's surface is called magma. When magma erupts from a volcano, it is then referred to as lava.
In conclusion, option C is the correct statement.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 11

Breathing problems are very common in metropolitan cities like Delhi. Doctors advise go to the rural area because           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 11
Reasons for doctors advising to go to rural areas to avoid breathing problems in metropolitan cities like Delhi:

  1. Pollution: Metropolitan cities like Delhi are highly polluted, which significantly contributes to breathing problems. The air quality in these cities is often poor due to high levels of vehicular emissions, industrial pollution, and dust particles.

  2. Population Density: Metropolitan cities are densely populated, which leads to overcrowding and increased exposure to respiratory infections. The close proximity of individuals makes it easier for respiratory diseases to spread, especially during peak pollution seasons.

  3. Availability of Clean and Green Areas: Rural areas generally have cleaner and greener surroundings compared to metropolitan cities. The abundance of trees, open spaces, and less pollution in rural areas can provide relief for people suffering from breathing problems.

  4. Unavailability of Good Hospitals: In metropolitan cities, due to the large population and high demand for healthcare services, there might be a shortage of good hospitals and medical facilities. In rural areas, where the population is comparatively lower, access to healthcare facilities may be easier.

  5. Reduced Risk of Natural Disasters: Some metropolitan cities, including Delhi, are prone to natural disasters like earthquakes. Living in rural areas can reduce the risk of being affected by such disasters, which can further worsen breathing problems.


By considering these factors, doctors may suggest moving to rural areas as a potential solution to alleviate breathing problems caused by pollution and other factors in metropolitan cities.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 12

Which of the followings substances can be recycled from the given substance plastic Bucket, aluminum container, newspaper, carton box

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 12
Recyclable Substances:
- Plastic bucket
- Aluminum container
- Newspaper
- Carton box

All of the given substances can be recycled. Here's why:
1. Plastic bucket:
- Plastic buckets are usually made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) plastics.
- These plastics are recyclable and can be melted down to create new plastic products.
- The plastic buckets can be sorted and processed at recycling facilities.
2. Aluminum container:
- Aluminum is highly recyclable and can be infinitely recycled without losing its quality.
- Aluminum containers, such as cans or foil, can be collected and melted down to produce new aluminum products.
- Recycling aluminum saves energy and reduces the need for mining and extraction of raw materials.
3. Newspaper:
- Newspapers are made from paper, which is a recyclable material.
- Recycling newspapers involves breaking them down into pulp and removing ink and contaminants.
- The pulp can then be used to produce new paper products.
4. Carton box:
- Carton boxes, such as those used for packaging food and beverages, are made from paperboard.
- Paperboard is also recyclable, and the recycling process is similar to recycling newspaper.
- The boxes are broken down into pulp, cleaned, and turned into new paperboard products.
Conclusion:
All of the given substances - plastic bucket, aluminum container, newspaper, and carton box - can be recycled. Recycling these materials helps conserve resources, reduce waste, and minimize environmental impact.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 13

Water can be reused with which of the following methods

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 13

To reuse water, we can follow various methods. Among the given options, the method C: "Washing machine drain water to clean the toilet" is the most suitable method to reuse water. Here is a detailed explanation:
Method C: Washing machine drain water to clean the toilet
- When the washing machine drains water after completing a cycle, the water can be collected and reused for other purposes.
- One such purpose is to use this water for cleaning the toilet. The water from the washing machine is usually clean and can be used for non-potable purposes like toilet flushing.
- Reusing washing machine water to clean the toilet helps to conserve water and reduce water wastage.
Other options:
Although the other options mentioned (A, B, and D) involve collecting and reusing water, they may not be as practical or effective as option C. Here is a brief explanation for each option:
- Option A: Collecting rainwater to clean vegetables
- While collecting rainwater is an eco-friendly practice, using it specifically for cleaning vegetables may not be necessary.
- It is generally recommended to wash vegetables with clean, potable water to ensure food safety.
- Option B: Collecting water from a leaking tap to cook
- Collecting water from a leaking tap is a temporary solution to prevent water wastage, but it may not be suitable for cooking purposes.
- The quality of water from a leaking tap may be compromised, and using it for cooking may affect the taste and safety of the food.
- Option D: Using washing machine water to water plants
- Reusing washing machine water to water plants is another eco-friendly practice, but it may not be suitable for all types of plants.
- The detergent and chemicals present in the washing machine water can potentially harm certain plants and affect their growth.
Conclusion:
Among the given options, reusing washing machine drain water to clean the toilet is the most practical and effective method to reuse water. It helps in conserving water and minimizing water wastage.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 14

