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Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Class 9 MCQ


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30 Questions MCQ Test Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1

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Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 1

Name the Pastoral Nomads of Jammu and Kashmir :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 1

The Gujjars and Bakarwals is a unique ethnic group which migrates in the Western Himalayas. They are the sheep and goat rearing transhumant’s who oscillate with their rewards (flock) between high and low altitudes in the mountains, lands and valleys of the Jammu & Kashmir State. The habitat of these people is in the hilly terrain of the North-Western Himalayas. The Gujjar-Bakarwals claim a common ancestry from the ancient Gujjar tribe of India. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that they are the foreign stock representing the pastoral nomads of Central Asia. Some of them are of the opinion that the Gujjars are the descendants of the Kushan and the Yuchi tribes of Eastern Tatars (Russia). Some scholars hold the view that they are of Indian origin.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 2

Nomadic Pastoralists are People who ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 2
Nomadic Pastoralists
Nomadic pastoralists are people who move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living. They have a unique lifestyle and rely on their herds for food, clothing, and other necessities. Here are some key points about nomadic pastoralists:
1. Definition: Nomadic pastoralists are a group of people who practice a form of animal husbandry known as pastoralism. They travel with their herds to find grazing land for their animals.
2. Lifestyle: Nomadic pastoralists lead a mobile lifestyle, constantly moving from one place to another in search of fresh pastures for their livestock. They set up temporary settlements, known as camps, and stay there for a certain period before moving on.
3. Herding Livestock: The primary occupation of nomadic pastoralists is herding livestock, such as sheep, goats, cattle, or camels. They depend on their herds for milk, meat, and other products.
4. Economic Importance: Nomadic pastoralism is an important economic activity in many regions around the world. It provides a source of income for these communities through the sale of livestock and livestock products.
5. Cultural Significance: Nomadic pastoralism has deep cultural roots in many societies. It influences their traditions, social structure, and way of life. These communities have developed unique knowledge and skills related to animal husbandry and mobility.
6. Examples: Nomadic pastoralists can be found in various parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. In India, some examples of nomadic pastoralist communities are Gonds, Dhurwas, and Bhatros.
7. Challenges: Nomadic pastoralists face numerous challenges, such as access to water and grazing land, conflicts with settled communities, and the impact of climate change. These factors can affect their livelihoods and traditional way of life.
In summary, nomadic pastoralists are people who move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living. They have a unique lifestyle and rely on their livestock for sustenance and economic well-being. Their practices have cultural significance and are found in various regions of the world, including India.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 3

Name the significant feature of nomadic pastoralists ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 3

Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze. True nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement, in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastures are fixed.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 4

Bhabar :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 4

The dry forested area below the foothills of Kumaon and Garhwal is called Bhabar.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 5

The cyclical movement of mountain pastoralists is defined by ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 5
The seasonal movement of pastoralists in the hills like gaddis moved from lahaul spiti to other places Cold and snow.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 6

Bugyals are :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 6

Bugyals are alpine pasture lands, or meadows, in higher elevation range between 3,300 metres (10,800 ft) and 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) of the Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, where they are called "nature's own gardens"

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 7

Dhangars are pastoralists of :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 7
Answer:

Dhangars are pastoralists of Maharashtra.


Below are some key points explaining the pastoralist community of Dhangars:



  • Dhangars are a community of pastoralists who primarily reside in the state of Maharashtra, India.

  • Their traditional occupation revolves around rearing and herding livestock, including sheep, goats, and cattle.

  • Dhangars are known for their expertise in animal husbandry and have a deep understanding of livestock management.

  • They migrate seasonally in search of grazing lands and water sources for their livestock.

  • Their migration patterns are influenced by the availability of resources and climatic conditions.

  • Dhangars play a crucial role in the economy of Maharashtra as they provide dairy products, wool, and meat to the local population.

  • They have a distinct cultural identity and follow their customs and traditions.

