Nitin Singhania Test: Indian Music - 2


20 Questions MCQ Test Nitin Singhania: Indian Art & Culture (Summary & Tests) | Nitin Singhania Test: Indian Music - 2


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QUESTION: 1

How is Hindustani Music different from Carnatic Music?

1. Hindustani Music is indigenous in nature, whereas Carnatic Music had external influence by Persia, Arab and Afghanistan.

2. Hindustani Music gives less emphasis to musical instruments compared to Carnatic music.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Carnatic Music is indigenous in nature whereas Hindustani Music had external influence by Persia, Arab and Afghanistan.

  • Hindustani Music lays more emphasis on musical instruments compared to Carnatic music. Carnatic music gives more emphasis to vocals rather than musical instruments.

 

Hindustani music: practised in the northern parts of India.

Carnatic music: practised in the southern parts of India.

QUESTION: 2

Pandit Bhimsen Joshi and Gangubai Hangal were the famous musicians from

Solution: Kirana Gharana have had a long line of great singers, but the most famous are Pandit Bhimsen Joshi and Gangubai Hangal.

QUESTION: 3

What is common to these personalities - Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastri?

Solution:
  • The Musical Trinity - Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastri - at Tiruvarur between 1750 and 1850 AD ushered in an era of development in Carnatic music.

  • The Trinity were contemporaries among themselves and contemporaries of Western Music composers, as Beethoven, Mozart, Wagner and Haydn.

  • It was the 'Golden Age' of music throughout the world. Carnatic music reached its pinnacle of artistic excellence during this period.

  • Composers in the post-Trinity period kept Carnatic music's banner flying high such as Patnam Subrahmanya Iyer, Vina Kuppayyar, Mysore Sadasiva Rao, Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar, Mysore Vasudevachar and Papanasam Sivan.

QUESTION: 4

Gitam, Suladi, Jatiswaram and Vamam are related to

Solution:

These all are Carnatic form of music.

QUESTION: 5

Regarding Carnatic music, consider the following statements:

1. Kriti, Tala and Swara are major elements of Carnatic music.

2. Carnatic music gives the least emphasis on vocal music.

3. Tambura, Ghatam and Khanjira are some of the commonly used instruments in Carnatic music's performance.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, and Sri Lanka.

  • Carnatic music is one of the two main subgenres of Indian classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions. The other subgenre is Hindustani music, which emerged as a distinct form because of Persian or Islamic influences from northern India.

  • Although there are stylistic differences, the basic elements of Sruti (the relative musical pitch), Swara (the musical sound of a single note), Raga (the mode or melodic formulae), and Tala (the rhythmic cycles) form the foundation of improvisation and composition in both Carnatic and Hindustani music.

  • Carnatic music's main emphasis is on vocal music; most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in Gayaki (singing) style.

  • Carnatic music is normally performed by a small group of musicians, consisting of a principal performer (usually a vocalist), a melodic accompaniment (usually a violin), a rhythm accompaniment (usually a Mridangam), and a Tambura, which acts as a drone throughout the performance.

  • Other typical instruments used in performances may include the Ghatam, Khanjira, Morsing, Venu flute, Veena, and Chitraveena.

QUESTION: 6

In the year 1484, the advent of Purandaradasa marked a significant landmark in the development of

Solution:
  • In the year 1484, the advent of Purandaradasa marked a significant landmark in Carnatic music development.

  • Purandaradasa effected such a thorough refinement and systematization in the art that it has remained the same up to the present day. He has been termed as 'Carnatic Sangeeta Pitamaha'.

  • Purandaradasa was not just a composer but a Lakshanakara of the highest calibre. The South Indian Music system that we have it now is entirely his gift to posterity.

  • He introduced the Malava Gowla scale, the basic scale for music instruction. He also framed graded exercises, forming a series of lessons to beginners of music. The system prevails even today in the teaching of music.

  • The Svaravalis, Janta varisai, the Suladi Sapta tala alankaras and gitams, composed by Purandaradasa, are the basis for mastery in the art. Among the compositional types, he is credited for his numerous Lakshya Gitams and Lakshana Geethams, Tillanas, Tana Vamams, Suladis, Ugabhogas, Vritta Manas and Kirtanas.

  • His Kirtanas are popularly referred to as Dasara Padas or Devamamas.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following personalities is/are famous for Carnatic Music?

1. Bhimsen Joshi

2. Gangubhai Hangal

3. M. S. Subbalakshmi

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Pandit Bhimsen Gururaj Joshi was a legendary Indian vocalist from Karnataka in the Hindustani classical tradition. He is known for the khayal form of singing and his popular renditions of devotional music. He received the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour, in 2009.

