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Test: Water Resources - 1 - UPSC MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE - Test: Water Resources - 1

Test: Water Resources - 1 for UPSC 2024 is part of Geography for UPSC CSE preparation. The Test: Water Resources - 1 questions and answers have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus.The Test: Water Resources - 1 MCQs are made for UPSC 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Water Resources - 1 below.
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Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 1

The water covered surface of the Earth is

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 1
The water covered surface of the Earth is three-fourth.
Explanation:
- The Earth is primarily composed of water and land.
- The water covered surface of the Earth refers to the area that is covered by water bodies such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers.
- To determine the percentage of the water covered surface, we need to compare it to the total surface area of the Earth.
- The Earth has a total surface area of approximately 510 million square kilometers.
- The total area covered by water bodies is estimated to be about 361 million square kilometers.
- To find the percentage, we divide the area covered by water by the total surface area of the Earth and multiply by 100.
- (361 million sq km / 510 million sq km) x 100 = 70.78%
- Therefore, the water covered surface of the Earth is approximately three-fourth or 70.78% of the total surface area.
- This means that only about one-fourth or 29.22% of the Earth's surface is covered by land.
- So the correct answer is B: three-fourth.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 2

Which one of the following is not the cause of water scarcity?  

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 2
Not the cause of water scarcity:


Rapid growth of population:
- Rapid population growth can lead to increased water demand, putting pressure on available water resources.
- As the population increases, the demand for water also increases, which can contribute to water scarcity.
Uneven distribution of water resources:
- Uneven distribution of water resources is a significant cause of water scarcity.
- Some regions may have abundant water resources, while others may face water scarcity due to limited availability.
Construction of dams and reservoirs:
- Construction of dams and reservoirs can actually help in managing water supply and reducing water scarcity.
- Dams and reservoirs store water, which can be used during dry periods and help regulate water flow.
Increase in demand:
- Increase in demand for water is a major cause of water scarcity.
- As the population grows and industries expand, the demand for water also increases, leading to water scarcity in some areas.
Conclusion:
- Among the given options, the construction of dams and reservoirs is not a cause of water scarcity.
- Dams and reservoirs are actually built to manage water resources and alleviate water scarcity in certain regions.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 3

How much of earth's total volume of water is found in ocean?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 3

About 97.3% of Earth's total volume of water is found in the ocean. As per the given Options, Option (1) is the most appropriate answer.

Important Points

  • The Earth's surface is covered with 71 percent of water due to which it is also known as the blue planet.
  • Around 97% of the earth's water is found in the oceans
  • But it is too salty for drinking, growing crops, and most industrial uses except cooling
  • The water in the ocean contains dissolved salt which is unfit for drinking.
  • Most of the salt found in the ocean is sodium chloride.
  • The average salinity of the oceans is 35 parts per thousand.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 4

How much rainwater can every house in Gendathur collect and use annually with an 80% collection efficiency and about 10 fillings?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 4

With 80% collection efficiency and about 10 fillings, every house in Gendathur can collect and use about 50,000 liters of water annually.
Correct option is D. 

Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 5

Which state has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 5
Answer:
The state that has made rooftop rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all houses across the state is Tamil Nadu.
Reason:
Tamil Nadu is known for its efforts in water conservation and management. The state government has taken several initiatives to address the water scarcity issue, and one of them is making rooftop rainwater harvesting mandatory for all houses.
Benefits of rooftop rainwater harvesting:
- Helps in replenishing groundwater levels: By collecting rainwater and redirecting it to underground storage tanks, rooftop rainwater harvesting helps recharge the groundwater levels, which in turn prevents the depletion of water resources.
- Reduces dependency on external water sources: With rooftop rainwater harvesting, households can rely on rainwater for various purposes like gardening, washing, and even drinking water. This reduces the burden on external water sources and promotes self-sufficiency.
- Mitigates the impact of drought: Tamil Nadu is prone to droughts, and rooftop rainwater harvesting provides a sustainable solution to combat the effects of drought by conserving rainwater during the monsoon season.
- Cost-effective and eco-friendly: Implementing rooftop rainwater harvesting is a cost-effective and eco-friendly method as it does not require the installation of complex infrastructure or dependence on energy-consuming water supply systems.
Steps taken by Tamil Nadu government:
- The Tamil Nadu government has made it compulsory for all new buildings to have rooftop rainwater harvesting structures.
- Existing buildings are also required to retrofit rainwater harvesting systems within a specified timeframe.
- The government has provided subsidies and financial incentives to encourage households to adopt rainwater harvesting.
- The Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) has been actively promoting and implementing rainwater harvesting projects across the state.
Therefore, Tamil Nadu has taken significant steps to ensure the widespread implementation of rooftop rainwater harvesting structures to combat water scarcity and promote sustainable water management.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 6

