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Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - CTET & State TET MCQ


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Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 1

In puri, Orissa, a local deity, was recognized as a form of what?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 1

In puri, Orissa, a local deity, was recognized as a form of what?



  • A: Shiva

  • B: Vishnu

  • C: Krishna

  • D: Rama


Explanation:

  • Location: Puri, Orissa is a significant place in Hinduism known for the famous Jagannath Temple.

  • Local Deity: The local deity in Puri, Orissa, is recognized as a form of Vishnu.

  • Lord Jagannath: The deity worshipped in the Jagannath Temple is considered an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

  • Ratha Yatra: The annual chariot festival celebrated in Puri is dedicated to Lord Jagannath, further emphasizing the deity's association with Vishnu.


Therefore, in Puri, Orissa, the local deity is recognized as a form of Vishnu, highlighting the rich cultural and religious significance of the region.

Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 2

What are two deities that devotees often tended to project as supreme?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 2

Two Deities Projected as Supreme:

  • Shiva and Krishna: Devotees often tend to project Shiva and Krishna as supreme deities in Hinduism. Shiva is considered the destroyer and transformer, while Krishna is seen as the supreme personality of Godhead in his various forms.

  • Vishnu or Shiva: Another common projection of supreme deities is Vishnu or Shiva. Vishnu is believed to be the preserver and protector of the universe, while Shiva is worshipped as the supreme being who creates, protects, and transforms the universe.



In Hinduism, devotees have a deep reverence for these deities and often see them as the ultimate manifestations of divinity. Each deity has its own unique qualities and attributes, but all are revered as embodiments of the divine. The worship of Shiva, Krishna, Vishnu, or any other deity is a way for devotees to connect with the divine and seek blessings for various aspects of their lives. Ultimately, the choice of which deity to worship as supreme is a personal one, based on individual beliefs and spiritual practices.
Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 3

What did the Avars and Nayanars claim as crucial as the Vedas?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 3

Explanation:

  • Avars and Nayanars claimed compositions as crucial as the Vedas.

  • Compositions: This refers to the literary works and sacred texts that were considered significant by the Avars and Nayanars.

  • Vedas: The Vedas are ancient Hindu scriptures that are highly revered and considered as the most authoritative texts in Hinduism.

  • Importance: For the Avars and Nayanars, compositions held a similar level of importance and reverence as the Vedas.

  • Significance: This indicates that the Avars and Nayanars placed great value on the compositions they considered sacred and essential for their religious and spiritual practices.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 4

What was often described as the Tamil Veda?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 4

What was often described as the Tamil Veda?

  • A: Nalayira Divya Prabandham

  • B: Alvar

  • C: Andal

  • D: Shiva




Detailed

  • The Tamil Veda is often described as Nalayira Divya Prabandham.

  • Nalayira Divya Prabandham is a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses composed by the 12 Alvars.

  • These verses are considered equivalent to the Vedas in Sanskrit and are highly revered in the Tamil tradition.

  • The Alvars were saint-poets who lived between the 6th and 9th centuries CE and are known for their devotional hymns in praise of Lord Vishnu.

  • Among the Alvars, Andal is a prominent female Alvar known for her devotion to Lord Krishna.

  • Shiva, on the other hand, is a Hindu deity associated with destruction and transformation in the Hindu tradition.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 5

Whose compositions were widely sung?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 5
Whose compositions were widely sung?

  • Andal: Andal, also known as Kodai, was a 9th-century Tamil poet and saint who is known for her compositions of devotional songs in praise of Lord Vishnu. Her compositions, known as Thiruppavai and Nachiar Tirumozhi, are widely sung and revered in South India.

Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 6

Who did andal see herself as the beloved of?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 6

Explanation:

  • Andal's Beloved: Andal saw herself as the beloved of Lord Vishnu.

  • Significance: Andal, also known as Goda Devi, is a 9th-century Tamil saint and one of the twelve Alvars who are known for their devotion to Lord Vishnu.

  • Works: Andal's most famous work is the Thiruppavai, a collection of 30 verses in which she describes her love for Lord Vishnu and her desire to marry Him.

  • Symbolism: Andal's devotion to Lord Vishnu symbolizes the love between a devotee and the divine, portraying the relationship as that of a bride and groom.

  • Legacy: Andal's poetry and devotion to Lord Vishnu have had a lasting impact on South Indian culture and spirituality, inspiring generations of devotees.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 7

Who was a devotee of shiva?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 7
Devotee of Shiva:
- Karaikkal Ammaiyar was a devotee of Shiva.
- She was a 6th-century female poet and saint from Tamil Nadu, India.
- Karaikkal Ammaiyar is considered one of the 63 Nayanars, who were devotees of the Hindu god Shiva.
- She is known for her unwavering devotion to Lord Shiva and her poems praising him.
- Karaikkal Ammaiyar's life story and poems are widely revered in Tamil Nadu and have inspired many devotees over the centuries.
Significance of Karaikkal Ammaiyar:
- Karaikkal Ammaiyar's devotion to Shiva is seen as a symbol of love and dedication towards the divine.
- Her poems, known as 'Tevaram,' are considered sacred texts in the Tamil Saiva Siddhanta tradition.
- She is often praised for her spiritual wisdom and the strength of her faith in Shiva.
- Karaikkal Ammaiyar's life story serves as an inspiration for devotees seeking a deeper connection with the divine.
In conclusion, Karaikkal Ammaiyar's devotion to Shiva and her spiritual journey continue to inspire followers of Shiva to this day. Her poems and teachings are cherished for their profound insights into the nature of devotion and the path to divine realization.
Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 8

The poets’ opposition to Buddhism and Jainism is particularly marked in what of the Nayanars?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 8

Explanation:

  • Nayanars: The Nayanars were a group of 63 saints in the Tamil Saiva Siddhanta tradition who were devoted to the worship of Lord Shiva.

