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Comptroller and Auditor General of India submit the audit reports to _______.
Anti-defection law was passed in which Constitutional Amendment Act?
If any Fundamental Right of a citizen is breached, then under Article 32 of the Indian Constitution he can directly go to the ______.
Redistribution of income in a country can be brought about through
What is the position of the Earth when it is at the greatest distance from the sun?
Which of the following wind is blowing from the Mediterranean sea to the North Western parts of India?
The largest herbarium of India is located at -
At Barren Island, the only active volcano in India is situated in -
Which of the following elements were not found in the form of archaeological remains from Kalibangan?
For the ﬁrst time in Gujarat, who implemented the Jizya tax?
In which year Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission at Belur?
Which Indian Personality was conferred with the Seoul Peace Prize in South Korea?
Which state passed the Official Language (Amendment) Bill 2019 to make Sanskrit the second official language in the state?
Which City topped and won the Swachhata Excellence Awards 2019?
Which Indian Player has become the first Indian to smash 100 sixes in T20 Cricket?
Which among the following multilateral convention seeks to protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)?
The ‘Montreux Record’ is a register of:
Which among the following chronic lung disease commonly known as ‘black lung’ disease, leads to reduced life expectancy in coal-miners?
The Hydroponics is most closely related to which among the following?
Which of the following state is home to the Jawai forests that have been given Conservation Reserve status?
Which is not a part of National Action Plan on Climate Change?
Green Economy is led by?
Which among the following alkane has largely replaced the ozone layer-depleting halomethanes in household refrigerators and freezers?
Which among the following will emit maximum mass of carbon dioxide, when the same quantity is burnt of all of them?
The Ozone Day is observed every year on September 16 as on this day in 1987, the ___________was signed for launching efforts to arrest the depletion of the fragile ozone layer in the stratosphere that prevents the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun from reaching the earth.
Which of the following is not a vector quantity?
At what temperature (in Fahrenheit) pure water freezes?
Which among the following determines the pitch of a sound?
Which phenomenon shows the particle nature of light?
Electric Motor converts _____ energy to mechanical energy.
Optical ﬁbre works on which of the following principle of light?
Why does water tank appear shallower when viewed from the top?
The force of friction between two surfaces will increase if:
The reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously are called _______.
Who discovered Nitrogen?
Device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation (alpha, beta, and gamma)-
Haematite is an ore/mineral of
Which among the following is false about natural rubber?
Why does Carbon Tetrachloride have no dipole moment?
Which drug is used as an Antidepressant?
Which of the following is related to simplex communication?
A _________ is used to direct and dispatch data packets between different networks.
What does GUI stand for?
Which of the following cable technologies convertThe atomic electrical signals into optical signals?
IP address 220.127.116.11 belongs to which class?
What is Unix?
Which of the following is not a web browser?
What is ODBC?
Which key is representing relationship between tables?
Computers designed for specialized scientific work and specific instructions are called_________.
Li, Na, and K are members of Döbereiner triads if the mass of Li is 7 a.m.u and mass of K is 39 a.m.u, then what is the mass of Na?
Döbereiner showed that when the three elements were written in the order of increasing atomic masses, the atomic mass of the middle element was roughly the average of the atomic masses of the other two elements.
Atomic mass of Na = avg. mass (Li , K)
= 7 + 39 / 2 = 23a.m.u
Other example of Döbereiner triads are:
Number of links in 20 m metric chain is __________.
Therefore, number of links = 20/0.2 = 100
When the surface of the concrete member is located in the tidal zone, this kind of environmental condition for concrete is considered to be ________
When the concrete is in contact with or buried under aggressive subsoil/groundwater, this condition is considered very severe.
The reinforced concrete beam curved in the plane is subjected to ___
∴ For a curved beam loaded with point load, at any section x-x
There will be an action of Shear Force, Bending Moment, and Torsional Moment as shown in the figure.
Open specification does not include _____
The physical properties include strength, weight, thickness or size, etc. Chemical properties specify mainly the composition of the chemical content of the product and precautionary measures required to store the products.
It does not include workmanship to be achieved during construction.
Lime saturation factor for a good cement is generally _______
LSF = Percentage of lime/Percentage of alumina + iron oxide + silica
It generally lies between 0.66 to 1.02.
Gantry girders are designed to resist
These are supposed to carry the following loads due to moving crane:
1) vertical loads or (gravity load)
2) lateral loads (produced due to jerk experienced while loading, unloading, and movement of the cranes)
3) longitudinal loads (produced due to longitudinal movement of the crane)
∴ Gantry girders are designed to resist lateral, longitudinal, and vertical loads.
