10 Questions MCQ Test Indian Economy for UPSC CSE - Test: People as Resource- 1
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Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 1
Reasons for low literacy rate among females:
Lack of equal education opportunities: One of the primary reasons for the low literacy rate among females is the lack of equal education opportunities. This could be due to various factors such as societal norms, cultural practices, and gender discrimination. Girls may face barriers in accessing schools or may be forced to drop out early to fulfill household responsibilities or get married.
Social and cultural factors: In some societies, there is a prevailing belief that educating girls is unnecessary or less important compared to boys. This mindset can contribute to the low literacy rate among females as it discourages families from investing in their daughters' education.
Lack of infrastructure: Inadequate school infrastructure, such as a lack of classrooms, toilets, and safe transportation, can also hinder girls' access to education. Without proper facilities, parents may be reluctant to send their daughters to school.
Poverty and lack of income: Economic factors can play a significant role in the low literacy rate among females. Families living in poverty may prioritize the education of their sons over their daughters due to limited resources. Additionally, girls may be forced into labor or early marriages to support their families financially.
Gaps in teacher training and gender-sensitive curriculum: The lack of trained teachers who understand the specific challenges faced by female students can impact their educational experience. Moreover, the absence of a gender-sensitive curriculum that addresses the needs and interests of girls may further discourage their participation in formal education.
Overall, addressing these barriers and promoting gender equality in education is crucial to improving the literacy rate among females. Efforts should be made to ensure equal access to education, provide supportive infrastructure, and challenge societal norms and beliefs that perpetuate gender disparities in education.
Which age group of children does the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan aims to promote education?
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 2
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and its target age group The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a flagship program launched by the Government of India to provide universal access to quality elementary education. It aims to promote education among children in a specific age group. Target Age Group: 6-14 years Explanation: - The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan aims to provide education to children in the age group of 6-14 years. - This age group is considered the elementary education stage, which includes primary education (classes 1-5) and upper primary education (classes 6-8). - The program focuses on ensuring that all children in this age group have access to free and compulsory education. - It aims to bridge gender and social gaps in education and promote inclusive education for all children. - The SSA also focuses on improving the quality of education, enhancing learning outcomes, and providing necessary infrastructure and facilities in schools. - Through various interventions and initiatives, the program aims to achieve universalization of elementary education. Note: The correct answer to the given question is option A - 6-14 years.
Which of the following is not done by women at home?
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 3
Answer: Explanation: The activity that is not typically done by women at home is: - Doing tuition work by teaching students Women commonly perform the following tasks at home: - Cooking food: Women are often responsible for preparing meals for the family. - Cleaning utensils: Women usually clean dishes, pots, and pans after meals. - Washing clothes: Women frequently handle the laundry and ensure clean clothes for the family. However, the specific task of doing tuition work by teaching students is not typically associated with women's responsibilities at home. This task is more commonly performed by professional tutors or educators outside the home. It is important to note that gender roles and responsibilities vary across cultures and households. While the listed tasks are commonly associated with women, it is not an exhaustive or exclusive list.
In which state was the literacy rate highest as per 2001 study?
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 4
State with the Highest Literacy Rate (2001 Study) According to the 2001 study, the state with the highest literacy rate was Kerala. Reasons for Kerala having the highest literacy rate: - Focus on Education: Kerala has always placed a high emphasis on education, with the state government allocating a significant portion of its budget to the education sector. - Education Initiatives: The state has implemented various education initiatives, such as the Kerala Literacy Mission, to promote literacy and provide education opportunities to all. - High Literacy Levels among Women: Kerala has achieved high literacy levels among women, which has contributed to the overall literacy rate in the state. - Availability of Schools: Kerala has a well-developed education infrastructure, with schools and educational institutions easily accessible to the population. - Socio-economic Factors: Kerala's relatively high socio-economic development has played a role in promoting literacy, as education is seen as a pathway to better opportunities and improved quality of life. Comparison with other states: - Madhya Pradesh and Bihar have historically had lower literacy rates compared to Kerala. - While efforts have been made to improve literacy rates in these states, they still lag behind Kerala in terms of overall literacy levels. In conclusion, as per the 2001 study, Kerala had the highest literacy rate among the mentioned states (Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, and Bihar).
