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Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - CTET & State TET MCQ


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Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 1

What were Europeans very interested in at Sanchi?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 1

European interest in Sanchi:




Stupa:

  • The Europeans were very interested in the Stupa at Sanchi.

  • The Stupa is a hemispherical structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the ashes of Buddhist monks.

  • It is a symbol of Buddha and his teachings, making it a significant religious structure for Buddhists.


Reasons for European interest:

  • Historical significance: The Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India, dating back to the 3rd century BCE.

  • Architectural marvel: Europeans were fascinated by the intricate carvings and architectural details of the Stupa.

  • Cultural curiosity: The Stupa provided insight into the rich Buddhist culture and history of India, sparking interest among Europeans.


Impact of European interest:

  • Increased tourism: European interest in the Stupa at Sanchi led to an increase in tourism to the site, boosting the local economy.

  • Preservation efforts: European scholars and archaeologists played a crucial role in the preservation and restoration of the Stupa at Sanchi.

  • Global recognition: The European interest in Sanchi helped to promote the site on a global scale, making it a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 2

Who was granted permission to take away the eastern gateway to be displayed in a museum in France?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 2

The eastern gateway of the Great Stupa at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh, India, was removed and taken to France in the 19th century. It was a part of the collection of the French archaeologist and Indologist Alexander Cunningham. So, it was not granted permission by any Indian authority to take away the gateway

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Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 3

Who dedicated his significant volumes on Sanchi to Sultan Jehan?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 3

John Marshall dedicated his significant volumes on Sanchi to Sultan Jehan.

  • Who is John Marshall?


    • John Marshall was a British archaeologist who served as the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1902 to 1928.


  • What are the significant volumes on Sanchi?


    • John Marshall published detailed volumes on the archaeological site of Sanchi, which is known for its ancient Buddhist stupas and monuments.


  • Who is Sultan Jehan?


    • Sultan Jehan was the ruler of the princely state of Bhopal in central India during Marshall's time as the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India.


  • Why did John Marshall dedicate his volumes to Sultan Jehan?


    • It is believed that Marshall dedicated his volumes to Sultan Jehan as a sign of respect and appreciation for her patronage and support of archaeological research in the region.



Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 4

The discovery of Sanchi has vastly transformed our understanding of early what?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 4

Discovery of Sanchi and its Impact on Early Buddhism:

  • Significance of Sanchi: The discovery of Sanchi, particularly the Great Stupa, has provided valuable insights into the early development and spread of Buddhism.

  • Architectural Marvel: The architectural design and intricate carvings found at Sanchi have helped scholars understand the religious and cultural practices of early Buddhists.

  • Historical Context: Sanchi's artifacts and inscriptions have shed light on the patronage and support Buddhism received from various rulers and communities during its formative years.

  • Artistic Expression: The sculptures and reliefs at Sanchi showcase the artistic expression and symbolism associated with Buddhist teachings and beliefs.

  • Religious Practices: The artifacts found at Sanchi have provided evidence of early Buddhist rituals, ceremonies, and worship practices that were prevalent during that time.

  • Global Influence: The discovery of Sanchi has also highlighted the global influence of Buddhism and its role in shaping the religious landscape of Asia and beyond.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 5

What type of railing surrounds the stupa at Sanchi?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 5


Types of Railing Surrounding the Stupa at Sanchi:

  • Brick: The railing surrounding the stupa at Sanchi is made of brick. These bricks were intricately carved with various designs and motifs.

  • Stone: In addition to the brick railing, there are also stone railings surrounding the stupa at Sanchi. These stone railings are also adorned with intricate carvings.


Importance of the Railing:

  • The railing at Sanchi serves both a practical and symbolic purpose. It acts as a boundary, demarcating the sacred space of the stupa from the surrounding area.

  • The carvings on the railing depict scenes from the life of Buddha, Jataka tales, and other Buddhist motifs. These carvings serve as a form of visual storytelling and religious instruction for worshippers and visitors.


Historical Significance:

  • The railings at Sanchi are considered to be some of the finest examples of early Indian stone carving. They showcase the skill and artistry of ancient Indian craftsmen.

  • These railings also provide insight into the religious and cultural beliefs of the time, as they depict scenes from Buddhist mythology and teachings.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 6

How many sects or schools of thought are mentioned in Buddhist texts?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 6

Explanation:

  • Total number of sects: In Buddhist texts, it is mentioned that there are a total of 64 sects or schools of thought.

  • Diversity: These sects vary in their beliefs, practices, interpretations of Buddhist teachings, and philosophical perspectives.

  • Historical context: The development of these sects can be traced back to the early days of Buddhism, when different groups of followers had varying interpretations of the teachings of the Buddha.

  • Spread: These sects were not limited to a specific region but spread across different parts of Asia, contributing to the rich diversity within Buddhism.

  • Impact: The existence of these sects has played a significant role in shaping the history and evolution of Buddhism as a major world religion.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 7

How many teachers preceded Mahavira?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 7

Explanation:

  • Predecessors of Mahavira: Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism.