If the ruling gradient is 1:200 on a particular section of B.G and if a curve of 4° is situated on this ruling gradient, what should be the actual ruling gradient?
Grade compensation on B.G. is equal to 0.04 percent per degree of curve,
Compensation allowed = 0/04 × 4 = 0.16 per cent.
Now, gradient of curve is 1:200 i.e. 0.5 per cent.
∴ Actual Gradient = 0.50 – 0.16 = 0.34 per cent or 1:294
Grade compensation for different tracks on curves
Which situation is not considered in the design of sight distance?
Stopping sight distance (SSD) or the absolute minimum sight distance
Intermediate sight distance (ISD) is defined as twice SSD
Overtaking sight distance (OSD) for safe overtaking operation
Headlight sight distance is the distance visible to a driver during night driving under the illumination of headlights
Safe sight distance to enter into an intersection
Which of the following has the highest cycle time?
The table below shows a comparison between all different types of excavating equipment.
The nominal cover for beam should not be less than ________ mm for moderate exposure condition.
Which among the following statement is incorrect for a first-class building?
Damp Proof Coarse:- D.P.C. shall be 2.5 cm thick cement concrete 1 : 1.5 : 3, mixed with one kg of impermo per bag of cement or other standard waterproofing materials as specified and painted with two coats of bitumen.
Roof:- Roofs shall be of R.C.C slab with an insulation layer and lime concrete terracing above, supported over R.S joists or R.C.C beams as required. The height of rooms shall not be less than 3.7 m.
Flooring:- Mosaic flooring must be provided, including staircase. Floors of bedrooms shall be colored and polished of 2.5 cm cement concrete over 7.5 cm lime concrete. Floors of others shall be of 2.5 cm cement concrete over 7.5 cm lime concrete polished.
Finishing:- Inside and outside finishing shall be of 12 mm cement lime plastered 1 : 1 : 6 Drawing, dining, and bedrooms inside shall be distempered, and others inside whitewashed 3 coats.
Foundation and Plinth:- Foundation and plinth shall be of first-class brickwork in lime mortar or 1 : 6 cement mortar over lime concrete or 1 : 4 : 8 cement concrete.
Superstructure:- Superstructure shall be of first-class with lime mortar or 1 : 6 cement mortar. lintels over doors and windows shall be of R.C.C.
A block of wood floats in water with 2/3rd of its volume submerged. Its relative density is:
∴ Weight of wooden block = Weight of the volume of fluid displaced
The density of wooden block = γb, the density of water = γw, and volume of block = V
Weight of wooden block = γb × V
Weight of the volume of fluid displaced = γw × 2/3 × V
∴ γb = 2/3 × γw
∴ The relative density for the wooden block is 2/3.
Which of the following is the optically readable media?
Using an optically readable medium, data is recorded by making marks in a pattern that can be read back with the help of light.
CD-ROM and DVD are optically readable media
Floppy disk is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium.
A hard disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information.
Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, long, narrow strip of plastic film which has a magnetic coating.
The Supply Curve shows the relation between which of the following?
The Supply curve is a graphical representation that shows the relationship between the quantity of product that a seller is able and willing to supply and the product’s price.
The quantity of the product supplied is on the horizontal axis (X-Axis), and the product price is measured on the vertical axis (Y-Axis) of the graph.
Time is an important factor to supply since suppliers must react quickly to a change in demand or price.
The line joining the points having the same elevation above the datum surface is called ________
Contour Surface: An imaginary at which every point is located at the same elevation above the datum is known as contour surface.
Contour Interval: The difference in elevation between successive contour lines on a given map is fixed. This vertical distance between any two contour lines on a map is called the contour interval.
Contour Gradient: An imaginary line on the surface of the earth having a constant inclination with the horizontal (slope) is called contour gradient. It is expressed as the ratio of the vertical height to a specified horizontal distance.
Horizontal Equivalent: The horizontal distance between two points on two consecutive contour lines for a given slope is known as horizontal equivalent. depends upon the slope of the ground and required grade for construction of a road, canal and contour interval.
Maximum area of reinforcement required for a beam of effective size 250 mm × 200 mm is ________
∴ Maximum area of steel = 0.04 × 250 × 200 = 2000 mm2
The minimum area of steel required for a section is given by
exposure of a high concentration of nitrogen dioxide may cause
Elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide can cause damage to the human respiratory tract and increase a person's vulnerability to, and the severity of, respiratory infections and asthma.
Long-term exposure to high levels of nitrogen dioxide can cause chronic lung disease (acute bronchitis)
High levels of nitrogen dioxide are also harmful to vegetation—decreasing growth or reducing crop yields.
It may also affect the senses, for example, by reducing a person's ability to smell an odour.