What is the rank of India in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 6
Rank of India in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum:
India's rank in terms of water availability per person per annum is 133.
Explanation:
- According to the World Bank, water availability is measured in cubic meters per person per year.
- The water availability per person in India is relatively low compared to other countries.
- India receives an average annual rainfall of about 4,000 billion cubic meters, but due to population size and inefficient water management, the per capita availability is low.
- The water scarcity in India is mainly due to uneven distribution, overexploitation of groundwater, and inadequate infrastructure for water storage and distribution.
- The low availability of water per person has significant implications for agriculture, domestic use, and industrial activities in the country.
- The ranking of countries in terms of water availability per person per annum is determined by comparing the water resources and population of each country.
- India's rank of 133 indicates that there are 132 other countries in the world with better water availability per person.
- It highlights the need for sustainable water management practices and efficient utilization of water resources in India.
Therefore, the correct answer is option C: 133 rank.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 7

Which options are true for dams?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 7

Dams are huge water retaining structures. These are used to store water. During the season of low rainfall, the storage water can be used for agricultural purposes. This stored water is also helpful in case of fish agriculture. Due two huge storage of water, it passes down to underground water streams and increases the water level. Subsequently this increased water level increases the water content in Wells of nearby villages

Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 8

Which one of the following is not the example of Hydraulic structures in Ancient India?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 8

Hydraulic structures in Ancient India:
- Bhopal Lake: Bhopal Lake, also known as Upper Lake, is an artificial lake in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was built in the 11th century by Raja Bhoj. The lake acts as a major source of water supply for the city of Bhopal.
- Lake Hauz Kauz: Lake Hauz Kauz, located in Delhi, was constructed in the 13th century by Sultan Alauddin Khalji. It served as a water reservoir to supply water to the nearby areas.
- Construction of dams, lakes: Ancient India witnessed the construction of numerous dams and lakes to manage and store water for agricultural purposes. These hydraulic structures were built to ensure water availability during dry seasons and to control floods during the monsoon.
Not an example of Hydraulic structure:
- Damodar Valley Project: The Damodar Valley Project is a multipurpose river valley project in India. It was initiated in the mid-20th century for flood control, irrigation, and power generation. Therefore, it does not fall under the category of hydraulic structures in ancient India.
In conclusion, the Damodar Valley Project is not an example of hydraulic structures in ancient India. It was a modern project established in the mid-20th century, while the other options mentioned (Bhopal Lake, Lake Hauz Kauz, and construction of dams, lakes) are examples of ancient hydraulic structures in India.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 9

How much hydroelectric power of the total electricity produced is contributed in India?

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 9
Hydroelectric Power Contribution in India's Total Electricity Production
India has a significant contribution of hydroelectric power in its total electricity production. Let's analyze the details:
1. Total Electricity Production in India:
- India's total electricity production is a combination of various sources such as thermal, hydro, nuclear, and renewable energy.
- The country has been making efforts to increase the share of renewable energy sources in its total electricity production.
2. Contribution of Hydroelectric Power:
- Hydroelectric power is generated by harnessing the energy of flowing or falling water.
- India has abundant water resources, which makes hydroelectric power a valuable source of renewable energy.
- Hydroelectric power plants are installed across several rivers and dams in the country.
3. Percentage Contribution:
- According to recent data, approximately 22 per cent of India's total electricity production is contributed by hydroelectric power.
- This means that out of the entire electricity generated in India, around 22 per cent comes from hydroelectric plants.
4. Importance of Hydroelectric Power:
- Hydroelectric power is considered a clean and renewable source of energy.
- It helps in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.
- Hydroelectric projects also contribute to irrigation, flood control, and overall water management.
Therefore, the correct answer is option A: Approximately 22 per cent of the total electricity produced in India is contributed by hydroelectric power.
Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 10

The primary source of water is

Detailed Solution for Test: Water Resources - 1 - Question 10

There are two main sources of water: surface water and groundwater. Surface Water is found in lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. Groundwater lies under the surface of the land, where it travels through and fills openings in the rocks. The rocks that store and transmit groundwater are called aquifers.

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