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Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - UPSC MCQ


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Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 1

Why were some forests classified as “protected” ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 1
Protected Forests Classification
Protected forests were classified as such for several reasons, as outlined below:
1. Customary grazing rights:
- In some cases, protected forests were designated to grant customary grazing rights to pastoral communities.
- These communities relied on grazing their livestock in the forest areas for sustenance.
- However, the movements of these pastoralists were severely restricted within the protected forests.
2. Preservation of saplings and young shoots:
- Colonial officials believed that unrestricted grazing in forests led to the destruction of saplings and young shoots of trees.
- Grazing animals would consume these young plants, hindering the natural regeneration of forests.
- To ensure the growth and development of forests, certain areas were classified as protected where grazing was restricted.
3. Combined reasons:
- The classification of protected forests could be a combination of both granting customary grazing rights and preserving saplings and young shoots.
- In such cases, the movements of pastoralists were restricted to specific areas within the forest to prevent excessive grazing.
4. None of the above:
- The option "None of the above" is incorrect in this context, as both reasons (a) and (b) contribute to the classification of forests as protected.
Overall, the classification of forests as protected aimed to strike a balance between the needs of pastoral communities and the conservation of forest ecosystems.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 2

Life of the pastoral groups were sustained by

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 2
Life of the pastoral groups were sustained by:
- Correct judgement of how long the herds could stay in one area, know where to find water and pasture: Pastoral groups needed to have a good understanding of the resources available in their surroundings in order to sustain their herds. They had to assess the availability of water and pasture and determine how long their herds could stay in one area before moving on.
- Correct calculation of timing, their movements and ensuring they could move through territories: Pastoral groups needed to carefully plan their movements to ensure that they could access different territories for grazing. They had to calculate the timing of their movements to ensure that they could move through different areas while still having access to adequate resources.
- Setting up relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze: Pastoral groups often established relationships with farmers along their routes. This allowed them to graze their herds on the farmlands, providing additional resources for their animals.
- All the above: The sustainable life of pastoral groups relied on a combination of all the above factors. It required a deep understanding of the environment, careful planning of movements, and the establishment of beneficial relationships with farmers.
In conclusion, the life of pastoral groups was sustained by their ability to make correct judgements about resource availability, plan their movements effectively, and establish relationships with farmers along their routes. This allowed them to ensure the well-being of their herds and maintain a sustainable lifestyle.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 3

In what ways lives of Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir similar to that of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 3
Similarities between lives of Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir and Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh:

  • Seasonal Movement: Both communities follow a similar cycle of seasonal movement. They migrate with their herds between different grazing grounds based on the changing weather and availability of resources.

  • Winter Grazing: During winters, both Gujjar Bakarwals and Gaddi shepherds prefer to stay in the low hills of the Siwalik range. They graze their herds in dry scrub forests, which provide them with sufficient forage during this period.

  • Summer Grazing: In April, both communities begin their upward journey towards their summer grazing grounds. These grazing grounds are located in the higher altitudes of the Himalayas, where the weather is more suitable and the availability of fresh grass is abundant.


Conclusion:
Both Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir and Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh share similarities in their way of life. They both engage in seasonal migration, spending winters in low hills and moving to higher altitudes for summer grazing. This lifestyle allows them to ensure the well-being of their herds and sustain their livelihoods in the challenging terrain of the Himalayas.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 4

The title Maasai derives from _______ and two special features of this tribe are

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 4
Explanation:
The title Maasai derives from the Maa language spoken by the tribe. The Maa word for Maasai is 'My People'.
The Maasai tribe is known for two special features:
1. Nomadic and pastoral lifestyle: The Maasai people are nomadic, which means they move from place to place in search of grazing land for their livestock. They are pastoral, relying on livestock such as cattle, goats, and sheep for their livelihood. Milk and meat are the primary sources of subsistence for the Maasai.
2. Harsh environmental conditions: The Maasai inhabit an area with high temperatures, low rainfall, and frequent droughts. Their land is dry, dusty, and extremely hot. These environmental conditions have shaped their way of life and their ability to adapt to a challenging environment.
In conclusion, the Maasai derive their title from the Maa language, and two special features of this tribe are their nomadic and pastoral lifestyle, and their ability to thrive in a dry and harsh environment.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 5

