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Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - NEET MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 - Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT)

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) for NEET 2024 is part of Biology Class 12 preparation. The Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) questions and answers have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus.The Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) MCQs are made for NEET 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) below.
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Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 1

Plasmid used to construct the first recombinant DNA was isolated from which bacterium species?

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 1

The first recombinant DNA was constructed by Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer in 1972. They cut the piece of DNA from a plasmid carrying antibiotic resistance gene in the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and linked it to the plasmid of Escherichia coil.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 2

The term 'molecular scissors' refers to

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 2

The restriction endonuclease enzyme inspects the length of a DNA sequence. Once it recongnises specific sequence, it binds to the DNA and cuts each of the two strands of the double helix at specific points in their sugar phosphate back bone. Special sequence in the DNA recongnised by restriction endonuclease is called palindromic nucleotide sequence. Restriction endonuclease enzymes are also known as molecular scissors or biological scissors or chemical knives or chemical scalpels.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 3

The term 'recombinant DNA' refers to

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 3

After cutting the source DNA and the vector DNA with a specific restriction enzyme, the cut out 'gene of interest' from the source DNA and the cut vector with space are mixed and ligase enzyme is added. This results in the formation of rDNA or hybrid DNA or chimeric DNA.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 4

Which of the following statement is not correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 4

Log phase shows rapid increase in number of cells whereas lag phase shows no significant increase in number of cells.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 5

Who is the father of genetic engineering?

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 5

In 1972, genetic engineering was started by Paul Berg. He was able to introduce a gene of the SV-40 virus into a bacterium with the help of lambda phage. Berg is often considered as "Father of genetic engineering". He was awarded Nobel Prize in 1980.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 6

The term 'chemical knife' refers to

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 6

The restriction endonuclease enzyme inspects the length of a DNA sequence. Once it recognises specific sequence, it binds to the DNA and cuts each of the two strands of the double helix at specific points in their sugar phosphate back bone. Special sequence in the DNA recognised by restriction endonuclease is called palindromic nucleotide sequence. Restriction endonuclease enzymes are also known as molecular scissors or biological scissors or chemical knives or chemical scalpels.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 7

One of the key factors, which makes the plasmid the vector in genetic engineering is

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 7

Plasmids are extra-chromosomal, self-replicating, usually circular, double-stranded DNA molecules found naturally in many bacteria and also in some yeasts. Plasmids are usually not essential for normal cell growth and division, they often confer some traits to the host organism e.g., resistance to certain antibiotics. The plasmid that is used as a carrier for transferring a fragment of foreign DNA into a suitable host is called vehicle DNA or cloning vector or gene carrier.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 8

Genetic engineering is possible, because

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 8

Genetic engineering is the artificail synthesis, isolation modification, cimbination, addition and repaor of the genetic material (DNA) to alter the phenotype of the host organism to suit human needs. It is the manipulation of genes by man in vitro. Restriction endonucleases play major role in gentic engineering as they can cut DNA at specific sites.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 9

Which of the following processes/techniques can be included under biotechnology?
(i) In vitro fertilisation
(ii) Synthesis of a gene
(iii) Correcting a defective gene
(iv) Developing a DNA vaccine

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 9

Biotechnology deals with techniques of using live micro-organisms, plant or animal cells or their components or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes (service) useful to human beings. In vitro fertilisation, synthesis of recombinant gene, correcting a defective gene and developing a DNA vaccine are all parts of biotechnology.

Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 10

Match the scientists in column I with their related discoveries in column II and select the correct option from the given codes.

Detailed Solution for Test: Principles of Biotechnology (NCERT) - Question 10
  • The father of genetic engineering is Paul Berg. He creates the recombinant DNA technology in 1972.
  • Kary Mullis invents the polymerase chain reaction in 1993. Arber, Smith and Nathan discovered the restriction endonuclease enzymes in 1978.
  • Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer constructed artificial recombinant DNA for the first time. They got the idea of linking a gene encoding for antibiotic resistance with a native plasmid of Salmonella typhinurium.
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