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 5
Disguised unemployment could be traced in the following sectors: - Agriculture: Disguised unemployment is commonly found in the agricultural sector. This occurs when there are more workers engaged in farming than required for efficient production. Some key points related to disguised unemployment in agriculture include: - Farmers may have surplus labor due to outdated farming techniques or lack of technological advancements. - The plot of land may be too small to provide full employment to all family members, resulting in disguised unemployment. - Inadequate access to credit, irrigation facilities, or modern farming equipment may contribute to surplus labor in agriculture. - Mining activity: Disguised unemployment can also be observed in mining activities, particularly in regions where there is a lack of resources or inefficient mining methods. Some key points related to disguised unemployment in mining include: - Mining operations may require a limited number of workers, but due to various factors, such as government policies or lack of alternative employment opportunities, there may be an excess workforce. - Lack of skill development and modern mining techniques may lead to a higher number of workers than necessary. - Service sector: Disguised unemployment can be present in the service sector, particularly in areas where there is an oversupply of labor or low demand for certain services. Some key points related to disguised unemployment in the service sector include: - In industries such as retail, hospitality, or personal services, there may be a surplus of workers due to intense competition or low consumer demand. - Disguised unemployment in the service sector can also occur when individuals are employed in low-productivity jobs that do not fully utilize their skills or abilities. - Social forestry: Disguised unemployment can also be seen in social forestry projects, which involve afforestation and forest conservation activities. Some key points related to disguised unemployment in social forestry include: - Social forestry projects may employ a large number of workers, but the actual work available may be limited. - Lack of planning, training, or coordination in implementing social forestry projects can lead to the existence of surplus labor. Conclusion: Disguised unemployment can be traced in various sectors such as agriculture, mining activity, service sector, and social forestry. It occurs when there are more workers engaged in a particular sector than required for efficient production or service provision. Understanding the causes and implications of disguised unemployment is crucial for policymakers to develop strategies for creating productive employment opportunities and improving overall economic efficiency.
The primary school system has expanded to over 8.58 lakhs in 2013-14 but this huge expansion of schools has been diluted due to which of the following factors:
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 6
Poor quality of schooling and high dropouts.
The primary school system in India has expanded significantly in recent years, with over 8.58 lakhs schools in 2013-14. However, this expansion has been undermined by the poor quality of schooling and high dropout rates.
Poor quality of schooling refers to the inadequate infrastructure, lack of resources, and low teaching standards in many primary schools. This hampers the learning experience and outcomes of students, leading to a decrease in the overall effectiveness of the education system.
High dropout rates are also a significant factor diluting the impact of the school system expansion. Many children, especially from marginalized and disadvantaged communities, drop out of school due to various reasons such as poverty, lack of access to quality education, and the need to contribute to household income. This results in a lower enrollment rate and limits the potential benefits of the expanded school system.
In contrast, the other options listed - poor quality of teachers, excess fees, and no incentives for poor students - may also be contributing factors, but they are not directly mentioned in the question and therefore cannot be considered as the primary diluting factors.
Which of the following is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all the children in the age group of 6-14 years?
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 7
To provide elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years, the following steps have been taken: 1. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA): SSA is a government program launched in 2001 with the aim of providing universal elementary education. It focuses on improving access, quality, and equity in education. Some of its key features include: - Free and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 years. - Special emphasis on the education of girls and children from disadvantaged groups. - Infrastructure development of schools, including classrooms, toilets, libraries, etc. - Provision of free textbooks, uniforms, and other learning materials. - Teacher training and recruitment to ensure quality education. 2. Mid-day meal scheme: The mid-day meal scheme is another significant step towards providing elementary education to all children. It aims to improve the nutritional status of children and encourage school attendance. Key features include: - Provision of free cooked meals to all children studying in government and government-aided schools. - Ensuring a balanced diet by including proteins, carbohydrates, and essential nutrients. - Encouraging children from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend school regularly. - Improving overall health and well-being, leading to better learning outcomes. 3. Navodaya Vidyalaya: Navodaya Vidyalayas are residential schools established by the government to provide quality education to rural children. Key features include: - Admitting talented children from rural areas through a competitive entrance examination. - Providing free education, including boarding and lodging facilities. - Emphasizing both academic and co-curricular activities for holistic development. - Ensuring a conducive learning environment with well-equipped classrooms and libraries. 4. Sainik School: Sainik Schools are specialized schools that aim to prepare students for a career in the defense services. While they contribute to education, they are not directly focused on providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years. In conclusion, the most significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) program. It addresses various aspects of education such as access, quality, and equity, ensuring that every child receives free and compulsory education. The mid-day meal scheme, Navodaya Vidyalayas, and Sainik Schools also contribute to education but have specific objectives beyond elementary education for all.
The steps taken by the government in the health sector have increased the life expectancy to over 68.3 years in 2014.
Detailed Solution for Test: People as Resource- 1 - Question 9
The steps taken by the government in the health sector have increased the life expectancy to over 68.3 years in 2014. Explanation: Evidence 1: Government intervention in the health sector - The government has implemented various policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare services. - These initiatives include the establishment of healthcare facilities, the expansion of medical education and training, and the introduction of healthcare insurance schemes. Evidence 2: Impact on life expectancy - Life expectancy is a measure of the average number of years a person is expected to live. - The increase in life expectancy to over 68.3 years in 2014 indicates a positive impact of the government's efforts in the health sector. - This can be attributed to the improved access to healthcare services, better healthcare infrastructure, and increased awareness about health and wellness. Evidence 3: Long-term trend - Life expectancy is a result of multiple factors, including healthcare, nutrition, sanitation, and lifestyle choices. - The government's efforts in the health sector have contributed to the overall improvement in life expectancy over the years. - It is important to note that life expectancy is influenced by various factors, and the government's steps in the health sector are one of the contributing factors. Conclusion: Based on the evidence presented, it can be concluded that the steps taken by the government in the health sector have indeed increased the life expectancy to over 68.3 years in 2014. Therefore, the statement is true.
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