Which of these are the pastoral communities of the mountains ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 5
Pastoral Communities of the Mountains
The pastoral communities of the mountains include:
- Gujjars: Gujjars are a pastoral community found in the mountainous regions of northern India, particularly in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. They are primarily engaged in livestock rearing, especially cattle, sheep, and goats.
- Gaddis: Gaddis are another pastoral community residing in the mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh. They are known for their traditional occupation of transhumance, where they migrate with their livestock to higher altitudes during the summer and descend to lower altitudes during the winter.
- Bhotiyas and Sherpas: Bhotiyas and Sherpas are pastoral communities found in the Himalayan region. The Bhotiyas reside in the valleys of Uttarakhand and are involved in animal husbandry and trade. The Sherpas, on the other hand, are renowned for their mountaineering skills and are primarily found in the regions of Nepal and Tibet.
Therefore, all the options mentioned - Gujjars, Gaddis, Bhotiyas, and Sherpas - are pastoral communities of the mountains.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 6

The continuous movement of the pastoral communities helps in

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 6

The continuous movement of pastoral communities has several benefits, including the following:
1. Recovery of the pastures:
- Pastoral communities practice a system of rotational grazing, where they move their livestock from one pasture to another.
- This rotation allows the previously grazed pastures to recover from overuse and replenish their vegetation.
- The movement helps in maintaining the health and productivity of the pastures, ensuring sustainable grazing practices.
2. Prevention of overuse:
- Pastoral communities' nomadic lifestyle prevents the overuse of any particular pasture.
- By moving their livestock to different areas, they distribute the grazing pressure across multiple pastures.
- This prevents the excessive consumption of vegetation in a single location, allowing for the regeneration and preservation of the natural ecosystem.
3. Reduction in the demand for houses:
- Pastoral communities often live in temporary shelters such as tents or huts that can be easily assembled and disassembled.
- Their nomadic lifestyle reduces the need for permanent settlements or houses.
- This reduces the strain on resources required for construction and infrastructure development.
Therefore, the continuous movement of pastoral communities helps in both the recovery of pastures and the prevention of their overuse, making option D the correct answer.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 7

The social changes in Maasai society are that

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 7

The social changes in Maasai society can be summarized as follows:
1. Traditional Age-Based Hierarchy:
- The traditional difference based on age, between the elders and warriors, has been disturbed but not broken down.
- This means that while the traditional hierarchy still exists, there have been some changes in the roles and status of different age groups within the community.
2. Emerging Wealth Disparity:
- A new distinction between the wealthy and the poor pastoralists has developed.
- This indicates that there is now a division within the Maasai society based on wealth, with some individuals or families becoming wealthier than others.
3. Combination of Changes:
- The social changes in Maasai society include both the disturbance of the traditional age-based hierarchy and the emergence of wealth disparity.
- Therefore, the correct answer is option C: both (a) and (b).
It is important to note that while these changes have occurred, they do not mean that the traditional Maasai society has completely broken down. Instead, the society has adapted and undergone some transformation while still maintaining certain aspects of its traditional structure.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 8

Pastoralists were found in the

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 8
Answer:
Pastoralists were found in the following regions:
1. Plateaus:
- Plateaus are elevated flat areas of land.
- Pastoralists were found in plateaus as they provided ample grazing areas for their livestock.
2. Plains:
- Plains are flat or gently rolling areas of land.
- Pastoralists preferred plains for grazing their livestock as they offered vast open spaces.
3. Deserts:
- Deserts are arid regions with little or no vegetation.
- Some pastoral communities adapted to desert conditions and practiced nomadic pastoralism in these areas, where they moved their livestock in search of grazing and water.
4. All the above:
- Pastoralists were found in plateaus, plains, and deserts.
- They adapted their lifestyles and practices according to the geographical conditions of these regions.
In conclusion, pastoralists were found in plateaus, plains, and deserts. They utilized these different types of landscapes for grazing their livestock and sustaining their way of life.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 9

Dhangars were an important pastoral community of

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 9
Dhangars: An Important Pastoral Community

  • Introduction: Dhangars were a significant pastoral community in India.