Which of the following is directly and indirectly related to air pollution?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 14
Direct and Indirect Factors Related to Air Pollution:
A: Ecological Imbalance:
- Ecological imbalance refers to the disruption of natural ecosystems and the loss of biodiversity.
- Deforestation, habitat destruction, and the introduction of invasive species can lead to ecological imbalance.
- These activities contribute to air pollution by reducing the number of trees and plants that absorb pollutants and produce oxygen.
B: Greenhouse Effect:
- The greenhouse effect is the process by which certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere trap heat from the sun and prevent it from escaping back into space.
- Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, contribute to the greenhouse effect.
- Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, release large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, leading to global warming and air pollution.
C: Global Warming:
- Global warming refers to the long-term increase in Earth's average surface temperature due to human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels.
- The release of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, traps heat in the atmosphere and causes the Earth's temperature to rise.
- Global warming can lead to changes in weather patterns, increased frequency of extreme weather events, and the melting of polar ice caps, all of which have indirect effects on air pollution.
D: All of these:
- All of the factors mentioned above (ecological imbalance, greenhouse effect, and global warming) are directly and indirectly related to air pollution.
- Ecological imbalance reduces the natural capacity of ecosystems to filter pollutants from the air.
- The greenhouse effect and global warming contribute to the accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere, leading to air pollution and its negative impacts on human health and the environment.
In conclusion, all of the options A, B, and C are directly and indirectly related to air pollution. The ecological imbalance reduces the natural capacity to filter pollutants, the greenhouse effect contributes to the accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere, and global warming exacerbates the impacts of air pollution.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 15

Global warming is related to which set of gases

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 15
Global warming is related to the following set of gases:
- Methane: Methane is a greenhouse gas that is emitted through natural and human activities. It is produced by the decay of organic waste in landfills, agriculture, and the digestive systems of animals.
- Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide is the most well-known greenhouse gas and is primarily released through the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. It is also emitted through deforestation and other land-use changes.
- Nitrous oxide: Nitrous oxide is a powerful greenhouse gas that is released through agricultural and industrial activities, as well as the burning of fossil fuels and solid waste.
- Water vapor: Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere. While it is not directly emitted by human activities, it is affected by changes in temperature and can amplify the effects of other greenhouse gases.
Other gases that contribute to global warming but are not mentioned in the options:
- Ozone: Ozone is a greenhouse gas that is primarily found in the Earth's stratosphere, where it plays a crucial role in protecting us from harmful ultraviolet radiation. However, at ground level, ozone is a pollutant and a greenhouse gas that is formed through the interaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds.
- Sulphur dioxide: Sulphur dioxide is not a greenhouse gas but rather a pollutant that is primarily emitted through the burning of fossil fuels, particularly in power plants and industrial processes. It contributes to air pollution and acid rain but does not have a significant impact on global warming.
- Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): CFCs are synthetic compounds that were once widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, aerosol propellants, and foam-blowing agents. They have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to their destructive impact on the ozone layer. While CFCs are not greenhouse gases, they are potent contributors to ozone depletion.
In conclusion, the set of gases related to global warming includes methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and water vapor. While other gases such as ozone, sulphur dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbons have environmental impacts, they do not significantly contribute to global warming.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 16

If there is very scarce rain or no rain the crops fail to grow. This condition will lead to

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 16
Explanation:
When there is very scarce rain or no rain, it leads to a lack of water for the crops. As a result, the crops fail to grow and yield their produce. This condition is known as drought.
The consequences of drought include:
- Famine: The failure of crops due to lack of rainfall can result in a scarcity of food. This scarcity can lead to widespread hunger and malnutrition among the population, causing a famine.
- Drought: Drought occurs when there is an extended period of time with little to no rainfall. It can have severe impacts on agriculture, water supply, and ecosystems. Droughts can last for months or even years, causing significant economic and environmental damage.
Therefore, the correct answer is Option D: Both (a) & (b) since the failure of crops due to lack of rainfall can lead to both famine and drought.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 17

If earthquake occurs which of the following is not a safety measure

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 17

When an earthquake occurs, it is important to follow certain safety measures to protect oneself from potential harm. However, one of the options listed is not a safety measure:
A: Stay indoor under a table or desk
- This is a recommended safety measure during an earthquake, as it provides protection from falling objects and helps prevent injuries.
B: Stay outdoor away from the building or tree
- This is also a valid safety measure during an earthquake, as it reduces the risk of being hit by falling debris or collapsing structures.
C: If on a beach, move to sea
- This option is not a safety measure during an earthquake. Moving to the sea during an earthquake can be dangerous due to the risk of tsunamis and strong ocean currents. It is safer to move to higher ground or follow local evacuation plans in coastal areas.
D: All of these
- This option is incorrect since option C is not a safety measure. Therefore, the correct answer is C: If on a beach, move to sea.
In conclusion, during an earthquake, it is important to stay indoors under a table or desk or stay outdoors away from buildings and trees. However, moving to the sea if on a beach is not a safety measure and should be avoided due to the potential risks associated with tsunamis and strong ocean currents.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 18

