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Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 11 - Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT)

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) for NEET 2024 is part of Biology Class 11 preparation. The Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) MCQs are made for NEET 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) below.
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Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 1

The presence of ketone bodies is an indication of which of the following diseases?

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 1

Analysis of urine helps in the clinical diagnosis of many metabolic disorders. For example, the presence of glucose or Glycosuria and ketone bodies or Ketonuria in urine is indicative of diabetes mellitus.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 2

What is the inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney referred to?

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 2

Inflammation of glomeruli is referred to as glomerulonephritis. The inflammation of urinary bladder, nephron, and pelvis of the kidney is referred to as Cystitis, Nephritis, and Pyelonephritis respectively.

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Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 3

Read the given statements regarding human excretory system and select the correct ones.
(i) Presence of glucose in urine is known as uremia.
(ii) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) selectively secretes hydrogen ions, ammonia and potassium ions anto the filtrate.
(iii) Macula densa formed by cellular modifications in the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arteriole at their contact location.
(iv) Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) can cause vasoconstriction when blood flow is low to the atria of the heart.

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 3

K+, H+, NH3 and HCO3- ions a re secreted by active transport into the filtrate in the DCT. Juxtaglomerular apparatus is a sensitive region formed by cellular modifications in the DCT and the afferent arteriole at their contact location. Juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of juxtaglomerular cells, macula densa and lacis cells. Presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria. ANF can cause vasodilation when blood flow is high to the atria of the heart.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 4

Match Column-I with Column-II and select the correct option from the codes given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 4

(A) Uremia: This is a condition characterized by excessive urea in the blood due to kidney failure or dysfunction. So, it matches with (iv) Accumulation of urea in blood.

(B) Ketonuria: This condition occurs when ketone bodies are present in the urine. It usually indicates that the body is using fat for energy instead of glucose because insulin is not available or not being used properly. So, it matches with (i) Ketone bodies in urine.

(C) Glycosuria: This is the presence of glucose in the urine, which can occur in conditions like diabetes mellitus when blood glucose levels are high. So, it matches with (iii) Glucose in urine.

(D) Blood dialyser: This is a medical device that acts as an artificial kidney to remove waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not working properly. So, it matches with (ii) Artificial kidney.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 5

Which one of the following is correct with reference to haemodialysis?

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 5

Haemodialysis is done in the patients whose kidneys become completely non-functional. Haemodialysis is the process of diffusion across a semipermeable membrane to remove unwanted substances from the blood while adding derivable components. The dialysis unit consists of a coiled cellophane tube kept in the dialysing fluid. The membrane of the tube is impermeable to blood cells and proteins but permeable to urea, uric acid, creatinine and mineral ions.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 6

What will happen if one kidney is removed from the body of a human being?

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 6

If one kidney is removed, the other kidney will take over the work of the removed kidney and thus nothing will happen to the person and he will survive.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 7

Which one of the following is not normally excreted in urine?

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 7

Haemoglobin is not normally excreted in urine. If haemoglobin gets excreted in urine, the condition is known as haemoglobinuria.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 8

A person is undergoing prolonged fasting. His urine would contain abnormal quantities of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 8

Under fasting conditions, liver produces large amount of ketone bodies which are associated with high rate of fatty acid oxidation. Presence of excess ketone bodies in urine is termed as ketonuria.

Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 9

Diuresis is the condition in which 

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 9
Diuresis is the condition in which:
- The excretory volume of urine increases: Diuresis refers to an increased production and excretion of urine by the kidneys. This results in a larger volume of urine being expelled from the body.
- The excretory volume of urine decreases: This is not correct because diuresis is the opposite of decreased urine production and excretion.
- The kidneys fail to excrete urine: This is not correct because diuresis specifically describes a situation where the kidneys are producing and excreting larger volumes of urine.
- The water balance of the body is disturbed: While diuresis can affect the water balance of the body, it is not the defining characteristic of this condition. Diuresis primarily refers to an increase in urine production, rather than a disturbance in water balance.
Therefore, the correct answer is A: the excretory volume of urine increases.
Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 10

An X-ray of the lower abdomen shows a shadow in the region of the ureter suspected to be an ureteric calculus. A possible clinical symptom would be

Detailed Solution for Test: Disorders of Excretory System (NCERT) - Question 10
Clinical Symptom of Ureteric Calculus:

  • Anuria: Complete cessation of urine production.

  • Haematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.


Explanation:

Ureteric calculus refers to the presence of a stone in the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder. When an X-ray of the lower abdomen shows a shadow in the region of the ureter suspected to be a ureteric calculus, it indicates the possibility of a stone blocking the flow of urine.


The possible clinical symptom that can occur due to a ureteric calculus is anuria and haematuria:



  • Anuria: The presence of a ureteric calculus can obstruct the flow of urine, leading to a complete cessation of urine production, known as anuria.

  • Haematuria: The presence of a stone in the ureter can cause irritation and damage to the urinary tract, leading to the presence of blood in the urine, known as haematuria.


It is important to note that acute renal failure (ARF), chronic renal failure (CRF), and motor aphasia are not directly associated with a ureteric calculus.


Therefore, based on the given information, the correct clinical symptom associated with a ureteric calculus is anuria and haematuria (option B).

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