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Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - UPSC MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE - Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2

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Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 1

What were Penny Chapbooks?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 1
Penny Chapbooks:
- Penny chapbooks were pocket-sized books that were popular in the 17th and 18th centuries.
- They were affordable and accessible to the general public, often costing only a penny.
- Penny chapbooks were primarily used for entertainment and education.
- They contained a variety of content, including stories, poems, songs, ballads, plays, and moral lessons.
- The content of penny chapbooks ranged from popular folk tales and legends to historical accounts and religious texts.
- They were often sold by street vendors or peddlers and were a form of popular literature.
- Penny chapbooks played a significant role in spreading literacy and providing entertainment to a wide audience.
- They were an important precursor to modern paperback books and were influential in the development of popular literature.
- Penny chapbooks were eventually replaced by newspapers and other forms of mass media in the 19th century.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 2

Assertion: Children became an important category of readers.
Reason: Primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century.

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 2
Assertion: Children became an important category of readers.
Reason: Primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century.
The assertion and reason given above can be evaluated as follows:
Assertion: Children became an important category of readers.
Reason: Primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century.
To evaluate the given assertion and reason, we need to examine whether both statements are true and whether the reason provided adequately explains the assertion.
Examining the Assertion:
- It is true that children became an important category of readers. This can be seen through the rise of children's literature, the establishment of children's sections in libraries, and the development of educational materials specifically designed for children.
- Children's literature gained popularity during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with authors like Lewis Carroll, Mark Twain, and Beatrix Potter producing works specifically targeted at young readers.
Examining the Reason:
- It is true that primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century in many countries.
- The introduction of compulsory education meant that more children were attending school and receiving formal education.
- This increased literacy rates among children and created a demand for reading materials that were suitable for their age and reading abilities.
- As a result, publishers and authors recognized the need to cater to this growing audience, leading to the development of children's literature.
Evaluating the Explanation:
- The reason provided adequately explains why children became an important category of readers. The introduction of compulsory education created a larger pool of literate children who required suitable reading materials.
- The rise of children's literature and the increased focus on educational materials for children can be directly linked to the implementation of compulsory education.
Conclusion:
Both the assertion and the reason are true, and the reason provided correctly explains why children became an important category of readers. Therefore, option A is the correct answer.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 3

Why was James Augustus Hickey persecuted by Governor-General Warren Hastings?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 3
Reasons for James Augustus Hickey's persecution by Governor-General Warren Hastings:
There are several reasons why James Augustus Hickey was persecuted by Governor-General Warren Hastings. These include:
Poor editing of Bengal Gazette:
- Hickey was the editor and publisher of the Bengal Gazette, which was the first English-language newspaper in India.
- He was accused of poor editing and publishing articles that were filled with errors and inaccuracies.
Gossip about the company's Senior Official:
- Hickey published a lot of gossip and scandalous stories about the East India Company's senior official, which was seen as a direct attack on their authority.
- These stories were considered defamatory and damaging to the reputation of the company and its officials.
Substandard material:
- Hickey was also criticized for publishing substandard material in his newspaper.
- The content was often poorly written and lacked credibility, which further damaged the newspaper's reputation.
None of these:
- This option is incorrect as there were valid reasons for Hickey's persecution, as mentioned above.
In conclusion, James Augustus Hickey was persecuted by Governor-General Warren Hastings for poor editing of the Bengal Gazette, publishing gossip about the company's senior official, and for publishing substandard material. These actions were seen as detrimental to the reputation and authority of the East India Company, leading to Hickey's persecution.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 4