  • Number of teachers before Mahavira: Before Mahavira, there were 23 teachers who preceded him.

  • Significance of the number 23: The number 23 holds importance in Jainism as it represents the lineage of spiritual teachers who guided Mahavira on his path to enlightenment.

  • Role of predecessors: These 23 teachers played a crucial role in shaping Mahavira's spiritual journey and imparting wisdom that led him to attain enlightenment.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 8

What teachers who guide men and women across the river of existence called?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 8

Explanation:


  • Teachers guiding individuals across the river of existence: These teachers are called Tirthankaras. Tirthankaras are spiritual teachers who guide individuals on their journey through life, helping them overcome obstacles and attain spiritual enlightenment.

  • Role of Tirthankaras: Tirthankaras are revered figures in Jainism, a religion that emphasizes non-violence, truthfulness, and spiritual development. They are seen as enlightened beings who have achieved liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

  • Significance of Tirthankaras: Tirthankaras are considered role models for Jain followers, inspiring them to follow the path of righteousness and compassion. They provide teachings and guidance to help individuals navigate the challenges of life and attain spiritual growth.

  • Difference from other spiritual figures: Tirthankaras are distinct from priests or other religious leaders, as they are believed to have attained a higher level of spiritual realization and serve as teachers and guides for all beings seeking enlightenment.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 9

What is central to Jaina’s philosophy?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 9
Central Tenet of Jaina's Philosophy: Non-Injury (Ahimsa)

  • Ahimsa: The most central aspect of Jaina philosophy is the principle of Ahimsa, which translates to non-injury or non-violence. Jains believe in minimizing harm to all living beings, including animals, plants, and even microscopic organisms.

  • Respect for Life: Jaina philosophy emphasizes the interconnectedness of all life forms and the importance of treating every living being with respect and compassion.

  • Ahimsa in Action: Jains strive to practice Ahimsa in all aspects of their lives, which includes following a vegetarian diet, avoiding harm to insects or animals, and practicing non-violence in thoughts, words, and actions.

  • Karma: Jains believe in the concept of karma, where every action has consequences. By practicing Ahimsa, Jains aim to accumulate positive karma and progress on their spiritual journey towards liberation (moksha).

  • Non-Injury in Practice: Jains often engage in charitable activities, environmental conservation efforts, and ethical business practices to uphold the principle of Ahimsa in their daily lives.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 10

According to Jaina’s teachings, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through what?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 10

Explanation:

  • Karma: According to Jaina teachings, the cycle of birth and rebirth is shaped through the concept of karma. Karma is the law of moral causation, which determines the nature of one's rebirth based on their actions in past lives.

  • Reincarnation: Reincarnation is the belief that the soul is reborn into a new body after death, and this cycle continues until the soul achieves liberation.

  • Caste: The caste system is a social hierarchy that is not specifically related to the cycle of birth and rebirth in Jaina teachings.

  • Dharma: Dharma refers to one's duty or righteousness in Hinduism and Buddhism, but in Jaina teachings, karma plays a more significant role in shaping the cycle of birth and rebirth.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 11

How many vows did Jaina monks and nuns take?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 11

Number of Vows in Jaina Monasticism:



  • Five Vows: Jaina monks and nuns take five vows, known as the Mahavratas or Great Vows.

  • Ahimsa (Non-violence): This vow requires individuals to practice non-violence in thought, word, and deed towards all living beings.

  • Satya (Truthfulness): Monks and nuns must always speak the truth and refrain from falsehoods.

  • Asteya (Non-stealing): Practitioners must not take anything that is not freely given to them.

  • Brahmacharya (Chastity): This vow entails celibacy and abstinence from sexual activity.

  • Aparigraha (Non-attachment): Monks and nuns must renounce all possessions and attachments to material things.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 12

Where are the buddha's teachings found?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 12

Where are the buddha's teachings found?



  • A: Upnishads

  • B: Sutta Pitaka

  • C: Mahabharata

  • D: Gahapatis


Answer: B. Sutta Pitaka




Detailed



  • Sutta Pitaka: This is one of the three pitakas (baskets) in the Pali Canon, which is the collection of teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

  • Content: Sutta Pitaka contains discourses, sermons, and dialogues of the Buddha and his disciples covering various aspects of Buddhist philosophy and practice.

  • Organization: It is organized into five nikayas (collections) which include important texts such as the Digha Nikaya (Long Discourses) and the Majjhima Nikaya (Middle-Length Discourses).

  • Significance: The teachings found in the Sutta Pitaka are considered foundational in understanding the core principles of Buddhism and the path to enlightenment.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 13

According to Buddhist philosophy, the world is transient (anicca) and constantly changing; it is soulless.

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 13
Explanation:

  • Anatta: Anatta, or "no-self," is a key concept in Buddhist philosophy that states that there is no permanent, unchanging self or soul. This idea is closely related to the concept of impermanence (anicca) as it emphasizes the transient nature of existence.

  • Anicca: Anicca refers to the impermanent and constantly changing nature of the world. According to Buddhist teachings, everything in the world is subject to change and nothing is permanent.