  • The Dhangar community has been demanding recognition as a Scheduled Tribe to avail various government welfare schemes and benefits.

  • Efforts have been made to improve the socio-economic conditions of the Dhangars, such as providing better healthcare, education, and skill development opportunities.


Therefore, Dhangars are pastoralists primarily found in Maharashtra.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 8

Which of the following was not a reason for Konkani peasants welcoming the herders ? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 8

Dhangars of Maharashtra Dhangars were an important pastoral community in Maharashtra.
Their population was estimated to be 467,000 during the early twentieth century. Most of them were shepherds, but some were blanket weavers and some others were buffalo herders. During monsoon, the Dhangars used to stay in the central plateau of Maharashtra. Apart from herding their animals, they also used to grow bajra. By October, they used to harvest their bajra and started their march to west to reach Konkan.
They were welcomed by the Konkani peasants. Dhangar flocks fed on the stubble and manured the fields with their dung. They also took rice from the Konkani farmers and took the rice to the plateau where grain was scarce.
 

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 9

The alternation of monsoon and dry season defined the rhythm of :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 9

The Gollas who herd cattle and the Kurumas and Kurubas who reared sheep and goat are from Karnataka and Andhra. They live near the woods and in the dry periods they move to the coastal tracts.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 10

Pastoralists sustain by :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 10
Pastoralists sustain by:
- Herding: Pastoralists sustain their livelihood primarily through herding animals. They rely on the rearing and management of livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, or yaks. Herding provides them with various resources, including milk, meat, wool, hides, and transportation.
- Cultivation: While pastoralists primarily rely on herding, some may also engage in limited cultivation. They may cultivate crops such as grains, vegetables, or fruits for their own consumption or for trade purposes. However, cultivation is not the primary means of sustenance for pastoralists.
- Trade: Pastoralists often participate in trade activities to supplement their livelihood. They may exchange their livestock or livestock products with other communities for goods they need, such as grains, tools, or textiles. Trade allows pastoralists to access resources that may not be available in their own pastoral areas.
- All of these: The correct answer is "All of these" as pastoralists sustain themselves through a combination of herding, cultivation, and trade activities. They rely on herding for their main source of sustenance, engage in limited cultivation, and participate in trade to meet their additional needs and access resources beyond what their pastoral lifestyle provides.
In conclusion, pastoralists sustain themselves through herding animals, engaging in limited cultivation, and participating in trade activities. These different strategies allow them to meet their various needs and ensure their livelihood in diverse environments.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 11

In which of the following states are Banjara's to be found ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 11

The Banjaras of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra move to different places in search of good pastures.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 12

Genealogists :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 12
Genealogists
Genealogists are professionals who study and trace the history and lineage of families. They gather information from various sources, such as birth and death records, marriage certificates, census data, and other historical documents to create detailed family trees. Their main goal is to provide an accurate account of a family's history and connections. Here are some key points about the role of genealogists:
1. Recount history of a family: Genealogists research and document the ancestry, lineage, and history of a specific family. They compile information about the family's origins, migrations, occupations, and significant events in order to create a comprehensive family tree.
2. Recount history of a community: While genealogists primarily focus on individual families, their work also contributes to the understanding of the history and development of communities. By tracing multiple family lines within a specific area, genealogists can uncover connections and provide insights into the social, cultural, and economic dynamics of a community.
3. Predict the future: Genealogists do not predict the future. Their work is based on historical records and evidence, and their primary role is to accurately document the past. While genealogical research can sometimes uncover information that may have implications for the future, such as genetic predispositions to certain diseases, it is not their primary focus or purpose.
4. Train camels: Genealogists do not train camels or have any involvement in animal training. This option is unrelated to the field of genealogy.
In conclusion, genealogists play a crucial role in researching and documenting the history of families and communities. Their work helps individuals understand their roots, connect with their heritage, and provides valuable historical insights.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 13