  • Location: They were primarily found in the state of Maharashtra.

  • Role: The Dhangars played a crucial role in animal husbandry and were primarily involved in shepherding and cattle rearing.

  • Economic Importance: They were known for their expertise in managing and breeding livestock, particularly sheep and goats.

  • Migration: The Dhangars were nomadic in nature and practiced transhumance, which involved seasonal migration with their livestock in search of grazing lands.

  • Cultural Significance: The community had its unique cultural practices, traditions, and festivals related to animal husbandry.

  • Political Significance: The Dhangars have also been politically active and have demanded recognition and support from the government.

  • Community Development: Efforts have been made by various organizations and the government to improve the socio-economic conditions of the Dhangars.


Therefore, the correct answer is B. Maharashtra.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 10

Which crop was sown by the Dhangars in the central plateau of Maharashtra ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 10
The crop sown by the Dhangars in the central plateau of Maharashtra is Bajra.
Reasoning:
- The Dhangars are a pastoral community in Maharashtra who are known for their traditional farming practices.
- The central plateau region of Maharashtra is known for its dry and arid climate, which is suitable for the cultivation of crops that are drought-resistant and can thrive in such conditions.
- Bajra, also known as pearl millet, is one such crop that is well-suited to the climatic conditions of the central plateau.
- Bajra is a hardy crop that requires less water and can withstand high temperatures and low rainfall.
- It is a staple food crop for the Dhangars and is commonly grown by them in the region.
- Bajra is used for various purposes such as making rotis (flatbread), porridge, and even fermented to make alcoholic beverages.
- The crop is rich in nutrients like iron, calcium, and magnesium, making it an important part of the diet in the region.
- The cultivation of Bajra by the Dhangars helps in sustaining their livelihoods and provides them with a source of income.
Therefore, the crop sown by the Dhangars in the central plateau of Maharashtra is Bajra.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 11

By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move to the west. Why were they welcomed by the Konkani peasants ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 11

In the monsoon this region became a nast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. By October the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move west. After a month, they reached the Konkan. This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here the Dhangar shepherds were welcomed by Konkani peasants.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 12

What was the reason of the seasonal rhythms of the movement of Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 12
The Reason for Seasonal Rhythms of the Movement of Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas:
The reason for the seasonal rhythms of the movement of Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas is the Monsoon and dry season.
Explanation:
These communities, namely Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas, have traditionally been pastoral nomads, relying on animal husbandry for their livelihood. Their movement patterns are influenced by the availability of grazing land and water sources, which vary with the changing seasons. Here is a detailed explanation of the reasons behind their seasonal rhythms:
1. Monsoon Season:
During the monsoon season, which is characterized by heavy rainfall, there is abundant vegetation growth and water sources become plentiful. This is an ideal time for the Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas to move their livestock to higher elevations, where the grass is lush and nutritious. The movement during this season ensures that their animals have access to good grazing land and sufficient water.
2. Dry Season:
As the monsoon season comes to an end, the dry season sets in. During this period, the availability of grazing land and water sources decreases significantly. The Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas then move their livestock to lower elevations or regions with better access to water, where they can find suitable grazing land. This movement helps them ensure that their animals have enough food and water to survive during the dry spell.
3. Adaptation to Climate:
The seasonal rhythms of movement have evolved as an adaptation to the climate and environmental conditions of the region. By following these seasonal patterns, the Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas optimize the well-being and productivity of their livestock. It allows them to take advantage of the available resources in different regions throughout the year, ensuring the survival and sustenance of their herds.
In conclusion, the seasonal rhythms of the movement of Gollas, Kurumas, and Kurubas are primarily influenced by the monsoon and dry seasons. By moving their livestock to areas with suitable grazing land and water sources, they adapt to the changing environmental conditions and ensure the well-being of their animals.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 13