To create a mirror image of a selected object in AUTOCAD 2017, shortcut command is _______
Tips & Tricks:
For more shortcuts and tricks, you can refer .
CPU stands for __________.
Registers/Memory Unit (MU): To execute a program, data and instructions need to be stored temporarily. This storage is done in the MU. The data and instructions are retrieved from MU by Control Unit to supply ALU as required by the program.
Methane an air pollutant is produced ________.
A force of 20 Newton acts on a body of mass 20 kg for 5 seconds. Change in its momentum is
The two main gases obtained from anaerobic decomposition are-
i) Lesser energy requirement
ii) lower nutrient requirement
iii) production of biogas which is a valuable source of energy
Organic Impurities + Anaerobic Bacteria → CO2 + CH4 + Energy
Polyethylene is formed by ____
i) Addition polymerization: It is a type of reaction that involves the simple linking of the monomers without forming any by-products. E.g., PVC, polyethylene, etc.
ii) Condensation polymerization: It is a type of reaction in which the linking of monomers involves the loss of small molecules like water as by-products. E.g., polyurethane, polyacetals, etc.
iii) Co-polymerization: It is the addition polymerization of two or more different monomers. E.g., Vinyl chloroacetate, Butadiene-styrene co-polymers, etc.
Equations of viscous fluid motion are analyzed by
Bernoulli’s equation: This equation related to the conservation of energy of the fluid mass and it is applicable only for ideal fluid flow.
Hagen-Poiseuille equation: This equation computes head loss due to the friction in laminar as well as turbulent flow. It cannot help analyzing the viscous fluid motion.
Navier – Stokes equation: This equation considers pressure force, gravity force and viscous force and hence it completely analyses the viscous fluid motion.
However, it does not holds good for turbulent flow. Thus, Reynold’s equation is used to analyze turbulent flow.
Pile driving hammer weighs about __________
The different type of hammers used for pile driving are:
i) Drop hammer
ii) Single actin hammer
iii) Double acting hammer
iv) Differential acting hammer
v) Hydraulic hammer
vi) Diesel hammer
vii) Vibrating hammer
viii) Sonic hammer
A heavy hammer with a small drop is more effective than a small hammer with a large drop.
If Ec and Es are modulus of elasticity of concrete and steel respectively, then the modular ratio (m) will be
The modular ratio m has the value of 280/3σcbc, where σcbc is the permissible compressive stress in concrete due to bending in N/mm2.
Which among the following is not a Rigid Pavement Failure?
scaling of cement concrete
spalling of Joints
Flexible Pavement failures: -
Alligator (map) cracking
Consolidation of pavement layer
Lack of binding to the lower course
Formation of waves and corruption.
You should also know this:
Frost heaving is often misunderstood for shear or other types of failures. In shear failure, the upheaval of a portion of pavement is followed with a depression. In the case of frost heaving, there is mostly a localized heaving-up pavement portion depending upon the groundwater and climatic conditions.
Mud pumping recognized when the soil slurry ejects out through the joints and cracks of cement concrete pavement caused during the downward movement of the slab under the heavy wheel loads. Pumping is noticed just after the rains in cement concrete pavements that are placed on clayey soil subgrade.
A square raft of size 4 m is founded at a depth of 3 m in a cohesive soil having c = 120 kN/m2. The net ultimate bearing capacity of the soil using Terzaghi’s theory will be nearly ___
(Take: γ = 19.5 kN/m2, Nc = 9.6, Nq = 2.7 and Nγ = 1.2)
qultimate = 1.3 c Nc + γDNq + 0.4 γBNγ
Nc = 9.6, Nq = 2.7 and Nγ = 1.2
qnet=1.3cNc+γD(Nq−1)+0.4γBNγqnet = 1634.49 kN/m2
∴qnet ≈ 1634.50 kN/m2
When both ends of the compression members are hinged, the effective length will be
When both ends are hinged for a given compression, effective length is equal to the actual length of the member.
Tips & Tricks:
For providing an Indian type W.C. the R.C.C slab in the toilet portion:
For providing an Indian type W.C. the R.C.C slab in the toilet portion should be sunk by 50 cm.
Organic soil formed from vegetal matter and having fibrous aggregates of macroscopic and microscopic size is ______
Loamy Soil contains almost equal proportion od sand silt and clay and is found along the beds of river. Since it is most suitable for agriculture, it is also one of the alluvial soil.
Peat is an organic soil having fibrous aggregates of macroscopic and microscopic particles. It is formed from vegetal matter under excessive moisture.
Caliche contains gravel, silt, and sand, and its particles are cemented by calcium carbonate.
Tuff is composed of very fine particles ejected from volcanoes during its explosion and is deposited by wind or water.