Colonial state regarded grazing land as :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 13
Colonial state regarded grazing land as wasteland:
- During the colonial period, the ruling powers often viewed grazing land as unproductive or unused land.
- This perception led them to consider it as wasteland, not worth utilizing for other purposes.
- The colonial state did not recognize the value of grazing land for supporting livestock and sustaining local economies.
- This perspective often resulted in policies that prioritized other land uses such as agriculture or forestry over grazing.
- Grazing land was often left underutilized or neglected, leading to degradation and loss of its potential productivity.
- The colonial state's disregard for grazing land contributed to the marginalization of pastoral communities who depended on it for their livelihoods.
- The perception of grazing land as wasteland also influenced land tenure systems, with the state often claiming ownership or control over such lands.
Overall, the colonial state's characterization of grazing land as wasteland had significant implications for the management and utilization of these lands, as well as for the communities that relied on them.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 14

Protected forests were :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 14
Protected forests were:
- Customary rights were granted to pastoralists subject to severe restrictions on their movements: Protected forests were areas where pastoralists were given customary rights to access and use the forest resources. However, these rights were subject to strict limitations on their movements within the forested areas.
- Forests which produced commercially viable timber: Protected forests were not necessarily forests that produced commercially valuable timber. The primary purpose of protecting these forests was to preserve biodiversity and maintain the ecosystem services provided by the forests.
- Access to these forests was prohibited: Protected forests were not completely off-limits to people. The intention was not to prohibit access but rather to regulate and manage the use of the forest resources in a sustainable manner.
- Pastoralists were granted grazing rights in these forests without preconditions: Protected forests did not grant unconditional grazing rights to pastoralists. The rights granted to pastoralists were typically subject to certain conditions and restrictions to ensure the sustainable use of the forest resources and the protection of the ecosystem.
In conclusion, the correct answer is option D: Customary rights were granted to pastoralists subject to severe restrictions on their movements. This option accurately reflects the concept of protected forests and the limitations imposed on pastoralists' movements within these forests.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 15

Find the odd one out :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 15

The British Officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They wanted the rural people to live in the villages, in fixed places with fixed rights on particular fields. They felt that such a population would be easy to identify and control. Nomadic people were considered to be criminal. Therefore in 1871, the Criminal Tribes Act was passed.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 16

The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 16
The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871.

Explanation:


- The Criminal Tribes Act was enacted in 1871 during the British colonial rule in India.
- The act was initially known as the "Criminal Tribes and Castes Act" and later came to be known as the "Criminal Tribes Act."
- The act categorized certain communities as "criminal tribes" based on their historical occupations and lifestyles.
- These communities were subjected to surveillance, registration, and restrictions on their movement and employment.
- The act aimed to control and monitor these communities under the assumption that they had a natural tendency towards criminal behavior.
- The act remained in force until India gained independence in 1947.
- After independence, the act was repealed and the stigmatization and discrimination faced by the affected communities were gradually addressed through various measures.
- Today, the act is widely criticized for its discriminatory nature and violation of human rights.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 17

What was the tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists ? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 17
Tax Imposed by Colonists on Pastoralists: Grazing Tax
The tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists was known as the grazing tax. This tax was specifically targeted towards individuals or communities engaged in raising livestock and using public lands for grazing purposes. Here is a detailed explanation of the grazing tax:
1. Definition of Grazing Tax:
- The grazing tax was a financial levy imposed on pastoralists for the use of public lands for grazing their livestock.
2. Purpose of the Tax:
- The colonists implemented the grazing tax to generate revenue and control the use of public lands by pastoralists.
3. Collection Method:
- The tax was collected based on the number of livestock a pastoralist owned or the amount of land utilized for grazing.
- Tax collectors were responsible for assessing the number of animals or the size of the grazing area and collecting the appropriate tax amount.
4. Impact on Pastoralists:
- The grazing tax posed a significant economic burden on pastoralists, as it added to their expenses and reduced their overall income.
- Pastoralists had to allocate a portion of their earnings to pay the tax, affecting their livelihood and profitability.
5. Resistance and Challenges:
- Pastoralists often faced challenges in paying the grazing tax, especially during times of drought or other unfavorable conditions that affected their livestock.
- Some pastoralists resisted the tax by evading payment or engaging in protests against its imposition.
6. Consequences:
- The grazing tax had various consequences, such as increased tensions between colonial authorities and pastoralist communities.
- It also led to changes in pastoralist practices, as some individuals had to reduce their livestock numbers or seek alternative grazing areas to mitigate the financial burden.
In conclusion, the tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists was the grazing tax. This tax aimed to generate revenue and regulate the use of public lands for grazing livestock. However, it placed an economic burden on pastoralists and led to resistance and challenges in its implementation.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 18

