Test: Reading Comprehension- 2


15 Questions MCQ Test Section-wise Tests for GRE | Test: Reading Comprehension- 2


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QUESTION: 1

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Q. The primary purpose of the passage is to 

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Q. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 3

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Q. According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have 

Solution:
QUESTION: 4

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Q. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts results quickly in order might cause it to 

Solution:
QUESTION: 5

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
Q. The authors implied that the minority owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should 

Solution:
QUESTION: 6

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by “some federal and local agencies” are 

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
Q. Which of the following if true, would most weaken the author’s assertion that, in 1970’s, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial?

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
 

Q. The passage most likely appeared in 

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  

Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
Q. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

PASSAGE:In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing g, defining, and defending an adequate breeding are.  When  population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area.  The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs, Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds.  These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency.  Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the birds makes, the n umber of figures is very limited.  Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on the geographic basis .  In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do.  Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear signing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the volition of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.  When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo bunting did not respond;  Even when a dummy of male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder.  Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguished songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the songs figures in interspecies recognition was then examined.  We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.  Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figures shapes can evoke positive responses.  It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for interspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must confirm to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evident that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.  This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate’s song and a male might not be able to distinguished a neighbor from a stranger.  Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation, which leads to individual recognition.

Q. The primary purpose of passage is to 

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

PASSAGE:In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing g, defining, and defending an adequate breeding are.  When  population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area.  The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs, Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds.  These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency.  Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the birds makes, the n umber of figures is very limited.  Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on the geographic basis .  In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do.  Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear signing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the volition of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.  When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo bunting did not respond;  Even when a dummy of male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder.  Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguished songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the songs figures in interspecies recognition was then examined.  We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.  Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figures shapes can evoke positive responses.  It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for interspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must confirm to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evident that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.  This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate’s song and a male might not be able to distinguished a neighbor from a stranger.  Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation, which leads to individual recognition.
Q. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the number and general nature of figures sung by the indigo bunting? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 12

PASSAGE:In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing g, defining, and defending an adequate breeding are.  When  population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area.  The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs, Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds.  These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency.  Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the birds makes, the n umber of figures is very limited.  Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on the geographic basis .  In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do.  Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear signing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the volition of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.  When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo bunting did not respond;  Even when a dummy of male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder.  Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguished songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the songs figures in interspecies recognition was then examined.  We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.  Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figures shapes can evoke positive responses.  It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for interspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must confirm to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evident that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.  This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate’s song and a male might not be able to distinguished a neighbor from a stranger.  Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation, which leads to individual recognition.
Q. It can be inferred that the investigation that determined the similarly among more than 90 percent of all the figures produced by birds living in different regions was undertaken to answer which of the following questions? I.How much variations, if any, is there in the figure types produced by indigo buntings in different locales? II.Do local populations of indigo buntings develop their own dialects of figure types? III.Do figure similarities among indigo buntings decline with increasing geographic separation?

Solution:
QUESTION: 13

PASSAGE:In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing g, defining, and defending an adequate breeding are.  When  population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area.  The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs, Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds.  These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency.  Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the birds makes, the n umber of figures is very limited.  Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on the geographic basis .  In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do.  Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear signing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the volition of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.  When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo bunting did not respond;  Even when a dummy of male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder.  Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguished songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the songs figures in interspecies recognition was then examined.  We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.  Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figures shapes can evoke positive responses.  It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for interspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must confirm to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evident that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.  This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate’s song and a male might not be able to distinguished a neighbor from a stranger.  Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation, which leads to individual recognition.
Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures servers primarily to

Solution:
QUESTION: 14

PASSAGE:In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing g, defining, and defending an adequate breeding are.  When  population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area.  The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs, Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds.  These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency.  Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the birds makes, the n umber of figures is very limited.  Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on the geographic basis .  In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do.  Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear signing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the volition of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.  When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo bunting did not respond;  Even when a dummy of male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder.  Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguished songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the songs figures in interspecies recognition was then examined.  We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.  Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figures shapes can evoke positive responses.  It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for interspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must confirm to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evident that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.  This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate’s song and a male might not be able to distinguished a neighbor from a stranger.  Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation, which leads to individual recognition.
Q. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

Solution:
QUESTION: 15

PASSAGE:In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing g, defining, and defending an adequate breeding are.  When  population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area.  The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs, Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds.  These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency.  Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the birds makes, the n umber of figures is very limited.  Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on the geographic basis .  In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do.  Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear signing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the volition of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.  When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo bunting did not respond;  Even when a dummy of male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder.  Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguished songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the songs figures in interspecies recognition was then examined.  We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.  Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figures shapes can evoke positive responses.  It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for interspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must confirm to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evident that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.  This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate’s song and a male might not be able to distinguished a neighbor from a stranger.  Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation, which leads to individual recognition.
Q. According to the passage, the authors played a normal indigo bunting song backwards in order to determine which of the following?

Solution:

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