Which type of rail is used by the Indian Railway?
Advantages of a flat-footed rail are as followed:
i) No chair is required as rails are directly spiked to the sleepers.
ii) It is stiffer vertically as well as laterally.
iii) It is less liable to kinks development.
iv) It is economical than all other types of rail.
v) It distributes the load over a larger area of the sleeper.
Which of the above statement is correct?
The coefficient of permeability ‘k’ depends upon:
i) Void ratio of the soil
ii) Duration of flow
iii) Diameter of the soil grain
iv) Shape of the particle
e = void ratio
D = effective size of soil particle
γ = weight density of fluid
μ = viscosity of fluid
c = constant (depends upon the shape of the particle)
∴ The coefficient of permeability depends upon the shape of particles, the diameter of particles, and void ratio.
When a file is deleted _________
When a file is deleted, the data is not initially removed from the hard disk.
Instead, the space on the disk that was occupied by the deleted data is "deallocated."
After it is deallocated, space is available for use when new data is written to the disk.
Until space is overwritten, it is possible to recover the deleted data by using a low-level disk editor or data-recovery software
If we arrange different gases in decreasing order of their percentage available in atmosphere. Which one of the option is correct?
Nitrogen and oxygen are two major gases of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2), Helium, Ozone, Argon and hydrogen are found in lesser quantities. Apart from these gases, tiny dust particles are also present in the air.
The atmospheric composition of gases are as follow
Carbon monoxide forms carboxyhemoglobin in human blood that may cause
CO + Blood → Carboxyhemoglobin
Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, but it is difficult for people to detect
Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter
It is often produced by motor vehicles that run on gasoline, diesel, or other carbon-based fuels
Exposure at 100 ppm or greater can be dangerous to the human heart.
Formation of the ozone hole is maximum over
It is quite large (23 million square km in 1992 and 28.3 million square km in 2000). A small ozone hole also occurs over the North Pole, it was discovered in 1990.
Which of the following Rulers founded the Nalanda Mahavihara?
Nalanda Mahavihara was founded in the 5th century CE by Kumargupta I of the Gupta Dynasty.
It was an ancient Mahavihara, a Buddhist monastery.
Sri Gupta founded the Gupta Empire.
Chandragupta, I was the first great ruler of the Gupta Empire, who assumed the title of Maharajadhiraja.
Samudragupta was the 2nd ruler of the Gupta Empire. He was also called Napoleon of India.
Under which of the following amendments of the Indian constitution, special status was given to Delhi?
Under the 69th amendment of the Indian Constitution, Special status was given to Delhi as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
Under the 86th amendment of the Indian Constitution, Elementary education was made a fundamental right under article 21 A.
Under the 44th amendment of the Indian Constitution, the Right to Property was deleted as of a fundamental right.
Under the 42nd amendment of the Indian Constitution, Preamble was amended for the first time.
What was the theme of World Brain Day 2019?
World Brain Day is observed on July 22 every year.
The day aims at promoting the interest of neurology. Previously, World Brain Day has covered topics like dementia, epilepsy, and stroke, in cooperation with other societies.
World Brain Day 2019 theme is Migraine: The Painful Truth.
This year, the focus is on migraine, which is known to be one of the world's most common brain diseases.
When a ship floats on water
A concave lens has a focal length of 20 cm. At what distance the image be formed from the lens if the object is placed at a distance of 40 cm from the lens.
1/f = 1/v - 1/u
f= focal length =−20cm
v= image distance=v
u= Object distance = -40 cm
1/-20 = 1/v - (1/-40)
V = -13.33 cm
Dilute hydrochloric acid is added to granulated zinc taken in a test tube. The correct observation is:
The reaction of Zn and HCl is example of displacement reaction.
When a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound then that is known as displacement reaction. Both metals and nonmetals take part in displacement reactions
The underlying reaction between hydrochloric acid and granulated zinc is :
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
From the above reaction the gas released is H2
H2 is colourless odourless gas which burns with a popping sound.
What does rapid hardening cement contain?
Preventing rain water to run-off and its accumulation and deposition for re-use on site is called
By storage of rainwater, not only availability of water in increased but fall in water level can also be prevented.
Book Value ______
Thus, the book value of property gradually reduces at a constant amount year after year up to the limit of scrap value.
Which of the following is most suited for tunnel construction across the narrow valley?
Based on alignment, tunnels are classified as follows:
i) Off-spur tunnels: These are short length tunnels to negotiate minor local obstacles, which cannot be avoided by permitted curves.
ii) Saddle or base tunnels: These tunnels are constructed along the natural slopes till the slopes do not exceed the ruling gradient.
iii) Slope tunnels: These tunnels are constructed in steep hills for economic and safe operations of roads and railways.
iv) Spiral tunnels: These tunnels are provided in narrow valleys in the form of loops in the interior of the mountain so as to increase the length of the tunnel to avoid steep slopes.