Who introduced the printing press in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 4
Introduction of the Printing Press in India
The printing press, a revolutionary invention that transformed the way information was disseminated, was introduced in India by the Portuguese. Here is a detailed explanation of this historical development:
1. Portuguese Arrival in India:
- The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive in India in the late 15th century, led by Vasco da Gama.
- They established trading posts and gradually expanded their influence in different regions of India.
2. Introduction of Printing Press:
- It was during the Portuguese rule in Goa, a former colony in western India, that the printing press was introduced.
- The first printing press in India was set up in Goa by the Portuguese in 1556.
- The press was primarily used for printing religious texts, including Christian literature and scriptures.
3. Impact of the Printing Press:
- The introduction of the printing press had a profound impact on Indian society and culture.
- It facilitated the spread of knowledge and ideas, making books more accessible to a wider audience.
- The printing press played a crucial role in the propagation of Christianity in India, as the Portuguese used it to print religious texts and publications.
4. Development and Expansion:
- The printing press in India saw further developments and expansions under subsequent European powers such as the Dutch, French, and British.
- The British, in particular, played a significant role in the expansion and modernization of printing presses across India during the colonial era.
In conclusion, the printing press was introduced in India by the Portuguese in the mid-16th century. This invention revolutionized the dissemination of knowledge and had a lasting impact on Indian society and culture.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 5

Assertion: There was an intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry.
Reason: The Deoband Seminary founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands of fatwas telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in everyday lives and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 5
Assertion: There was an intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood, and idolatry.
Reason: The Deoband Seminary founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands of fatwas telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in everyday lives and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.
Explanation:
The assertion and reason provided in the statement are related to different contexts and do not have a cause-and-effect relationship. Let's break down the explanation for each statement:
- Assertion: There was an intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood, and idolatry.
- This statement highlights the existence of intense controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy. The issues of widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood, and idolatry were the subjects of debate and contention during that period.
- Reason: The Deoband Seminary founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands of fatwas telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in everyday lives and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.
- This statement provides information about the Deoband Seminary, which was founded in 1867. It states that the seminary published numerous fatwas to guide Muslims in their daily lives and explain the Islamic doctrines.
From the given information, it is clear that the reason provided does not explain the assertion. The controversy between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy is unrelated to the publication of fatwas by the Deoband Seminary. Therefore, the correct answer is B: Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 6

By whom was ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ published in 1821?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 6
By whom was 'Sambad Kaumudi' published in 1821?
Answer: Raja Rammohun Roy
Detailed
Sambad Kaumudi was an influential Bengali newspaper that was published in 1821. It played a crucial role in the Bengal Renaissance and was known for its progressive ideas and socio-cultural reforms. The newspaper was published by Raja Rammohun Roy, a prominent social and religious reformer of the 19th century.
Here is a detailed explanation:
- Raja Rammohun Roy: He was a key figure in the Bengal Renaissance and a staunch advocate for social reforms. Raja Rammohun Roy was known for his efforts to abolish sati, promote education, and fight against religious superstitions. He believed in the principles of reason, humanism, and social equality.
- Sambad Kaumudi: The newspaper was launched by Raja Rammohun Roy in 1821. It was published in Bengali and aimed to spread awareness about social issues and promote intellectual discussions. Sambad Kaumudi covered a wide range of topics including education, women's rights, political reforms, and religious tolerance.
- Impact: Sambad Kaumudi played a pivotal role in shaping public opinion and challenging orthodox practices prevalent in society. It provided a platform for intellectuals, scholars, and reformers to express their views and engage in meaningful debates. The newspaper's progressive ideas and advocacy for social reforms had a lasting impact on the society and contributed significantly to the Bengal Renaissance.
In conclusion, Sambad Kaumudi, a significant Bengali newspaper published in 1821, was founded by Raja Rammohun Roy, an eminent social reformer of the time.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 7

Which book of Jyotiba Phule was based on the caste system?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 7
Book Based on the Caste System by Jyotiba Phule:

Jyotiba Phule, a prominent social reformer and thinker from Maharashtra, wrote several books highlighting the injustices and inequalities prevalent in Indian society during the 19th century. One of his notable works that focused on the caste system is "Gulamgiri."
Key Points:
- "Gulamgiri" is a Marathi book written by Jyotiba Phule in 1873.
- The book discusses the oppression faced by lower-caste individuals and criticizes the Brahminical dominance in Indian society.
- It challenges the caste-based hierarchy and advocates for the upliftment and empowerment of marginalized communities.
- "Gulamgiri" also addresses issues related to untouchability, women's rights, and the exploitation of laborers.
- The book aims to expose the hypocrisy of the upper-caste Hindus and calls for social and educational reforms.
- Through "Gulamgiri," Jyotiba Phule sought to inspire social awakening and bring about societal transformation.
Conclusion:
- Jyotiba Phule's book "Gulamgiri" is based on the caste system and highlights the injustices faced by lower-caste individuals in Indian society.
- This book played a significant role in shaping the social reform movement in Maharashtra and continues to be relevant in the fight against caste-based discrimination and oppression.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 8

Assertion: Everyone welcomed the printed books.
Reason: Print created the possibility of the wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 8
Assertion: Everyone welcomed the printed books.


Reason: Print created the possibility of the wide circulation of ideas, and introduced a new world of debate and discussion


The correct answer is D: A is wrong but R is correct.


Explanation:


The reason correctly explains why the assertion is not true for everyone. Here's a detailed explanation:


Assertion:


- The assertion states that everyone welcomed the printed books.


- This is a generalization and assumes that every individual had a positive response towards printed books.


- However, it is not accurate to say that everyone welcomed printed books, as there were various factors that influenced people's reactions to this new technology.


- Some individuals, such as scholars and intellectuals, welcomed printed books as they recognized the potential for the wide circulation of ideas and the accessibility it provided.


- However, there were also individuals who resisted the dissemination of printed books, such as those who held traditional views and feared the spread of ideas that challenged established beliefs.


- Therefore, the assertion is not true for everyone.


Reason:


- The reason provided is correct.


- The introduction of print technology revolutionized the circulation of ideas and information.


- Printed books allowed for mass production, making books more affordable and accessible to a wider audience.


- This accessibility created the possibility of the wide circulation of ideas, as books could now reach more people.


- The availability of printed books also led to the emergence of new forms of debate and discussion, as people had access to a larger pool of knowledge and could engage in intellectual discourse.


- Therefore, the reason is valid and accurately explains the impact of print technology on the circulation of ideas and the introduction of new forms of debate and discussion.


Conclusion:


- The assertion that everyone welcomed the printed books is not true, as there were individuals who resisted this new technology.


- However, the reason provided is correct, as print technology did create the possibility of the wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of debate and discussion.


- Therefore, option D is the correct answer: A is wrong but R is correct.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 9

In ancient India which of the following material was used for writing manuscripts?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 9
Materials used for writing manuscripts in ancient India:
- Palm leaves: Palm leaves were a commonly used material for writing manuscripts in ancient India. The leaves were prepared by treating them with various oils and then inscribing the text using a stylus or a sharp instrument.
- Other plant materials: Apart from palm leaves, other plant materials like birch bark, bamboo, and cotton cloth were also used for writing manuscripts. Birch bark was particularly popular in the northern parts of India.
- Metals: Manuscripts were sometimes written on metal sheets, such as copper or gold. These metal sheets were durable and could withstand the test of time.
- Animal materials: Animal materials like parchment and vellum, which are made from animal skins, were also used for writing manuscripts. However, they were less commonly used compared to plant materials.
- Paper: Paper was introduced in India much later, during the medieval period. It gradually gained popularity and replaced other materials for manuscript writing.
Overall, palm leaves and other plant materials were the most commonly used materials for writing manuscripts in ancient India.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 10

Which scholar expressed a deep anxiety about printing?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 10
Scholar Expressing Anxiety about Printing: Erasmus

  • Background: The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century revolutionized the spread of knowledge and information. However, not all scholars embraced this new technology with enthusiasm. One such scholar who expressed deep anxiety about printing was Erasmus.

  • Erasmus: Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466/1469-1536) was a highly influential Dutch Renaissance humanist, theologian, and scholar. He was known for his critical approach to religious and societal issues.

  • Anxiety about Printing: Erasmus was skeptical about the impact of printing on society and intellectual life. He expressed concerns about several aspects of printing:


    • Accuracy and Authenticity: Erasmus worried that the proliferation of printed books would lead to the dissemination of inaccurate or unverified information. He believed that the printing press could be misused, leading to the spread of false knowledge and ideas.

