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Test: Prokaryotic Cells - NEET MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 11 - Test: Prokaryotic Cells

Test: Prokaryotic Cells for NEET 2024 is part of Biology Class 11 preparation. The Test: Prokaryotic Cells questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The Test: Prokaryotic Cells MCQs are made for NEET 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Prokaryotic Cells below.
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Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 1

Which cell organelle is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 1
  • Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria while prokaryotic cells do not but the ribosome is the only organelle that can be seen in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes perform the same functions that is protein synthesis, however, eukaryotic ribosomes are much larger than prokaryotic ones.

Hence, the correct option is D

NCERT Reference: Topic “PROKARYOTIC CELLS” of chapter Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 2

Which of the following is a prokaryote?

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 2
  • Prokaryotic cells are cells that do not have a true nucleus or most other cell organelles.
  • Organisms that have prokaryotic cells are unicellular and called prokaryotes.
  • Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes.


Fig: Prokaryotic cell

Hence, the correct option is A

NCERT Reference: Topic “PROKARYOTIC CELLS” of chapter Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 3

What is the full form of PPLO?

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 3

The full form of PPLO is Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organisms. They are a type of prokaryotic organisms, which also include bacteria, blue – green algae and mycoplasma. They lack a true nucleus.

Hence, the correct option is A

NCERT Reference: Topic “PROKARYOTIC CELLS” of chapter Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 4

The prokaryotic cells are characterised by:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 4
  • Prokaryotic cells are characterized by their simple structure, which lacks many of the membrane-bound organelles and structures found in eukaryotic cells.
  • Prokaryotic cells do not have a distinct nucleus that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Instead, their genetic material is typically arranged in a single circular chromosome that is located in the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • The lack of a nuclear membrane in prokaryotic cells allows for rapid replication and transcription of DNA.


 

Hence, the correct option is C

NCERT Reference: Topic “PROKARYOTIC CELLS” of chapter Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 5

Eukaryotic cells are different from prokaryotic cells in having:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 5

The distinction is that eukaryotic cells have a "true" nucleus containing their DNA, whereas prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus.

Hence, the correct option is A

NCERT Reference: Topic “EUKARYOTIC CELLS” of chapter  Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 6

Protoplasm found inside the nucleus is known as:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 6
  • Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell (protoplasm), the nucleus contains 'nucleoplasm' (nucleus sap) or karyoplasm.
  • The nucleoplasm is one of the types of protoplasm, and it is enveloped by the nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope.
  • The nucleoplasm includes the chromosomes and nucleoli.

Nucleoplasm:

Hence, the correct option is B

NCERT Reference: Topic “Nucleus” of chapter  Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 7

From which structure is a mesosome derived from?

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 7
  • Mesosome is a characteristic feature of prokaryotes, which is not present in eukaryotic cells.
  • It is a differentiated form of cell membrane derived by the infoldings of the cell membrane in prokaryotes.


Hence, the correct option is A

NCERT Reference: Topic “PROKARYOTIC CELLS” of chapter  Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 8

The largest subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 8
  • 50S, roughly equivalent to the 60S ribosomal subunit in eukaryotic cells, is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes.
  • The 50S subunit is primarily composed of proteins but also contains single-stranded RNA known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

Hence, the correct option is D
NCERT Reference: Topic “Ribosomes and Inclusion Bodies” of chapter  Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 9

Which of these statements is not true regarding inclusion bodies in prokaryotes?

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 9

Inclusion bodies are aggregates of stable substances like proteins in the cytoplasm. They are formed due to the multiplication of virus or bacteria in the host cell and can also be used for the diagnosis of the respective viral or bacterial disease. They also help in the storage of cellular metabolic products and are not membrane-bound.

So, the incorrect statement is 'These are involved in ingestion of food particles'.

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 10

Glycocalyx is associated with ___________

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 10
  • Glycocalyx or pericellular matrix is a carbohydrate-enriched coating of glycoprotein and a glycolipid that covers the cell membranes of a few bacteria, epithelial cells and other cells. 
  • It is mainly used in the recognition of the cell and also regulates the endothelial vascular tissues.
  • The prokaryotic cell envelope consists of a three-layered structure – the outermost glycocalyx, followed by a cell wall and then the plasma membrane.