The turbine suitable for low heads and high flow rates is:
i) Reaction Turbine: A turbine for which both pressure energy and kinetic energy is available at the inlet is a reaction turbine.
E.g. Francis Turbine, Kaplan Turbine and Propeller Turbine.
They are useful for low head and high discharge.
ii) Impulse Turbine: A turbine for which only kinetic energy is available at the inlet is an impulse turbine.
E.g., Pelton Turbine and Turgo Impulse Turbine.
They are useful for high head and low discharge.
While measuring the area of a plan using a planimeter, the following readings were taken. If the anchor point was outside the plan and the zero marks of the disc was crossed once by the index in the clockwise direction, the map area is _______.
Multiplying constant = 100 cm2
Initial reading = 1.378
Final reading = 8.378
Where M = multiplying constantly.
N = No of revolution passes the zero mark [ + ve for clockwise and –ve for anti-clockwise revolution]
C = Constant of index arm = 0; when the anchor point is outside the plan
Two steel plates, each of 12 mm thickness, are connected by a double-cover butt joint by bolts as shown in figure below. If the bolt diameter is 20 mm and steel is of grade Fe 410, which one of the following sections is the most critical section for a cover plate?
The cross-sectional area of the plate through various sections.
Let the width of the plate be ‘b’, the thickness of plate ‘t’ and diameter of the hole be ‘dh’
For section 1-1: Asection 1-1 = (b – 3 dh) × t
For section 2-2: Asection 2-2 = (b – 2 dh) × t
For section 3-3: Asection 3-3 = (b – 1 dh) × t
∴ Critical section for the cover plate is section 1-1 as the cross-sectional area is least.
Critical section for Main Plate:
For main plate, although the cross-sectional area is minimum at section 1-1 maximum force is resisted at section 3-3 as force is first experienced at section 3-3 and the remaining is then transferred to section 2-2 and section 1-1 respectively.
The depth of sealant, in any case, should not be less than ____
The dept of sealant should not be more than one half of the width of the joint and should not be less than 4 mm in any case.
Centroid of the circle lies at
Centroid: The point that may be considered as the center of a one– or two–dimensional figure i.e., the sum of the displacements of all points in the figure from such a point being zero.
For the circle, the centroid lies at the centre.
∴ The centroid of the circle lies at the centre.
Composite structure is suitable for _________
E.g., Rural building, temples, low rise flats, tenements, residential bungalows, etc.
Framed structure: It comprises of slabs resting on beams that are supported by a network of columns.
E.g.,.,project’s cost andneeded Multistoried or High-rise buildings.
Composite structure: It is structured with a combination of load bearing as well as framed structure.
E.g. Warehouses, halls, large factory sheds, workshops, etc.
The structure provided to support the weight of the walls above doors and windows is __________
Sills: They are provided between the bottom of the window frame and above the top of the walls below.
Weather shed/Chajja: These are generally combined with the lintels to protect doors, windows or ventilators from sun, rain, wind, frost, etc.
Which one is a file management tool that comes with windows?
Windows explorer has become a very powerful utility for navigation and searching directories for files of the system
Windows Explorer is the file management tool that comes with Windows
It gives the ability to rename, copy, move or delete the folders and files on the computer's drives
Folders and files are displayed hierarchically within Windows Explorer
Folders contain subfolders as well as files
Windows Explorer is called File Explorer in Window 10
When was the Fourth Anglo Mysore war fought?
The Fourth Anglo Mysore war was fought between the Mysore Kingdom and The East India Company in 1799.
Tipu Sultan was killed in the battle.
The First Anglo Mysore war was fought between Hyder Ali and The East India Company in 1767.
The Second Anglo Mysore war was fought between Hyder Ali and The East India Company in 1782.
The Third Anglo Mysore war was fought between Tipu Sultan and The East India Company in 1791.
The rusting of iron is a process where the iron reacts with oxygen to form rust. Chemically the reaction may be written as:
a Fe + b O2 + → c Fe2O3.
In the balanced chemical reaction, the coefficient of Fe ‘a’ is:
LHS = 2
RHS = 3
LCM (2,3) = 6
Multiply Oxygen on LHS by 3 and on RHS by 2
a Fe + 3 O2 + → 2 Fe2O3
RHS = 4
LHS = 1
Multiply Fe on LHS by 4
4 Fe + 3 O2 + → 2 Fe2O3
When a hydrocarbon is burnt it gives yellow flames with black smoke. Which of the following is true regarding hydrocarbon:
Compounds of carbon, which are linked by only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated compounds.