  • Opposition to Buddhism and Jainism: The poets among the Nayanars expressed strong opposition to Buddhism and Jainism in their compositions.

  • Compositions: The Nayanar poets conveyed their critiques and refutations of Buddhist and Jain philosophies through their compositions.

  • Themes: The themes of these compositions often revolved around the superiority of the Saiva Siddhanta tradition and the rejection of Buddhist and Jain beliefs.

  • Historical context: During the time when the Nayanar poets lived, there were debates and conflicts between different religious groups, and their compositions reflected this context.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 9

What do Lingayats worship?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 9

What do Lingayats worship?

  • A: Ganesh

  • B: Vishnu

  • C: Shiva

  • D: Shakti


Answer: C. Shiva



Detailed

  • Lingayats are followers of the Lingayatism which is a Shaivite sect in India.

  • They primarily worship Lord Shiva as their main deity.

  • Lingayats believe in the Ishtalinga, a symbol of Lord Shiva which represents the formless aspect of God.

  • Their religious practices are centered around devotion to Lord Shiva and following the teachings of their founder, Basavanna.

  • They emphasize personal spiritual experience and reject the caste system.

Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 10

What idea did the Lingayats challenge?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 10

Challenge by Lingayats:



  • Caste: The Lingayats challenged the traditional caste system in India, which is deeply ingrained in society and dictates social hierarchy and roles based on birth.

  • Brahmins: They specifically challenged the dominance and authority of the Brahmins, who traditionally held power and privilege in religious and social matters.

  • Equality: The Lingayats advocated for equality among all individuals regardless of their caste or social status, promoting a more inclusive and egalitarian society.

  • Social Reform: They sought to bring about social reform by rejecting caste-based discrimination and emphasizing the importance of individual merit and character.


By challenging these traditional ideas and practices, the Lingayats aimed to create a more just and equitable society where all individuals are treated with respect and dignity.

Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 11

What theory did the Lingayats question?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 11

Question: What theory did the Lingayats question?

  • A: Awakening

  • B: Resurrection

  • C: Rebirth

  • D: Death


Answer: The Lingayats questioned the theory of Rebirth.

  • Rebirth is a central belief in many Indian religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism.

  • The Lingayats, however, reject the concept of rebirth and instead believe in the idea of reaching spiritual enlightenment in this lifetime itself.

  • They believe that through devotion to their deity, Shiva, and following the teachings of their founder, Basava, they can attain liberation without the need for multiple births.

  • This rejection of rebirth sets the Lingayats apart from other religious groups in India and has been a point of contention and debate within the broader Hindu community.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 12

What is our understanding of the Vira Shaiva tradition derived from?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 12

Understanding the Vira Shaiva Tradition

  • Derived from Vachanas: The Vira Shaiva tradition is primarily derived from the Vachanas, which are a form of rhythmic writing in Kannada literature that are composed in praise of Lord Shiva.

  • Teachings and Philosophies: The Vachanas contain the teachings, philosophies, and spiritual experiences of the Vira Shaiva saints and devotees, providing insights into their beliefs and practices.

  • Historical Context: By studying the Vachanas, scholars and researchers can gain a deeper understanding of the historical context in which the Vira Shaiva tradition emerged and developed.

  • Cultural Significance: The Vachanas serve as a cultural and literary treasure trove, shedding light on the rich heritage and traditions of the Vira Shaiva community.

  • Impact on Society: The Vachanas have had a profound impact on society, shaping the religious, social, and cultural landscape of Karnataka and other regions where the Vira Shaiva tradition is practiced.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 13

Where were Vishnu and shiva worshipped?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 13

Where were Vishnu and Shiva worshipped?


Answer: B. Temples




Detailed



  • Temples: Vishnu and Shiva were primarily worshipped in temples dedicated to them.

  • Significance: Temples served as sacred spaces where devotees could come to offer prayers, perform rituals, and seek blessings from these deities.

  • Architecture: Temples dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva often featured intricate carvings, statues, and artwork depicting stories from Hindu mythology related to these gods.

  • Rituals: Priests conducted elaborate ceremonies and rituals within temples to honor Vishnu and Shiva and to facilitate the connection between the devotees and the divine.

  • Pilgrimage Sites: Many temples dedicated to Vishnu and Shiva were considered holy pilgrimage sites, drawing devotees from far and wide to seek spiritual fulfillment.