Where were the Banjaras found ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 13
Introduction:
The Banjaras are a nomadic community in India who were historically known for their trading and transportation skills. They have been found in various regions across the country.
Answer:
The Banjaras were found in the following regions:
1. Uttar Pradesh:
- The Banjaras were found in Uttar Pradesh, which is a state in northern India.
2. Punjab, Rajasthan:
- The Banjaras were also found in the states of Punjab and Rajasthan, which are located in the northwestern part of India.
3. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra:
- The Banjaras were also present in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, which are located in central and western India, respectively.
4. All the above:
- Therefore, the correct answer is option D, which states that the Banjaras were found in all of the above-mentioned regions.
Conclusion:
The Banjaras were a nomadic community found in various regions of India, including Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 14

Where did the community of Raikas live ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 14
Answer:
The community of Raikas lived in the deserts of Rajasthan.
Explanation:
- The Raikas are a nomadic community that traditionally resides in the desert regions of Rajasthan.
- Rajasthan is a state located in the northwestern part of India, known for its vast and arid Thar Desert.
- The Raikas primarily inhabit the regions of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, and Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
- They have adapted to the harsh desert environment and have developed a unique way of life centered around animal husbandry, particularly camel rearing.
- The Raikas are skilled camel breeders and herders, and their livelihood depends on the products derived from camels such as milk, meat, and wool.
- They are known for their expertise in camel breeding and have played a significant role in sustaining the camel population in the desert regions.
- The Raikas have a distinct culture and are recognized for their colorful attire, music, dance, and folklore.
- They have faced numerous challenges in recent times due to changing socio-economic conditions and dwindling natural resources, but efforts are being made to preserve their cultural heritage and support their sustainable way of life.
In conclusion, the community of Raikas lived in the deserts of Rajasthan, specifically in regions such as Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, and Jodhpur.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 15

Why did the colonial state want to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 15
Reasons why the colonial state wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms:
There were several reasons why the colonial state wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms:
1. Land revenue: Land revenue was one of the main sources of finance for the colonial state. By converting grazing lands into cultivated farms, the state could collect more land revenue from the farmers who cultivated the land.
2. Economic benefits: The colonial state aimed to increase agricultural production to meet the demands of the British market. By converting grazing lands into cultivated farms, they could produce more jute, cotton, wheat, and other agricultural produce that were required in England. This would contribute to the economic growth and prosperity of the colonial state.
3. Control and exploitation: By transforming grazing lands into cultivated farms, the colonial state could exercise greater control over the land and its resources. This allowed them to further exploit the land and its produce for their own benefit.
4. Modernization and development: The colonial state believed that converting grazing lands into cultivated farms would lead to modernization and development of the agricultural sector. They promoted the adoption of modern farming techniques, such as the use of machinery and improved seeds, to increase productivity and efficiency.
In conclusion, the colonial state wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms primarily to generate land revenue, meet the demands of the British market, exercise control and exploitation, and promote modernization and development in the agricultural sector.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 16

Since when were the ‘Wasteland Rules’ implemented in various parts of the country ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 16

The British wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms and thus increase its land revenue. Also at the same time more agriculture produce like jute, cotton and what would be available which was urgently needed in England. Colonial official believed that all uncultivated land was ‘waste land’ that needed to be brought under cultivation .Therefore; Waste Rules were in the mid-nineteenth century.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 17

According to the ‘Wasteland Rules’

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 17
Wasteland Rules:
A: Uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals.
- The Wasteland Rules involved the acquisition of uncultivated lands.
- These lands were taken over by the authorities.
B: These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands.
- The select individuals who received the uncultivated lands were offered different concessions.
- They were encouraged and supported in settling and developing these lands.
C: Some of them were made headmen of villages in the newly cleared areas.
- Among the select individuals who received the uncultivated lands, some were appointed as headmen.
- These headmen played a leadership role in the newly cleared areas and governed the villages.
D: All the above.
- The Wasteland Rules encompassed all of the mentioned actions.
- Uncultivated lands were taken over, granted to select individuals, and some of them were made headmen in the newly cleared areas.
Therefore, the answer is D. All of the above.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 18