Compounds of carbon having double or triple bonds between their carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds.
Saturated hydrocarbons give a clean flame while unsaturated carbon compounds will give a yellow flame with lots of black smoke.
In RCC beams, as the percentage area of tensile steel increases
In a balanced section, an increase in the area of steel will result in higher tensile stress carrying capacity.
To counteract or generate equivalent compressive stress/force, the neutral axis has to come down.
In a singly reinforced rectangular beam section,
which means as the percentage area of tensile steel increases the depth of the neutral axis increases
The working conditions in Imhoff tanks are –
Imhoff tank: It is a robust and effective settler that causes a suspended solids reduction of 50 to 70%, COD reduction of 25 to 50%, and leads to potentially good sludge stabilization.
It consists of two compartments:
Upper Compartment: This compartment has a circular or rectangular shape with V-shaped walls and a slot at the bottom, allowing solids to settle into the digestion compartment, while preventing foul gas from rising up and disturbing the settling process. It is exposed to atmosphere, and thus working condition is aerobic.
Lower Compartment: In this compartment, sludge accumulates and is compacted and partially stabilized through anaerobic digestion. Thus, working condition is anaerobic
What percentage of the total cost is added in the cost of construction for contingencies?
On awarding the contract, 5% of the contract value is included as the contingency in the cost plan.
A soil has a liquid limit of 40% and plasticity index of 20%. The plastic limit of the soil will be
Ip = wl - wp
Ip = 20%
wl = 40%
20% = 40% - wp
wL = 20%
Which scale is used to measure three dimensions on a scale?
(ii) Diagonal scale: It can measure three successive dimensions. (unit, 1/10unit, 1/10 unit) e.g. (m, dm, cm)
(iii) Vernier Scale: It is a device for measuring accurately the fractional part of the smallest division on a graduated scale.
(iv) Graphical Scale: It is a line drawn on the map representing the corresponding ground distance.
Hence, Diagonal scale is used to measure three dimensions on a scale.
Which bearing is most suitable for girder spans extending to 20 meters long?
They are classified as:
a) Shallow or fixed plate bearings – suitable for spans up to 12 m.
b) Deep cast base bearings – suitable for spans 12 m to 20 m.
c) Rocker bearings – suitable for spans more than 20 m.
d) Sliding plate bearings – suitable for girders of span 12 or 20 m.
A soil with a sensitivity of 9 will have ______ structure.
qu = unconfined compressive strength of soil in an undisturbed state
qr = unconfined compressive strength of soil in the remolded state
Classification of soil based on Sensitivity:
The duration of second generation computers is generally accepted
Hence option B is the right answer.
Consider the following statements:
The gravitational force exerted by the sun on the moon is greater than the gravitational force exerted by the earth on the moon.
A heavy body falls at a faster rate than a light body in vacuum.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct ?
The function of the sluice valve provided in the pipe line is
Check Valve: These valves are used to check the flow of water in reverse direction. These are generally provided on the delivery side of the pump. These valves work automatically.
Scour valve: This valve is used to drain the water out of the pipe system.
‘When a body is wholly or partially, immersed in a fluid, it experiences an up thrust equal to the weight of the fluid displace’. This is known as:
The tensile strength of the concrete is estimated by ______
The ordinates of unit hydrograph can be obtained by dividing each of the ordinates of direct runoff by the
Steps to derive UH:
a) A hydrograph plotted by rainfall excess of a given duration (D-h) is selected.
b) Base flow is separated from the selected hydrograph to derive DRH.
c) The area under the DRH is calculated, which will be equal to the runoff volume.
d) The runoff volume is then divided by the catchment area to obtain effective rainfall.
e) The ordinates of the DRH are divided by the effective rainfall (Obtained from step “d”) to get the ordinates of UH of D-hr duration.
∴ The ordinates of unit hydrograph can be obtained by dividing each of the ordinates of direct runoff by the depth of direct runoff.
A fixed stipulated sum of penalty payable by the contractor having no relationship with real damage is known as?
As the span of a bridge increases, how does the impact factor vary?
Where L is the length of span in meters,
hence impact factor will decrease on increase with span.
Which of the following statements are correct for Load bearing structure?
I. The carpet area of the upper floor is lesser than the lower floor
II. Thickness of the higher-level wall is lesser than the lower level
III. Load of the structure is borne by the walls only
IV. It is suitable for Highrise buildings, towers or skyscrapers
For such structure, loads from the slab roof or trusses and floors are transmitted through walls to the firm soil below the ground. In load-bearing structures, the wall thickness of the upper floors is lesser than the lower floor. Therefore, the carpet area of higher level is more than the lower level.