    • Loss of Manuscript Culture: Erasmus lamented the potential loss of the manuscript culture. He believed that the meticulous process of copying manuscripts by hand contributed to a deeper understanding and appreciation of the texts. Printing, in his view, risked replacing this careful craftsmanship with mass-produced, impersonal books.

    • Control and Censorship: Erasmus was concerned that the printing press could be controlled by powerful individuals or institutions, leading to censorship and the suppression of dissenting ideas. He feared that the freedom of thought and expression could be curtailed in a printed world.


  • Conclusion: Erasmus expressed a deep anxiety about printing due to his concerns about accuracy, loss of manuscript culture, and potential control and censorship. Despite his reservations, the printing press continued to revolutionize the dissemination of knowledge and played a significant role in the Reformation and the spread of Renaissance ideas.


In summary, Erasmus was the scholar who expressed a deep anxiety about printing. He was skeptical about the accuracy, loss of manuscript culture, and potential control and censorship associated with the invention of the printing press. Despite his concerns, printing went on to revolutionize the spread of knowledge and ideas.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 11

Who among the following brought hand-printing technology into Japan around 768-770 AD?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 11
Introduction:
The hand-printing technology was brought into Japan around 768-770 AD. Let's explore who brought this technology and the reasons behind it.
Answer:
The correct answer is A: Buddhist missionaries. Here is a detailed explanation:

  • Buddhist Missionaries: Buddhist missionaries from China brought the hand-printing technology to Japan during the Nara period (710-794 AD).

  • Reasons: The introduction of hand-printing technology in Japan by Buddhist missionaries was part of the cultural exchange between China and Japan.

  • Spread of Buddhism: The Buddhist missionaries played a significant role in the spread of Buddhism in Japan. Along with religious teachings, they also brought various cultural and technological advancements.

  • Printing Technology: The hand-printing technology, also known as woodblock printing, allowed for the mass production of texts, manuscripts, and artwork. This technology revolutionized the dissemination of knowledge and contributed to the development of Japanese literature and art.

  • Influence from China: During the Nara period, Japan was highly influenced by Chinese culture, including art, architecture, and technology. The introduction of hand-printing technology was one of the many aspects of this cultural exchange.


Conclusion:
Buddhist missionaries from China brought the hand-printing technology to Japan around 768-770 AD. This introduction had a significant impact on the cultural and artistic development of Japan, allowing for mass production of texts and artwork.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 12

Name the groups of countries in which print technology was introduced for the first time.

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 12
Introduction:
Print technology refers to the methods and processes used for reproducing text and images using ink on paper or other materials. The introduction of print technology revolutionized communication and played a significant role in the spread of knowledge and information. Let's explore the groups of countries where print technology was introduced for the first time.
Answer:
The groups of countries in which print technology was introduced for the first time are:
1. China:
- China is widely recognized as the birthplace of print technology.
- The Chinese invented woodblock printing in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty.
- Woodblock printing involved carving characters or images onto wooden blocks, applying ink to the surface, and then pressing it onto paper.
- This method allowed for the mass production of books, making knowledge more accessible.
2. Japan:
- Japan adopted print technology from China in the 8th century.
- The Japanese initially used woodblock printing to reproduce Buddhist texts and create playing cards.
- The development of movable type occurred later in Japan, around the 16th century, influenced by European contact.
3. Korea:
- Korea also played a significant role in the early development of print technology.
- Korean print culture emerged during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392).
- The Koreans developed their own movable metal type, known as Jikji, in the 14th century, preceding Johannes Gutenberg's invention of movable type in Europe.
Conclusion:
The introduction of print technology took place in multiple countries, but the groups of countries where it was first introduced include China, Japan, and Korea. These countries pioneered various printing techniques and played a crucial role in the dissemination of knowledge and the advancement of printing technology worldwide.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 13

Who was James Lackington?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 13
Who was James Lackington?