Through the Forest Acts, some forests which produced timber like deodar or sal were declared ‘Reserved’. What did that mean ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 18
Meaning of 'Reserved' in the context of the Forest Acts:
The term 'Reserved' in the context of the Forest Acts refers to the designation of certain forests for specific purposes or groups of people. In the case of forests producing timber like deodar or sal, the designation of 'Reserved' meant that:
No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests:
- The forests were strictly off-limits to pastoralists, meaning they were not allowed access to graze their livestock or carry out any activities within these areas.
Alternative options:
- The forests were not reserved for pastoralists: This option is incorrect as the forests were specifically designated as 'Reserved', indicating exclusion of pastoralists.
- Some particular pastoral communities only were allowed access to them: This option is also incorrect as the forests were not reserved for any specific pastoral communities, but rather restricted for all pastoralists.
Therefore, the correct answer is option B: No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 19

In which way did the Forest Acts change the lives of the pastoralists ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 19
Forest Acts brought significant changes in the lives of pastoralists. These changes can be summarized as follows:
Regulation of Movements:
- The Forest Acts regulated the movements of pastoralists in the areas of forests where they were allowed.
- Pastoralists were no longer free to roam and graze their livestock wherever they pleased.
- They had to follow specific rules and regulations regarding their movements within the forest areas.
Permit Requirement:
- Pastoralists needed a permit for entry into the forest areas.
- This permit was a formal authorization that allowed them to enter and utilize the forest resources for grazing their livestock.
- Without a permit, pastoralists were not allowed access to the forest areas.
Specified Timing:
- The Forest Acts also specified the timing of entry and departure for pastoralists in the forest areas.
- They had to adhere to the designated timings for entering and leaving the forest regions with their livestock.
These changes significantly impacted the lives of pastoralists as they restricted their traditional practices of free movement and access to forest resources. The Forest Acts brought a level of control and regulation, which affected the pastoralists' livelihoods and their interaction with the forest ecosystem.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 20

Gujjar Bakarwals are pastoralists belonging to which region ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 20
Gujjar Bakarwals belonging to Jammu and Kashmir

  • Introduction: Gujjar Bakarwals are a community of pastoralists in India.

  • Region: They primarily belong to the region of Jammu and Kashmir.

  • Way of Life: Gujjar Bakarwals are known for their nomadic lifestyle, where they move along with their herds of cattle, mainly sheep and goats, in search of grazing lands.

  • Occupation: They earn their livelihood through dairy farming, selling milk, wool, and other dairy products.

  • Cultural Significance: Gujjar Bakarwals have a rich cultural heritage and are known for their unique traditions, music, dance forms, and handicrafts.

  • Challenges: The community faces various challenges, including lack of basic amenities, limited access to education and healthcare, and conflicts with settled communities over grazing lands.

  • Government Initiatives: The government has taken several initiatives to address the issues faced by Gujjar Bakarwals, including providing education and healthcare facilities in their temporary settlements and implementing welfare schemes for their upliftment.

  • Conclusion: The Gujjar Bakarwals, belonging to the region of Jammu and Kashmir, play a significant role in the pastoral economy and cultural diversity of India.