  • Gangubai Hangal was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, who was known for her deep and powerful voice. Hangal belonged to the Kirana Gharana.

  • Madurai Shanmukhavadivu Subbulakshmi was an Indian Carnatic singer from Madurai, Tamil Nadu. She was the first musician ever to be awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.

QUESTION: 8

Daskathia is a form of

Solution:
  • The art form exclusive to Odisha, Daskathia is usually performed by two men, the singer and his assistant and is simpler than a Pala.

  • Daskathia is a name derived from a unique musical instrument called 'Kathi' or 'Ram Tali', wooden clappers used during the presentation.

  • The performance is in the form of worship and offering on behalf of the 'Das', the devotee.

  • The performers - the Gayak (singer) and his accomplice (Palia) generally narrate a poem of mythological or religious intent.

QUESTION: 9

'Bihu Geet' songs

1. Are a distinctive type of folk song of Assam

2. Celebrate the life-sustaining character of the Brahmaputra

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • Assam's Bihu Geet songs celebrate the many colours of the Brahmaputra and its life-sustaining character, with stirring renditions by Bhupen Hazarika in praise of the grit its people in their most challenging moment-when the river turns furious during the monsoon and floods the plains.

  • Bihu Geet songs are the most distinctive type of folk songs of Assam, both for their musical and literary content.

  • The songs are blessings for a happy new year, and the dance is associated with an ancient fertility cult.

  • In the Bihu time, there is an opportunity for marriageable young men and women to exchange their feelings and even choose their partners.

QUESTION: 10

Regarding Sangeet Natak Akademi, consider the following statements:

1. The academy functions as the apex body of music in the country and aims towards promoting and propagating music of India.

2. the Sangeet Natak Akademi set up the National School of Drama.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • It was set up by the Indian education ministry on 31 May 1952 and became functional the following year, with its first chairman, Dr P. V. Rajamannar. Dr Rajendra Prasad, the first President of India, inaugurated it on 28 January 1953 in a special function held in the Parliament House. The academy's Fellowship and Award are considered very prestigious.

  • The academy functions as the apex body of the performing arts in the country to preserve and promote India's vast cultural heritage expressed in music, dance and drama. It also works with governments and art academies in states and territories of the country.

  • Sangeet Natak Akademi established several institutions over the years:

    1. Manipur Dance Academy, Imphal

    2. Sattriya Centre

    3. Kathak Kendra (National Institute of Kathak Dance), New Delhi in 1964

    4. Ravindra Rangshala

  • National School of Drama (NSD) is a theatre training institute situated at New Delhi, India. It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

  • It was set up in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi and became an independent school in 1975.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following is/are correct about Amir Khusrau?

1. He introduced new musical ragas - Ghora and Sanam.

2. He created a new style of Persian poetry called Sabaq-i-Hindi.

3. He authored the work Tughlaqnama.

Select the correct answer using the codes below

Solution:
  • New musical instruments such as Rubab and Sarangi were introduced during this period. Amir Khusrau (1252-1325) introduced many new ragas such as Sanam and Ghora.

  • He also evolved a new style of light music known as qawwali by blending the Hindu and Iranian systems. He also invented Sitar.

  • During the reign of Firoz Tughluq, the Indian classical work Raag Darpan was translated into Persian. Pir Bhodan, a Sufi saint, was one of the great musicians of this period.

  • Amir Khusrau was a famous Persian writer of this period. He wrote several poems.

  • He experimented with several poetic forms and created a new Persian poetry style called Sabaq-i-Hind or the Indian style.

  • Amir Khusrau also wrote some Hindi verses. His work Khazain-ul-Futuh speaks about Alauddin's conquests.

  • His famous work Tughluq Nama deals with the rise of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

QUESTION: 12

Regarding the 'Sugam Sangeet', consider the following statements

1. It is a genre of devotional music, which brings classical and folk together.

2. Bhajan, Shabad and Qawwali are different forms of Sugam Sangeet.

3. Tevaram is sung in praise of Lord Vishnu.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

  • Tevaram denotes the first seven volumes of the Tirumurai, the 12 volume collection of Lord Shiva devotional poetry. All seven volumes are dedicated to the works of the three most prominent Tamil poets of the seventh century, the Nayanars-Sambandar, Tirunavukkarasar and Sundarar.

Sugam Sangeet

Devotional music that brings together classical and folk music.

Bhajan

  • Bhakti movement

  • Hymns to lake message to god

  • Expounders: Mirabai, Surdas, Kabir, etc.