James Lackington was a notable figure in the publishing industry during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He was widely recognized for his innovative approach to selling books and his significant contributions to the book trade.


Background and Early Life

  • Lackington was born on August 31, 1746, in Wellington, Somerset, England.

  • He came from a humble background and started his career as an apprentice shoemaker.

  • Due to his passion for reading and learning, Lackington saved money to purchase books and expand his knowledge.


Establishing The Temple of the Muses

  • In 1774, Lackington opened a bookstore named "The Temple of the Muses" in London.

  • This bookstore became renowned for its vast selection of books and affordable prices.

  • Lackington implemented various innovative strategies to attract customers, such as offering comfortable reading spaces, allowing browsing without purchase, and introducing a circulating library.


Contributions and Impact

  • Lackington's business model revolutionized the book trade industry, making books more accessible to the general public.

  • He played a crucial role in popularizing the concept of the modern bookstore, which was characterized by its size, variety, and low prices.

  • His success inspired other booksellers to adopt similar practices, ultimately leading to a democratization of knowledge and literature.


Later Life and Legacy

  • Despite facing financial difficulties later in life, Lackington continued to be involved in the book trade until his death in 1815.

  • His contributions and innovative business strategies left a lasting impact on the publishing industry, shaping the way books are sold and making them more accessible to a wider audience.


Therefore, James Lackington was primarily known as a publisher and a significant reformer in the book trade industry.

Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 14

Who introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around 768-770 AD?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 14
Introduction:
In 768-770 AD, hand-printing technology was introduced into Japan. The question asks about the group or individuals who brought this technology to the country during that time period.

The correct answer is B: Buddhist Missionaries. Here is a detailed explanation of why Buddhist Missionaries introduced hand-printing technology into Japan:
Buddhist Influence in Japan:
- Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the 6th century AD from China and Korea.
- Buddhist monks played a significant role in spreading Buddhism and its associated culture, art, and technology in Japan.
Hand-Printing Technology:
- Hand-printing technology, also known as woodblock printing, was a technique used to print texts and images onto paper or other materials.
- This technology was first developed in China and later spread to other Asian countries.
Reasons for Buddhist Missionaries:
- Buddhist scriptures were primarily written in Chinese characters, which made it difficult for the local Japanese population to understand and practice Buddhism.
- Buddhist missionaries recognized the need to translate and print Buddhist texts in the Japanese language to make them more accessible to the people.
- Hand-printing technology provided a means to mass-produce these texts and disseminate them across the country.
Impact of Buddhist Missionaries:
- The introduction of hand-printing technology by Buddhist missionaries had a profound impact on Japanese society and culture.
- It led to the development of a unique Japanese writing system known as kana, which simplified the writing process and made it more accessible to the general population.
- The printing of Buddhist texts also contributed to the spread of literacy and education in Japan.
Conclusion:
Buddhist missionaries were responsible for introducing hand-printing technology into Japan around 768-770 AD. Their efforts in translating and printing Buddhist texts in the Japanese language played a crucial role in the development of Japanese writing systems and the spread of literacy in the country.
Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 15

Who wrote My Childhood and My University?

Detailed Solution for Test: Print Culture & Modern World - 2 - Question 15
Author of My Childhood and My University:
- The correct answer is Maxim Gorky.
- Maxim Gorky was a Russian and Soviet writer, considered one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century.
- He wrote the autobiographical trilogy "My Childhood," "My Apprenticeship," and "My Universities."
- "My Childhood" is the first part of the trilogy and was published in 1913.
- It depicts Gorky's early years, growing up in poverty and facing various hardships in his childhood.
- The book provides a vivid and emotional account of his experiences, capturing the struggles and joys of his early life.
- Gorky's writing style is characterized by a realistic and gritty portrayal of life, particularly for the working class.
- "My Childhood" is often praised for its poignant storytelling and powerful depiction of social issues.
- Gorky continued his autobiographical journey in the subsequent parts of the trilogy, where he explores his adolescence and his intellectual development.
- Overall, "My Childhood" and the entire trilogy offer a compelling insight into the author's life and the social context of his time.
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