The Maasais are cattle herders of :

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 18

The Maasais were a community of cattle herders. They lived primarily in East Africa. There were 300, 000 Maasais in Southern Kenya and 150,000 in Tanzania. ... The Maasais faced continuous loss of their grazing lands and this affected their lives in times of drought and even reshaped their social relationships

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 19

Which of the following constitute pastoral communities of Africa ? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 19
Pastoral Communities of Africa:
The correct answer is option A: Bedouins, Berbers, Boran, Maasai, Somali, Turkana.
Here is a detailed explanation:
Bedouins:
- Nomadic pastoralists mainly found in the deserts of North Africa, including Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia.
- They rely on herding camels, goats, and sheep for their livelihood.
Berbers:
- Indigenous nomadic or semi-nomadic people inhabiting parts of North Africa, particularly Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Mauritania.
- Historically, they were known for their pastoral lifestyle, herding livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle.
Boran:
- A pastoral ethnic group residing in the Horn of Africa, particularly in Ethiopia and Kenya.
- They primarily engage in cattle herding and are known for their distinctive cultural practices.
Maasai:
- A pastoral community mainly found in Kenya and Tanzania.
- They have a strong reliance on cattle herding and are known for their traditional customs and attire.
Somali:
- A nomadic pastoral community primarily inhabiting Somalia, as well as parts of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti.
- They are known for their mobile lifestyle and reliance on camel herding.
Turkana:
- A pastoral community residing in the Turkana County of Kenya.
- They rely on livestock herding, particularly goats, sheep, and camels, for their livelihood.
By correctly identifying option A, you have identified the pastoral communities of Africa. Well done!
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 20

Which of the following was not a reason for Maasai loss of grazing lands ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 20

The correct answer is option (C) as the Maasai community lost their grazing lands because:
(i) European imperial powers scramble for territorial possessions in Africa led to slicing up of the continent into different regions/colonies. Maasai land was divided between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. This restricted the movement of the Maasais between regions.
(ii) The best grazing lands were taken over for white settlement and pastoralists were not allowed entry to these settlements and markets. This restricted not only grazing lands but prohibited them from entering into any form of trade as well. They were moreover pushed into a small area which was arid and poor in pastures.
(iii) In late 19th century local peasant communities were encouraged by the British colonisers to expand cultivation at the expense of pasture lands.
(iv) Large areas of Maasai grazing lands were turned into game reserves, e.g., Sambur U National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. These reserves were out of bound of the pastoralists.
(v) For lands which were available special permits were required and rules lay down. In case of default Maasai’s were subject to harassment and severely punished.
(vi) In pre-colonial times the Maasai pastoralists had dominated their neighbours economically and politically but by the end of colonial rule the situation was reversed.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 21