In a pesticide contaminated ponds food chain, which contains the maximum amount of pesticides Plant → Small fish → Large fish

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 18
Explanation:
In a pesticide contaminated pond food chain, the maximum amount of pesticides will be found in the Large fish. Here's why:
- Pesticides are chemicals used to kill or control pests, and they are often introduced into the environment through agricultural practices.
- Plants are at the bottom of the food chain and are exposed to pesticides through soil and water. They can absorb and accumulate small amounts of pesticides in their tissues.
- Small fish, such as herbivorous or omnivorous species, consume plants as their primary food source. As they eat the pesticide-contaminated plants, they accumulate pesticides in their bodies.
- Large fish, such as predatory species, consume smaller fish as their primary food source. Since the smaller fish have already accumulated pesticides from the plants they consumed, the large fish ingest a higher concentration of pesticides.
- As you move up the food chain, the concentration of pesticides tends to increase due to a process called biomagnification. This means that the pesticides become more concentrated as they move from one trophic level to the next.
- Therefore, the large fish at the top of the food chain will contain the maximum amount of pesticides due to the biomagnification process.
Summary:
In a pesticide contaminated pond food chain, the large fish will contain the maximum amount of pesticides due to biomagnification.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 19

Terrace farming helps in

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 19
Terrace farming helps in reducing soil erosion by water.
Terrace farming is an agricultural practice that involves cutting steps into the side of a hill or mountain to create flat areas for cultivation. This method is particularly effective in controlling soil erosion caused by water runoff. Here's how terrace farming helps in reducing soil erosion by water:
1. Preventing water runoff: By creating terraces, the steep slopes are converted into a series of flat steps. These steps slow down the flow of water, preventing it from rushing down the slope and causing erosion.
2. Increasing water infiltration: The flat surfaces of the terraces allow water to infiltrate into the soil instead of running off. This helps in retaining moisture and reducing the force of water runoff, thereby minimizing erosion.
3. Conserving topsoil: Terrace farming helps to prevent the loss of valuable topsoil. As water is slowed down and given time to infiltrate, it carries less soil particles with it, reducing erosion and preserving the nutrient-rich top layer of soil.
4. Controlling sedimentation: Terraces act as barriers, trapping sediment carried by runoff water. This helps in preventing sediments from being deposited in lower-lying areas such as rivers or streams, which can have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems.
5. Stabilizing slopes: The construction of terraces involves building retaining walls or embankments, which provide stability to the slopes. This helps in preventing landslides and further erosion of the hillside.
In conclusion, terrace farming is an effective method for reducing soil erosion by water. By creating flat steps on slopes, it controls water runoff, increases water infiltration, conserves topsoil, controls sedimentation, and stabilizes slopes, all of which contribute to the prevention of soil erosion.
Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 20

Tsunami is

Detailed Solution for Test: Pollution And Calamities - 2 - Question 20
Tsunami is:

  • A:

    Flood of plane


  • B:

    High tidal waves in sea beaches and nearby areas


  • C:

    Earthquake


  • D:

    Volcano



Answer: B.
Detailed
Tsunami:
A tsunami is a series of large ocean waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, typically resulting from an underwater earthquake or a volcanic eruption. It can also be caused by the impact of a large meteorite or asteroid on the ocean's surface. Here is a detailed explanation of each option and why option B is the correct answer:

  • A: Flood of plane: This option is incorrect. Tsunamis are not floods of planes or flat areas. They are specifically related to oceanic environments.

  • B: High tidal waves in sea beaches and nearby areas: This option is the correct answer. Tsunamis are characterized by high tidal waves that can reach great heights and cause significant damage to coastal areas.

  • C: Earthquake: This option is partially correct. Tsunamis are often triggered by underwater earthquakes, but the term "earthquake" alone does not fully describe a tsunami.

  • D: Volcano: This option is partially correct. Tsunamis can also be triggered by volcanic eruptions, but the term "volcano" alone does not fully describe a tsunami.


In conclusion, the correct answer to the question "What is a tsunami?" is option B: High tidal waves in sea beaches and nearby areas. Tsunamis are a natural disaster that can cause widespread destruction and loss of life when they reach coastal regions.
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