Shabad

  • Sikhism

  • Devotional songs dedicated to gurus

  • Expounders: Guru Nanak, Mardana, etc.

Qawwali

  • Sufism

  • Devotional music in praise of Allah or Prophet Mohammad

  • Exponents: Amir Khusro, Sabri brothers, Aziz Warsi, etc.

QUESTION: 13

Shehnai is a:

(a) Awanad Vadya

(b) Sushir vadya

(c) Ghana Vadya

(d) Tat Vadya


Solution:  
  • Sushira Vadya: These are the aerophones, i.e. this category includes all the wind instruments. Most common instruments include Bansuri (flute), Shehnai, Pungi, Ninkirns, etc.

  • One of the most common yet difficult to play instruments in this category is the Shehnai, a double-reeded wind instrument with a widening tube towards the end. 

  • It is one of the oldest wind instruments in India. The exalted title of the 'Shehnai King' has been given to the legendary Ustad Bismillah Khan, who took the Shehnai to its zenith through his soulful play. 

  • One of the most common instruments found in every household is the flute, which has been in use since the Vedic period. It was initially called Nadi or Tuanava.

QUESTION: 14

It originated from the folk songs of the camel Riders of Northwest India. Still, it gained legitimacy as a semi-classical vocal speciality once brought to the Mughal court of Emperor Mohammed Shah. It is:

Solution:
  • Тарра: In this style, the rhythm plays a significant role as the compositions are based on fast subtle and knotty constructions.

It originated from the folk songs of the camel riders of North-West India. Still, it gained legitimacy as a semi-classical vocal speciality once brought to the Mughal court of emperor Muhammad Shah. There is a great use of rapid turn of phrases.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements about Wanawan.

1. It is the Folk music from the state of Karnataka

2. It is especially sung during wedding ceremonies

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: It is the Folk music from the state of Kashmir.

QUESTION: 16

Alha folk music is from:

Solution:

Alha: This form is from Madhya Pradesh and is a heroic ballad song with intricate words. It is usually sung in different languages like Braj, Awadhi and Bhojpuri.

This form is also related to the epic Mahabharata as they try to glorify the heroes who are seen as the Pandavas' reincarnations. The five brothers of the Pandavas are substituted here as Alha, Udal, Malkhan, Lakhan and Deva.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements.

1. Maand is folk music from the state of Rajasthan

2. The songs are generally about women fetching water from the nearby well

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Maand: This folk music is from the state of Rajasthan. It is said to have developed in the royal courts and is also recognised in the classical circles.

  • This is neither accepted as a full-fledged Raga nor is it reckoned among the freely rendered folk songs. The songs are usually about the bards singing the glory of the Rajput rulers. It is near to Thumri or Ghazal. The famous song Kesariya Balam is in Maand style.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements about Qawwali.

1. They are performed in Sufi shrines

2. It is written only in Urdu

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Qawwali: This is also a kind of devotional music as they praise the Allah or the Prophet Muhammad or any other major Sufi or Islamic saint.

  • It is composed in a single raga and is generally written in Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi. Some words of Brajbhasa and Awadhi are also used. They are performed in Sufi shrines.

  • Qawwali is usually sung as a solo or in groups of two leads singers and a team comprises around eight members. Musical instruments like tabla, dholak and harmonium are used.

  • The intensity or tempo gradually builds up, seeking to induce transcendental state. It is said that Amir Khusrau can be credited with the origin of Qawwali, but it is severely disputed. Major Qawwals are the Sabri Brothers, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Aziz Warisi etc.

QUESTION: 19

This is the form of fusion music sung in chorus or groups and large numbers. The most common form is to sing about patriotic feelings. They also include songs of protest against the malpractices in the society. It is:

Solution:
  • Gana Sangeet: This is the form of fusion music sung in chorus or groups and large numbers. The most common form of Gana Sangeet is to sing about patriotic feelings.

  • They also include songs of protest against the malpractices in the society. They generally try to bring in a social message, such as urge people to stop the exploitation of women and children etc. One of the most popular examples of Gana Sangeet is our national song: Vande Mataram, which is sung in praise of the nation.

QUESTION: 20

Manjira, Jal Tarang and khartal is a:

Solution:
  • Ghana Vadya: It is the genre of the solid instruments that do not require any tuning. They are also called Idiophone instruments. The most popular examples of Ghana Vadya are Manjira, Jaltarang, Kanch- Tarang, Jhanj, Khartal, etc. The Manjira is a small brass cymbal that is generally used in temples.

  • Archaeological excavations have dated Manjira to be as old as the Harappan civilisation. The function of these instruments is to keep rhythm and time with the song that is being sung.

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