Where are Gujjar Cattle herders originally from ?           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 21
Origin of Gujjar Cattle herders:
The Gujjar cattle herders are originally from the state of Rajasthan in India.
Explanation:
The Gujjar community is primarily found in the state of Rajasthan, which is located in the western part of India. They have a strong presence in the rural areas of Rajasthan, where they have been traditionally involved in cattle rearing and herding.
Key Points:
- The Gujjar community is known for their expertise in cattle herding and dairy farming.
- They have a long history of migrating from one place to another in search of grazing lands for their cattle.
- Over the years, some Gujjar families have also settled in other states like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and parts of North India.
- In Jammu and Kashmir, the Gujjar community is mainly concentrated in the hilly areas and is involved in nomadic pastoralism.
- In Himachal Pradesh, they are found in the districts of Chamba and Kangra, where they continue their traditional occupation of cattle herding.
Overall, the Gujjar cattle herders have their roots in Rajasthan but can be found in other states as well due to their migratory lifestyle.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 22

Where did the Pastoralists were found ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 22

All pastoralists operated in the mountains, they all were also to be found in the plateaus, plains and deserts of India. Dhangars were found in this area they are an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 23

Where do the Bedounis Communtiy Found ?           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 23

Bedouin Community: Found in Africa


The Bedouin community is primarily found in Africa. Here are some key details about their location:



  • Africa: The Bedouin community is predominantly located in various countries across the African continent.

  • Desert Regions: They are often found in desert regions such as the Sahara Desert, which spans across multiple African countries including Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara.

  • Nomadic Lifestyle: The Bedouin people traditionally lead a nomadic lifestyle, moving from one place to another within the desert regions.

  • Other Countries: While the Bedouin community is primarily associated with Africa, there are also Bedouin populations in other regions such as the Middle East, including countries like Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, and Israel.


Overall, the Bedouin community can be found in various African countries, particularly in desert regions such as the Sahara Desert, where they continue to maintain their traditional nomadic lifestyle.

Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 24

Which crop is usually harvested after March -           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 24

The crop that is usually harvested after March is the Rabi crop. Here's a detailed explanation:
Rabi Crop:
- Rabi crop refers to the crops that are sown in winter and harvested in spring.
- The sowing of Rabi crops takes place in the months of October and November, and harvesting generally occurs after March.
- These crops are well-suited to the winter season and require cool weather for their growth and development.
- Some examples of Rabi crops include wheat, barley, mustard, gram, peas, etc.
- Rabi crops play a crucial role in the Indian agricultural calendar as they help in meeting the food requirements of the country.
Other Crop Seasons:
- Kharif Crop: Kharif crops are sown during the monsoon season and harvested in the autumn season (around September-October).
- Zaid Crop: Zaid crops are short-duration crops that are sown in the summer season and harvested before the arrival of the monsoon season.
- Stubble: Stubble refers to the residual crop material left in the field after the harvest of the main crop.
Conclusion:
- The crop that is usually harvested after March is the Rabi crop, which includes crops like wheat, barley, mustard, gram, peas, etc.
- This crop is sown in winter and harvested in spring, making it an important component of the Indian agricultural cycle.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 25

Where are the Raikas to be found ?           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 25
Raikas are nomadic pastoralists of Rajasthan state who depend on domesticated livestock for their livelihood. They migrate to an established territory or a less arable land to find pasturage for their animals and stay there for a considerable period of time. They are also very efficient camel herders and use camel as a source of livelihood. Camel help in trade of goods and also for locomotion. They engage themselves in agricultural activities if they find a particular land arable. They also also blanket weavers, good craftsmen and pottery experts.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 26

When was Massailand divided between British Kenya & German Tangayika ?           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 26
Background:
Massailand was a region in East Africa that encompassed parts of present-day Kenya and Tanzania. During the late 19th century, European powers began to colonize and partition Africa, resulting in the division of Massailand between British Kenya and German Tanganyika.