Conclusion:
Temples have played a crucial role in the worship of Vishnu and Shiva, serving as centers of devotion, culture, and community for followers of these deities. The elaborate architecture, rituals, and significance of these temples have contributed to the rich tapestry of Hindu religious practices and beliefs.
Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 14

In what year did Muhammad Qasim conquer Sind?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 14

Year of Conquest:



  • Muhammad Qasim conquered Sind in 711.


Explanation:



  • During the Umayyad Caliphate, Muhammad Qasim led the Arab conquest of Sind in 711.

  • He defeated Raja Dahir, the Hindu ruler of Sind, and established Muslim rule in the region.

  • His conquest played a significant role in the spread of Islam in the Indian subcontinent.

  • Muhammad Qasim's military campaign was followed by the establishment of Islamic administration in Sind.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 15

Who guided Muslim rulers?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 15

Who guided Muslim rulers?



  • A: Mujtahids

  • B: Ulama

  • C: None

  • D: Brahmins


Answer: b.




Detailed



  • Ulama: The Ulama, or Islamic scholars, played a crucial role in guiding Muslim rulers throughout history.

  • Religious Authority: Ulama provided religious guidance to rulers, interpreting Islamic law and ethics for governance.

  • Political Advice: They also advised rulers on political matters, ensuring that their decisions aligned with Islamic principles.

  • Education and Training: Ulama were responsible for educating rulers in matters of faith and governance, shaping their leadership style.

  • Conflict Resolution: In times of conflict or crisis, Ulama mediated disputes and offered solutions based on Islamic teachings.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 16

What tax did the zimmi pay to gain the right to be protected by Muslims?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 16
Explanation:

  • Jizya: The tax paid by non-Muslims, known as dhimmis or zimmis, to gain the protection of Muslims was called Jizya.

  • Dhimmis: Dhimmis were non-Muslims living in an Islamic state who were granted protection in exchange for this tax.

  • Agriculture Tax: This tax was specifically for agricultural activities and was not related to the protection of non-Muslims.

  • Poll-Tax: This tax was not specifically related to non-Muslims gaining protection in exchange for payment.

Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 17

What did rulers such as the Mughals regard themselves as?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 17
What did rulers such as the Mughals regard themselves as?

  • A: Popes

  • B: Monarchs

  • C: Emperors

  • D: Farmers


Answer:

  • Rulers such as the Mughals regarded themselves as Emperors.

  • They held vast territories and ruled over diverse populations, which warranted the title of Emperor.

  • The Mughal emperors saw themselves as the rightful rulers of a vast empire, encompassing different regions and cultures.

  • They often styled themselves as descendants of great conquerors like Genghis Khan and Timur, further solidifying their claim to the title of Emperor.

  • Emperor was a title that signified supreme authority and power, which the Mughal rulers sought to embody in their rule.

Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 18

What language did Arab Muslim traders adopt?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 18

Language Adopted by Arab Muslim Traders:



  • Answer: Malayalam




Explanation:



  • Arab Muslim traders adopted Malayalam as a language for communication and trade in the region.

  • Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

  • Traders from Arab countries engaged in trade with the South Indian states, especially Kerala, where Malayalam is widely spoken.

  • Through interaction and trade with the local population, Arab Muslim traders embraced Malayalam as a means of communication and conducting business.

  • This adoption of the local language facilitated smoother transactions and cultural exchange between the Arab traders and the South Indian communities.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 19

Who set up a hospice in Ghiyaspur?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 19

Who set up a hospice in Ghiyaspur?

  • A: Shaikh Nizamuddin

  • B: Qalandars

  • C: Shaikh

  • D: Jogis




Detailed

  • Shaikh Nizamuddin: Shaikh Nizamuddin was the one who set up a hospice in Ghiyaspur. He was a prominent Sufi saint and a disciple of Baba Farid.

  • Qalandars: While Qalandars were a group of wandering dervishes, they were not the ones who set up the hospice in Ghiyaspur.

  • Shaikh: The term "Shaikh" is a generic term for a religious leader or elder, but in this context, it does not specify a particular individual who set up the hospice.

  • Jogis: Jogis were ascetics who practiced yoga and meditation, but they were not associated with setting up the hospice in Ghiyaspur.


Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 20

The pilgrims’ spirited singing bound for what city-inspired Akbar to visit the tomb?

Detailed Solution for Test: Bhakti Sufi Traditions- 2 - Question 20
Explanation:

  • Pilgrims' singing: The pilgrims' spirited singing was bound for a city that inspired Akbar to visit the tomb.

  • Inspiration for Akbar: The city that inspired Akbar to visit the tomb must hold some significance or historical importance.

  • Options: The options given are Bikaner, Ajmer, Jaipur, and Rajasthan.




  • Elimination: We can eliminate Rajasthan from the options as it is a state and not a city.

  • Significance of Ajmer: Ajmer is a city in Rajasthan known for the Ajmer Sharif Dargah, the shrine of Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti.

  • Connection to Akbar: Akbar, being a Mughal emperor known for his secular views, might have been inspired by the spiritual atmosphere of Ajmer to visit the tomb.

  • Final Answer: Therefore, the correct answer is option B: Ajmer.

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