  • Connection: The concept of anatta (no-self) is closely related to anicca (impermanence) as both emphasize the idea that there is no permanent self or soul in the ever-changing world. Together, these concepts form the basis of Buddhist philosophy and guide followers towards understanding the nature of existence.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 14

What is the extinguishing of the ego and desire?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 14

Extinguishing of the ego and desire:



  • Nibbana: Nibbana, also known as Nirvana, is the extinguishing of the ego and desire in Buddhism.


Key Points:



  • Moksha: Moksha is the concept of liberation from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth in Hinduism.

  • Sukha: Sukha refers to happiness or pleasure in Sanskrit.

  • Dukkha: Dukkha is the concept of suffering or dissatisfaction in Buddhism.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 15

What was the name of the group where consensus was reached through discussions?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 15

Group Name:

  • Sanghas: This was the name of the group where consensus was reached through discussions.


Explanation:

  • Consensus through discussions: Sanghas were communities in ancient India where individuals would come together to discuss and deliberate on various matters.

  • Decision making: The Sanghas operated on the principle of achieving consensus through open discussions and debates among its members.

  • Democratic process: This form of decision-making allowed for the inclusion of diverse perspectives and ensured that decisions were made collectively.

  • Role in society: Sanghas played a significant role in governance, social cohesion, and the dissemination of knowledge in ancient Indian society.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 16

What grew rapidly during the lifetime of the buddha and after his death?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 16

Explanation:



  • Introduction: During the lifetime of the Buddha and after his death, Buddhism grew rapidly in popularity and influence.

  • Spread of Buddhism:

    • Buddhism spread from its origins in India to other parts of Asia, including Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia.

    • Monks, traders, and missionaries played a significant role in the spread of Buddhism to these regions.

    • Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire in India played a crucial role in promoting Buddhism and sending missionaries to other parts of Asia.



  • Teachings of Buddhism:

    • The teachings of the Buddha, including the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, resonated with people seeking spiritual guidance and relief from suffering.

    • The emphasis on compassion, non-violence, and mindfulness also attracted followers to Buddhism.



  • Impact on Society:

    • Buddhism had a profound impact on the societies where it spread, influencing art, architecture, literature, and philosophy.

    • Buddhist monasteries became centers of learning and culture, preserving knowledge and promoting education.



  • Legacy of Buddhism:

    • Today, Buddhism is one of the major world religions, with millions of followers around the globe.

    • Various schools and sects of Buddhism have developed over time, each with its own interpretations and practices.

    • The teachings of the Buddha continue to inspire people to seek enlightenment and live ethically.



Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 17

What were sites with small shrines attached to them called?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 17
Explanation:

  • Site with small shrines attached: These were called Chaityas.

  • Definition: Chaityas were Buddhist prayer halls or shrines, typically containing a stupa.

  • Function: They were used by monks and laypeople for meditation, chanting, and rituals.

  • Design: Chaityas often had a small shrine attached to them, where offerings could be made.

  • Significance: These sites were important for the Buddhist community as places of worship and reflection.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 18

What was each of the places associated with the buddha's life regarded as gradually?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 18

Places associated with the Buddha's life regarded as gradually:



  • Sacred: Each of the places associated with the Buddha's life was regarded as sacred by his followers.

  • Holy: Over time, these places became holy pilgrimage sites for Buddhists seeking spiritual enlightenment.

  • Ancient: The ancient history and significance of these places added to their reverence among Buddhists.

  • Ritual: Rituals and ceremonies were performed at these locations to honor the Buddha and his teachings.


Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 19

How many cardinal points were the stupas installed at?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 19

How many cardinal points were the stupas installed at?




  • A: Four

  • B: Three

  • C: Six

  • D: Five



Answer: A




Detailed




Explanation:




  • Stupas were typically installed at the four cardinal points in Buddhism.

  • The four cardinal points are north, south, east, and west.

  • This placement symbolizes the Buddha's teachings spreading to all directions.

  • It also represents the idea of universality and inclusivity in Buddhism.

  • By placing stupas at these cardinal points, practitioners are reminded of the omnipresence of the Buddha's teachings.


By understanding the significance of the placement of stupas at the four cardinal points, one can appreciate the deeper spiritual meaning behind this practice in Buddhism.

Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 20

Who was the commissioner of Guntur in 1854?

Detailed Solution for Test: Thinkers, Beliefs And Buildings- 2 - Question 20

Commissioner of Guntur in 1854:



  • Options:


    • A: H.H. Cole

    • B: Walter Elliot

    • C: Colin Mackenzie

    • D: James


  • Answer: B. Walter Elliot


Detailed Explanation:



  • In 1854, the commissioner of Guntur was Walter Elliot.

  • Walter Elliot served as the commissioner of Guntur during that time period.

  • He played a significant role in the administration and governance of the region.

  • Walter Elliot's tenure as commissioner of Guntur was marked by various developments and initiatives in the region.

  • His contributions to the region's progress and welfare were noteworthy during his time as commissioner.


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