This answer provides a detailed explanation of the Gujjar Bakarwals, their region of belonging, way of life, occupation, cultural significance, challenges faced, and government initiatives for their welfare.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 21

Which of the following vast natural pastures are on the high mountains, above 12000 ft ?           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 21
Answer:
The vast natural pastures that are located on high mountains above 12,000 ft are called Bugyals.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 22

Kafila refers to -              

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 22
Explanation:
Kafila refers to a group of pastoralists moving together.
- A kafila is a term commonly used in South Asia, particularly in India, to describe a group of people, often nomadic or semi-nomadic, who travel together for various reasons such as trade, migration, or pilgrimage.
- The word "kafila" is derived from the Arabic word "kafilah" which means a caravan or a group of travelers.
- In the context of the given options, a kafila is different from a fort, boat, or ship. It specifically refers to a group of people, usually pastoralists, who move together as a community.
- Pastoralists are people who rely on herding animals for their livelihood, and they often travel from one place to another in search of grazing lands for their animals.
- Traveling in a kafila provides safety, support, and a sense of community for the pastoralists. It also allows them to share resources and knowledge, and protect themselves from external threats.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 23

Group of Raikas, that herded camels were known as –           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 23

The correct answer is A as aikas were found in the deserts of Rajasthan. 
One group of Raikas, known as the Maru (desert) Raikas-herded camels and another group reared sheep and goat.
 

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 24

Konkan is located on the –           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 24
Konkan is located on the West coast of our country.

Here are the reasons why Konkan is located on the West coast:


- Geographical Location:
- Konkan is a region in the western coastal area of India.
- It stretches along the Arabian Sea coastline, covering parts of the states of Maharashtra, Goa, and Karnataka.
- It is situated between the Western Ghats mountain range and the Arabian Sea.

- West Coast of India:
- India has a vast coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
- The West coast of India refers to the coastline along the Arabian Sea.
- It includes states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala.
- Konkan is a part of this West coast and falls within the boundaries of Maharashtra, Goa, and Karnataka.

- Proximity to the Arabian Sea:
- Konkan is characterized by its proximity to the Arabian Sea.
- It has numerous beaches, ports, and fishing villages along its coastline.
- The region's economy is closely tied to activities related to the sea, such as fishing, trade, and tourism.

- Cultural Significance:
- Konkan has a rich cultural heritage, influenced by its coastal location.
- The region is known for its distinct cuisine, which includes seafood and coconut-based dishes.
- Traditional festivals and rituals are also influenced by the coastal lifestyle and the sea.

In conclusion, Konkan is located on the West coast of our country, along the Arabian Sea. Its geographical location, proximity to the Arabian Sea, and cultural significance make it a unique and vibrant region in India.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 25

Camel grazing in western is practiced by –           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 25
Camel grazing in western is practiced by:
- Bhils: Bhils are a tribal community in western India, known for their traditional practices and close connection with nature. They are known to practice camel grazing in the western region.
- Meenas: Meenas are another tribal community in western India, who are also involved in camel grazing. They have a deep understanding of camel husbandry and utilize their knowledge to practice grazing in the region.
- Gujjars: Gujjars are a pastoral community found in various parts of India, including western India. They have been practicing camel grazing for generations and have developed expertise in managing and tending to camels.
- Raikas: Raikas are a nomadic community known for their association with camels. They have a long history of camel herding and grazing and are skilled in the art of camel management.
Overall, camel grazing in western India is practiced by various tribal and pastoral communities who have a deep understanding of camel husbandry and utilize their knowledge to sustainably graze camels in the region. These communities have a rich cultural heritage and play a crucial role in preserving the traditional practices of camel grazing.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 26

Gollas of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are –           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 26
Gollas of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are:
- Cattle herders
- Goat and Sheep herders
- Buffalo keepers
- Blanket weavers
Answer: a. Cattle herders
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 27

Kurumas and Kurubas are the pastoralists of :           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 27
Answer:
The pastoralists known as Kurumas and Kurubas are found in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Here is a detailed explanation of the answer:
1. Kurumas:
- Kurumas are a pastoral community found in the state of Karnataka.
- They are primarily engaged in animal husbandry, particularly sheep rearing.
- Kurumas are known for their expertise in sheep breeding and wool production.
- They migrate seasonally with their livestock in search of grazing pastures.
- The Kurumas follow a traditional way of life and have their own distinct cultural practices.
2. Kurubas:
- Kurubas are another pastoral community found in both Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- They are known for their traditional occupation of shepherding and cattle rearing.
- Kurubas primarily rear cattle, including cows, buffaloes, and goats.
- Like the Kurumas, the Kurubas also migrate seasonally with their livestock.
- They have their own unique cultural practices and traditions.
Conclusion:
The Kurumas and Kurubas, both pastoralist communities, can be found in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. They are engaged in animal husbandry, including sheep rearing, cattle rearing, and other related activities. These communities have their own distinct cultural practices and migrate seasonally with their livestock.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 28

