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Additional Test (Part - 2)


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8 Questions MCQ Test Additional Study Material for UPSC | Additional Test (Part - 2)

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Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 1

Which of the following are the effects of ocean acidification.

1. It leads to the lowering of ocean pH.

2. The concentration of hydrogen ions in the ocean increases.

3. The oceans become more alkaline.

4. Concentration of carbonate ions decreases.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 1
  • Ocean acidification is the change in ocean chemistry - lowering of ocean pH (i.e. increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions) driven by the uptake of carbon compounds by the ocean from the atmosphere.

  • As the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the ocean increases, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the ocean increases, the concentration of carbonate ions decreases, the pH of the oceans decreases and the oceans become less alkaline – this process is known as ocean acidification.

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 2

Which of the following measures can mitigate the effects of ocean acidification?

1. Reducing CO2

2. Promoting government policies to cap CO2 emissions

3. Eliminate offshore drilling

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 2 Mitigation
  • Reducing CO2

  • Promoting government policies to cap CO2 emissions

  • Eliminate offshore drilling

  • By advocating for energy efficiency

  • Alternative energy sources such as wind power, solar, etc.

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 3

Consider the following statements about the influence of eutrophication on ocean acidification.

1. Eutrophication leads to large plankton blooms, and these blooms collapse and sink to the sea bed

2. The subsequent respiration of bacteria decomposing the algae leads to a decrease in seawater oxygen and an increase in CO2

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 3
  • Various factors can locally influence the chemical reactions of CO2 with seawater and add to the effects of ocean acidification. For example:

i. Acid rain can have a pH between 1 and 6 and has an impact on surface ocean chemistry. It has a major effect on ocean acidification locally and regionally but very small globally.

ii. Eutrophication Coastal waters are also affected by excess nutrient inputs, mostly nitrogen, from agriculture, fertilizers and sewage. The resulting eutrophication leads to large plankton blooms, and when these blooms collapse and sink to the sea bed the subsequent respiration of bacteria decomposing the algae leads to a decrease in seawater oxygen and an increase in CO2 (a decline in pH).

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 4

Consider the following statements about the effects of ocean acidification.

1. Increases in atmospheric CO2 levels lead to a decrease in pH level, an increase in the concentration of carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions, causing a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ions.

2. Carbonate ions are less available and calcification is harder to achieve.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 4
  • Carbonate ions are essential to the calcification process that allows certain marine organisms to build their calcium carbonate shells and skeletons (e.g. hard tropical corals, cold-water corals, molluscs, crustaceans, sea urchins, certain types of plankton, lobsters, etc).

  • However, increases in atmospheric CO2 levels lead to a decrease in pH level, an increase in the concentration of carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions, causing a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ions.

  • Thus carbonate ions are less available and calcification is, therefore, harder to achieve, and maybe prevented altogether. Imagine trying to build a house while someone keeps stealing your bricks.

 

 

 

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 5

Consider the following statements.

1. The rate at which ozone is being destroyed is much faster than the rate at which it is being formed.

2. The best example of such an Ozone Depletion is the atmosphere over the Antarctic which has only about 50 per cent of the ozone that originally occurred there.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 5 The equilibrium between the formation and destruction of ozone, has been upset by the influx of several substances into the atmosphere which reacts with ozone and destroys it.
  • The rate at which ozone is being destroyed is much faster than the rate at which it is being formed.

  • It implies that there is a significant decrease in the concentration of ozone in a particular region of the atmosphere, hence the name ‘Ozone Depletion’.

  • The best example of such an Ozone Depletion is the atmosphere over the Antarctic which has only about 50 per cent of the ozone that originally occurred there. The actual realization of ozone-depletion came only in 1985.

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 6

Consider the following statements about the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

1. CFCs molecules are made up of calcium, fluorine and carbon.

2., Unlike other chemicals, CFCs cannot be eliminated from the atmosphere by the usual scavenging processes like photodissociation, rain-out and oxidation.

Which of these statements is/are not correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 6
  • CFCs molecules are made up of chlorine, fluorine and carbon. Where it is used? They are used as refrigerants, propellants in aerosol sprays, foaming agents in plastic manufacturing, fire extinguishing agents, solvents for cleaning electronic and metallic components, for freezing foods etc.

  • Two-thirds of CFC is used as refrigerants while one-third is used as blowing agents in foam insulation products.

  • The residence time of CFCs in the atmosphere is estimated to be between 40 and 150 years. During this period, the CFCs move upwards by random diffusion, from the troposphere to the stratosphere. The escape of CFCs The CFCs enter into the atmosphere by gradual evaporation from their source.

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 7

Bromine containing compounds are

1. Halons

2. HBFCs, i.e. hydrobromo fluorocarbons

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 7
  • Bromine contains compounds called halons and HBFCs, i.e. hydrobromo fluorocarbons [both used in fire extinguishers and methyl bromide (a widely used pesticide)].

  • Each bromine atom destroys hundreds of more ozone molecules than what a chlorine atom does. The BrO further reacts with chlorine monoxide (ClO) to give oxygen (O2) and free atoms of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl). These free atoms can further react with ozone.

Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 8

Consider the following statements.

1. Ozone absorbs sunlight, causing the characteristic decrease in temperature with increase in altitude in the stratosphere

2. The vortex is a ring of rapidly circulating air that confines the ozone depletion in the Antarctic region

Which of these statements is/are not correct?

Detailed Solution for Additional Test (Part - 2) - Question 8 Why is the Ozone Depletion predominant at the Antarctic?
  • The Antarctic stratosphere is much colder. The low temperature enables the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), below 20 km.

  • Ozone absorbs sunlight, causing the characteristic increase in temperature with increase in altitude in the stratosphere. If ozone is being depleted, the air becomes cooler, further adding to the favourable conditions for the formation of PSCs and stabilization of the vortex. The vortex is a ring of rapidly circulating air that confines the ozone depletion in the Antarctic region.

The longevity of the Antarctic vortex is another factor, enhancing favourable conditions for the depletion of ozone. The vortex remains, in fact, throughout the polar winter, well into mid-spring whereas the vortex in the Arctic disintegrates by the time the polar spring (MarchApril) arrives.

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