Fig: Bacterial cell

Hence, the correct option is C.
NCERT Reference: Topic “Cell Envelope and its Modifications” of chapter  Cell: The Unit of Life of NCERT

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 11

Each question consists of two statements, namely, Assertion (A) and Reason (R).

Assertion: Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles.

Reason: Prokaryotic cells lack membrane bound organelles.

For selecting the correct answer, use the following code:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 11

​​​​​​The Assertion (A) that eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles is true.

  • Eukaryotic cells, including animal cells and plant cells, have a complex structure that includes membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes. These organelles have specialized functions and are separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane.

The Reason (R) that prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles is also true.

  • Prokaryotic cells, including bacteria and archaea, have a simpler structure than eukaryotic cells and lack membrane-bound organelles. Instead, prokaryotic cells have a nucleoid region where the genetic material is located and perform many of their metabolic functions in the cytoplasm.

Therefore, Reason (R) is a correct explanation of Assertion (A), and the correct answer is A.

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 12

Each question consists of two statements, namely, Assertion (A) and Reason (R).

Assertion: Ribosomes are non-membrane bound organelles found in the prokaryotic cells only.

Reason: These are present in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria & on rough ER.

For selecting the correct answer, use the following code:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 12

The Assertion (A) that ribosomes are non-membrane bound organelles found in prokaryotic cells only is false. 

  • Ribosomes are non-membrane bound organelles found in eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cells.

The Reason (R) that ribosomes are present in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and on rough ER is true. 

  • Within the cell, ribosomes are found not only in the cytoplasm but also within the two organelles – chloroplasts (in plants) and mitochondria and on rough ER.

Therefore, Assertion (A) is false, and Reason (R) is true.

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 13

Each question consists of two statements, namely, Assertion (A) and Reason (R).

Assertion: Eukaryotic cells have more DNA than prokaryotic cells.

Reason: Eukaryotes are genetically more complex than prokaryotes.

For selecting the correct answer, use the following code:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 13

The assertion that eukaryotic cells have more DNA than prokaryotic cells is true.

  • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus which contains most of the DNA, while prokaryotic cells have a nucleoid region where the DNA is located.
  • Eukaryotic cells have more DNA than prokaryotic cells because in eukaryotic cells complex chromosomes are composed of DNA and histone proteins. But in prokaryotic cells, histone protein is absent.

The reason given, that eukaryotes are genetically more complex than prokaryotes, is a correct explanation for the assertion.

  • The additional DNA in eukaryotic cells is responsible for the increased genetic complexity that allows for the development of multicellular organisms with specialized cells and tissues.
Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 14

Each question consists of two statements, namely, Assertion (A) and Reason (R).

Assertion (A): Prokaryotes have a one envelope system.

Reason (R): There is not even a single membrane that surrounds the prokaryotic cell.

For selecting the correct answer, use the following code:

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 14

The statement in
Assertion (A) is true, as prokaryotes have a single plasma membrane that surrounds the cell, which serves as the envelope.

However, the statement in
Reason (R) is incorrect. Although prokaryotes lack a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, they still have internal membranes, such as the cell membrane and the membranes surrounding some of their internal structures. Therefore, there are multiple membranes present in prokaryotic cells.

Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 15

Assertion: Prokaryotic cells have no membrane-bound organelles
Reason: The cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells does not show a streaming movement.

Detailed Solution for Test: Prokaryotic Cells - Question 15

The prokaryotic cell lacks a membrane-bound nucleus as well as organelles. The circular genome lies naked in the cytoplasm with some proteins that aids in its coiling and supercoiling. This particular region in the cytoplasm is known as the nucleoid. The cytoplasm is the matrix that holds all of the organelles inside the cell together. It also stores nutrients and enzymes for metabolic processes. Cytoplasm streaming is one of the processes by which a cell helps in the equal distribution of nutrients to all its organelles. This is aided by the cytoskeleton. Since there are no cell organelles in a prokaryotic cell, thus no streaming movement can be observed in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.

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