Such type of structure is most suited for buildings up to three storeys and a where hard strata of soil is available. It is generally adopted for residential bungalow, tenement, temples, rural buildings, etc.
A short hollow circular steel column having wall thickness 8 mm and outer diameter being 80 mm must carry a compressive load of 100 kN. Calculate the deformation of the column if the length of the column is 2 meters. (Take E = 2.1 × 105 N/mm2)
δl = deformation of a bar
L = Length of a bar
A = cross-sectional area of bar
E = Modulus of Elasticity of section
Given: L = 2000 mm, E = 2.1 × 105 N/mm2 and P = 105 N
Consider the following statements:
In the water-supply distribution network, the dead end system is not favored because:
a. it is cumbersome in terms of design.
b. the pressure at the dead-ends becomes undesirably low in the case of additional extensions.
c. it is difficult to maintain residual chlorine levels at the dead ends.
d. at the time of repairs, service connections beyond the point of repair are deprived of water.
Of these statements.
It is also called as a tree system, it consists of one main supply line, from which originates (generally at right angles) a number of sub main pipes. Each sub main is then divided into several branch pipes, called laterals. This type of distribution system is suitable for older towns which have developed in a haphazard manner, without properly planned road e.g. old city, irregularly grown city, etc.
It is easier to construct as no designing or planning is required. The pressure at the ends becomes undesirably low and it is difficult to maintain chlorine levels at the ends.
Which of the following is the information retrieval service?
The internet is a globally connected network system that transmits data via various types of media. Sometimes it is referred to as a ‘network of networks’
The World Wide Web, or simply web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the internet
A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web
When was the Battle of Ghaghra fought?
The Battle of Ghaghra was fought between Sultan Muhammad Lodhi (The last claimant of the Lodhi Empire) and Babur (Founder of Mughal Empire in India) in 1529.
Muhammad Lodhi was defeated by Babur in this battle.
The Battle of Ghaghra was the decisive battle for the Mughals in India as It led to the complete control of the Mughals in North India.
A ball of mass 8 kg is dropped from a height of 20 m. What is the velocity with which it strikes the ground?
KE gained = mgh
KE gained = 8*10*20
KE gained = 1600 J
KE = (1/2)mv2
1600 = (1/2)*8*v2
Solve for v
V = Square root of 400
V = 20 m/s2
Maximum limit of chloride content of reinforced concrete (in kg/m3) is _______
Maximum limit of concrete are as follows:
“Pocket” is a part of
Components of Diversion head work are as follows:
1) Weir or Barrage
2) Divide wall
3) Fish ladder
4) Approach channel or pocket
5) Scouring sluices
6) Silt Excluder
7) Head regulator
8) Guide bank or marginal bund
∴ “Pocket” is a part of Diversion Head Work.
Fire-resistant mortar consists of ___
These are used for lining furnace, ovens, etc.
Match List – I (Nature of the solids) with List-II (Unit operation or process connected with its removal) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
As the molecules of dissolved metals and salts are large compared to the water molecules, water squeezes through the membrane leaving the metals and salts behind.
Colloidal Solids: These are extremely small size (1-200 mill microns) particles. These do not settle out on standing and cannot be removed by conventional physical treatment processes.
Colloids exhibit Brownian movement and are generally electrically charged with respect to their surroundings and hence Coagulation is the best treatment to be provided.
Volatile Solids: These are removed by sludge digestion technique as they are very fine particles. They undergo aerobic/anaerobic reactions for decomposition and forms sludge at the bottom of the tank.
Settleable Solids: They are removed by sedimentation.
Which of the following is not used in measuring perpendicular offsets?
A. Using cross staffs
There are three types of cross-staff
1. Open cross-staff
2. The French cross-staff and
3. The Adjustable cross-staff
B. Using optical Square
C. Using Prism square
D. Using Steel tape
Hence, line ranger is not used for measuring perpendicular offsets
As per Indian Standard 456 – 2000 specifications, High Strength concrete is designated into
From the following assumption made in the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation is incorrect.
1) Flow is steady
2) Fluid is incompressible
3) Fluid is non-viscous (inviscid)
4) Equation is applicable along a streamline
5) Effect of friction is neglected
6) Only pressure and gravity forces are taken into account
7) Velocity is uniform over the cross-section
Hauling equipment are used for ________
Hauling equipment are classified as:
i) Dump Trucks
a) Side or rear dump trucks
b) Bottom dump trucks
All columns shall be designed for minimum eccentricity l/500 + d/30 = 20 mm.
Where, l = ________
d = ________.
∴ l = unsupported length of column and d = lateral dimension of the column
Which of the following gain unauthorized access to the user system and demand ransom to regain access?