The correct answer is B: 1885. Here is a detailed explanation of the division of Massailand:
- 1883: In 1883, the British East Africa Association was formed with the aim of exploring and developing trade and commerce in East Africa.
- 1885: In 1885, the British government granted a royal charter to the British East Africa Company, giving it the authority to administer the territory known as British East Africa. This territory included parts of Massailand.
- 1887: In 1887, the German East Africa Company was established, and it began to assert German control over various territories in East Africa, including parts of Massailand.
- 1889: By 1889, the division of Massailand between British Kenya and German Tanganyika was largely finalized. The precise boundaries were determined through negotiations and agreements between the British and German colonial authorities.
So, the division of Massailand between British Kenya and German Tanganyika occurred in 1885.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 27

It is a type of agriculture under which crops are grown and consumed by the farmer’s family -           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 27
Explanation:
The correct answer is B: Subsistence agriculture.
Subsistence agriculture is a type of agriculture in which the crops are grown and consumed by the farmer's family. It is characterized by small-scale farming and low levels of technology and capital investment. The main aim of subsistence agriculture is to meet the basic needs of the farmer and their family, rather than producing crops for commercial sale.
Here are some key points to support this answer:
- Subsistence agriculture is commonly practiced in rural and developing areas where farmers rely on their land for food and survival.
- The crops grown in subsistence agriculture are typically basic food crops such as grains, vegetables, and fruits.
- The farming methods used in subsistence agriculture are often traditional and labor-intensive, with minimal use of modern machinery and technology.
- The produce from subsistence agriculture is primarily used for family consumption, with any surplus being sold or traded locally.
- Subsistence agriculture plays a crucial role in ensuring food security for rural communities and reducing dependence on external sources of food.
In contrast, primary agriculture refers to the production of crops and livestock for commercial purposes, while secondary agriculture involves processing and value addition to the agricultural products. Neither of these options aligns with the description of crops being grown and consumed by the farmer's family, making them incorrect choices.
Therefore, the correct answer is B: Subsistence agriculture.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 28

It is a type of agriculture under which crops are grown to satisfy the needs of local community -           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 28
Explanation:
Under this type of agriculture, crops are grown specifically to meet the needs of the local community. Here's a breakdown of the options:
A. Primary agriculture:
- Primary agriculture refers to the production of crops and livestock for commercial purposes, rather than solely for local consumption.
- It focuses on large-scale production for the market, rather than meeting local needs.
B. Subsistence agriculture:
- Subsistence agriculture is the correct answer.
- It is a type of agriculture where crops are grown to meet the basic needs of the farmer's family or community.
- The primary goal is self-sufficiency and survival, rather than commercial production for the market.
C. Secondary agriculture:
- Secondary agriculture is not the correct answer.
- This term is not commonly used to refer to a specific type of agriculture.
- It may be confused with secondary activities in the economy, which includes processing and manufacturing of agricultural products.
D. None of these:
- This is not the correct answer as the correct answer is option B - Subsistence agriculture.
In conclusion, the correct answer is B. Subsistence agriculture, as it involves growing crops to meet the needs of the local community or farmer's family.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 29

When did the colonical government in India pass the criminal Tribes Act ?           

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 29
The Criminal Tribes Act in India was passed in 1871.
Some key points to note about the Criminal Tribes Act are:
- The act was passed by the colonial government in India during the British Raj.
- The act classified certain tribes and communities as "criminal tribes" based on their traditional occupations and perceived criminal tendencies.
- The act aimed to control and monitor these tribes by subjecting them to strict surveillance and restrictions on their movement.
- The tribes labeled under this act were subjected to regular police surveillance, mandatory registration, and restricted access to certain areas.
- The act also allowed for the arrest and detention of members of these tribes without a warrant and the confiscation of their property.
- The act was criticized for its discriminatory nature and its impact on the social and economic rights of the tribes.
- The act was eventually repealed in 1949 after India gained independence from British rule.
Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 30

Which of the following pastoralist community of western India?

Detailed Solution for Test: Pastoralists in the Modern World- 1 - Question 30

The correct option is C.
The Rabari/Raika are the major and most numerous pastoral groups in Western India. They are most densely distributed in Rajasthan and Gujarat, but also occur in Punjab, Haryana, and Madhya Pradesh and may be in other states.

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