Through various Forest Acts, some forest which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar and Sal were declared:           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 28
Forest Acts and Classification of Forests:


There are various Forest Acts that have been implemented to manage and regulate forests. These acts have classified forests based on their purpose and commercial value. In the context of forests producing commercially valuable timber like deodar and Sal, the classification would be as follows:
1. Protected Forests:
- Protected forests are areas that are designated for the protection and conservation of forests and wildlife.
- These forests are managed by the government or relevant authorities to ensure their sustainable use and prevent any unauthorized exploitation.
- Commercial activities like timber extraction are restricted or regulated in protected forests.
- Protected forests are established to maintain ecological balance, preserve biodiversity, and protect wildlife habitats.
2. Unclassified Forests:
- Unclassified forests refer to areas that have not been officially classified or designated under any specific category.
- These forests may lack legal protection and management plans, making them vulnerable to unauthorized exploitation and encroachment.
- The commercial value of timber in unclassified forests may vary, but there is no specific designation for their sustainable management.
3. Reserved Forests:
- Reserved forests are areas that have been set aside and reserved for the purpose of producing commercially valuable timber and other forest products.
- These forests are managed by the government or relevant authorities for the sustainable extraction of timber and other resources.
- The commercial value of timber in reserved forests is recognized, and regulations are in place to ensure its sustainable utilization.
- Reserved forests are established to meet the demand for timber and other forest products while maintaining ecological balance and sustainable forest management practices.
4. None of the above:
- This option implies that the forests producing commercially valuable timber like deodar and Sal have not been classified under any of the mentioned categories.
- It is essential to establish proper classification and management measures to ensure the sustainable use of these forests and prevent their depletion.
In the given scenario, the correct answer is option C: Reserved. This indicates that the forests producing commercially valuable timber like deodar and Sal have been declared as reserved forests, specifically designated for the sustainable extraction of timber and other forest products.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 29

The reserved forest has mainly the trees of following types:           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 29
Types of trees in the reserved forest:

  • Khezri: One type of tree found in the reserved forest.

  • Keekar: Another type of tree present in the reserved forest.

  • Sundari: A third type of tree found in the reserved forest.

  • Deodar and Sal: The reserved forest also has trees of the Deodar and Sal species.


Explanation:
The reserved forest consists of several types of trees, including Khezri, Keekar, Sundari, Deodar, and Sal. These trees contribute to the biodiversity and ecological balance of the forest. Each tree species has its own unique characteristics and benefits for the ecosystem. It is important to preserve and protect these trees to maintain the health and sustainability of the reserved forest.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 30

The main areas of Maasai cattle herders of Africa are –           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 2 - Question 30
Main Areas of Maasai Cattle Herders in Africa:
There are several main areas where Maasai cattle herders can be found in Africa. These areas include:
1. Kenya: Kenya is one of the primary countries where Maasai cattle herders are located. They inhabit various regions in Kenya, including the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Amboseli National Park, and the Rift Valley.
2. Tanzania: Maasai cattle herders are also prevalent in Tanzania. They reside in areas such as the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and Serengeti National Park.
3. Uganda: While not as prominent as in Kenya and Tanzania, there are also Maasai cattle herders in Uganda. They can be found in the Karamoja region in northeastern Uganda.
4. Rwanda: In Rwanda, the Maasai community is mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the country, particularly in the districts of Nyagatare and Gatsibo.
It is important to note that the Maasai people are a semi-nomadic tribe, and their herding activities often involve moving their cattle between different grazing areas. Therefore, their presence may extend beyond the specific regions mentioned above.
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