In May 2017, WannaCry ransomware targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system by encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency
Around 37 incidents of ransomware attacks were reported to the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), according to Minister of State for Electronics and IT
Adware is any software application in which advertising banners are displayed while a program is running
Spyware is mostly used for the purposes of tracking and storing internet user movements on the web and provides pop-up ads to the internet user
Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but in fact malicious which misleads user of its true intent
Entrance length is defined as
A body is projected at an angle such that its horizontal range is 3 times the maximum height. Find the angle of projection.
Let u and a be velocity of projection and the angle of projection.
Then Maximum height reached ⇒H=u2sin2α/2g
Given that R = 3 x H
The outer protective layer of a tree is
1) Pitch → Inner most central portion.
2) Heart wood → The inner annual rings surrounding the pith.
3) Sap wood → The outer annual rings between Heart wood and cambium layer
4) Cambium layer → A thin layer of sap between sap wood and inner bark
5) Inner bark → It gives protection of the cambium layer.
6) Outer bark → It is the outermost part of the tree.
If a radius of curvature of a simple curve is 229.2 m, then its degree of curvature is-
For 20 m chain length,
The degree of curve (D) is given by ⇒ D=1146/R
For 30 m chain length,
Degree of curve (D) is given by ⇒ D=1729/R
∴ For 20 m chain length, D = 1146/229.2 = 5°
∴ For 30 m chain length, D = 1729/229.2 = 7.54°
∴ Most appropriate option is 5° and hence 20 m chain length should be considered.
Many ancient monuments have been spoilt by acid rain which is
We are aware that normally rainwater has a pH of 5.6. When the pH of the rainwater drops below 5.6, it is called acid rain.
Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid from the atmosphere is deposited on the earth’s surface. Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, which are acidic in nature, can be blown by the wind along with solid particles in the atmosphere and finally settle down either on the ground as dry deposition or in water, fog and snow as wet deposition.
Acid rain is a byproduct of a variety of human activities that emit the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere. As mentioned earlier, the burning of fossil fuels (which contain sulphur and nitrogenous matter) such as coal and oil in power stations and furnaces or petrol and diesel in motor engines produce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
SO2 and NO2 after oxidation and reaction with water are major contributors to acid rain because polluted air usually contains particulate matter that catalyzes the oxidation.
2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) → 2H2SO4 (aq)
4NO2 (g) + O2 (g)+ 2H2O (l) → 4HNO3 (aq)
The bad effects of acid rain
When acid rain falls and flows as groundwater reaches rivers, lakes, etc., it affects plants and animal life in the aquatic ecosystem.
Acid rain is harmful to agriculture, trees, and plants as it dissolves and washes away nutrients needed for their growth.
It causes respiratory ailments in human beings and animal
It may also cause corrosion in many buildings bridges, monuments, fencing, etc
It irritates the eyes and skin of human beings
This rain reduces the lustre of the metals too
Acid rain damages buildings and other structures made of stone or metal
The Taj Mahal in India has been affected by acid rain
Which of the following rivers originates outside India?
River Sutlej originates outside India, at Mount Kailash, Tibet.
It enters India through Shipki la Pass.
Yamuna River originates at Yamunotri Glacier, Uttarakhand.
Ganga River originates at Gaumukh, Gangotri Glacier, Uttarakhand.
Luni is the only river that flows in Rajasthan.
Ethanoic acid reacts with absolute ethanol to give a compound X. The compound X is used in making perfumes and as a flavouring agent. The compound X is:
Esters are formed by the reaction of an acid and an alcohol.
Ethanoic acid reacts with absolute ethanol in the presence of an acid catalyst to give an ester.
Esters are sweet-smelling substances. These are used in making perfumes and as flavouring agents
CH3 – COOH + CH3 CH2 COOH → CH3 – CO – O – CH2 – CH3
Volumetric strain (ev) is given by ____
Here, σx = stress in x-direction, σy = stress in y-direction, σz = stress in z-direction, μ = Poisson ratio and E = Modulus of Elasticity.
Here ex, ey, and ez are the strain in the x, y, and z directions, respectively.
A pigment generally used to impart white colour in a paint is
Some pigments are toxic, such as those used in lead paint. Paint manufacturers replaced lead white with a less toxic substitute, which can even be used to colour food titanium white (titanium dioxide).
The drain which is provided a parallel to the roadway to intercept and divert the water from hill slopes is _______
Its purpose is to gather water draining from higher sloping ground before it reaches the flat land.
Side drains: These drains are also provided parallel to the roadway for plain region.
Sloping drains: These are provided at the intersections of the roadways and also along the short paths.
Cross drains: These are provided along the cross drainage portion of the roadway.