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Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - UPSC MCQ


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10 Questions MCQ Test CSAT Preparation - Test: Permutation & Combination- 1

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Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 1

A coin is tossed 3 times. Find out the number of possible outcomes.       

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 1

For any multiple independent event, there are nm

total possible outcomes, where n is the number of outcomes per event, and m is the number of such events.

So for a coin, discounting the unlikely event of landing on its side, there are two possible outcomes per event, heads or tails. And it is stated that there are 3 such events. So nm=23=8

.

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 2

In how many different ways can the letters of the word 'DETAIL' be arranged such that the vowels must occupy only the odd positions? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 2

There are 6 letters in the given word, out of which there are 3 vowels and 3 consonants.

Let us mark these positions as under: 

                                                      (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 

Now, 3 vowels can be placed at any of the three places out 4, marked 1, 3, 5.  

Number of ways of arranging the vowels = 3P3

 = 3! = 6.

Also, the 3 consonants can be arranged at the remaining 3 positions. 

Number of ways of these arrangements = 3P3

 = 3! = 6. 

Total number of ways = (6 x 6) = 36.

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Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 3

A bag contains 2 white balls, 3 black balls and 4 red balls. In how many ways can 3 balls be drawn from the bag, if at least one black ball is to be included in the draw? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 3

The bag contains 2 White, 3 Black and 4 Red balls.

So, total 9 balls are there in the bag; among them 3 are Black and 6 are non-Black balls.

Three balls can randomly be drawn in (9C3) = 84 ways.

1 Black and 2 non-Black balls can be drawn in (3C1)*(6C2) = 45 ways.

1 non-Black and 2 Black balls can be drawn in (6C1)*(3C2) = 18 ways.

3 Black balls can be drawn in (3C3) = 1 way.

So, three balls drawn in (45 + 18 + 1) = 64 ways will have at least one Black ball among the drawn ones.

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 4

In how many different ways can the letters of the word 'JUDGE' be arranged such that the vowels always come together?

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 4

The given word contains 5 different letters.
Keeping the vowels UE together, we suppose them as 1 letter.
Then, we have to arrange the letters JDG (UE).
Now, we have to arrange in 4! = 24 ways.
The vowels (UE) can be arranged among themselves in 2 ways.
∴ Required number of ways = (24 × 2) = 48

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 5

If we listed all numbers from 100 to 10,000, how many times would the digit 3 be printed?

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 5

Three-digit numbers: A B C. 3 can be printed in the 100’s place or 10’s place or units place.

=> 100’s place: 3 B C. B can take values 0 to 9, C can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the 100’s place 100 times
=> 10’s place: A 3 C. A can take values 1 to 9, C can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the 10’s place 90 times
=> Unit’s place: A B 3. A can take values 1 to 9, B can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the unit’s place 90 times

So, 3 gets printed 280 times in 3-digit numbers
Four-digit numbers: A B C D. 3 can be printed in the 1000’s place, 100’s place or 10’s place or units place.
=> 1000’s place: 3 B C D. B can take values 0 to 9, C can take values 0 to 9, D can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the 100’s place 1000 times.
=> 100’s place: A 3 C D. A can take values 1 to 9, C & D can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the 100’s place 900 times.
=> 10’s place: A B 3 D. A can take values 1 to 9, B & D can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the 10’s place 900 times.
=> Unit’s place: A B C 3. A can take values 1 to 9, B & C can take values 0 to 9. So, 3 gets printed in the unit’s place 900 times.

3 gets printed 3700 times in 4-digit numbers.
So, there are totally 3700 + 280 = 3980 numbers.

Hence the answer is "3980", Choice C is the correct answer.

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 6

2a + 5b = 103. How many pairs of positive integer values can a, b take such that a > b?

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 6

Let us find the one pair of values for a, b.
a = 4, b = 19 satisfies this equation.
2*4 + 5*19 = 103.

Now, if we increase ‘a’ by 5 and decrease ‘b’ by 2 we should get the next set of numbers. We can keep repeating this to get all values.
Let us think about why we increase ‘a’ by 5 and decrease b by 2.
a = 4, b = 19 works.

Let us say, we increase ‘a’ by n, then the increase would be 2n.
This has to be offset by a corresponding decrease in b.
Let us say we decrease b by ‘m’.
This would result in a net drop of 5m.
In order for the total to be same, 2n should be equal to 5m.
The smallest value of m, n for this to work would be 2, 5.

a = 4, b = 19
a = 9, b = 17
a = 14, b = 15
..
And so on till
a = 49, b = 1
We are also told that ‘a’ should be greater than ‘b’, then we have all combinations from (19, 13) … (49, 1).
7 pairs totally.

Hence the answer is "7"

Choice C is the correct answer.

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 7

How many arrangements can be made out of the letters of the word 'ENGINEERING' ?

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 7

The number of arrangements of the word ENGINEERING is 277200.
ENGINEERING word has 3 times of 3, three times of N, 2 times of G and 2 times of I. Then, the total letter is 11.

So, the number of arrangements of the word ENGINEERING = 11!/[3! * 3! * 2! * 2!] = 39916800/[6 * 6 * 2 * 2] = 277200

Hence, the number of arrangements of the word ENGINEERING is 277200.

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 8

How many 3 digit numbers can be formed from the digits 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 9 which are divisible by 5 and none of the digits is repeated? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 8

Since each desired number is divisible by 5, so we must have 5 at the unit place. So, there is 1 way of doing it.
The tens place can now be filled by any of the remaining 5 digits (2, 3, 6, 7, 9). So, there are 5 ways of filling the tens place.
The hundreds place can now be filled by any of the remaining 4 digits. So, there are 4 ways of filling it.
∴ Required number of numbers = (1 x 5 x 4) = 20.

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 9

How many words with or without meaning, can be formed by using all the letters of the word, 'DELHI' using each letter exactly once? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 9

Explanation :

The word 'DELHI' has 5 letters and all these letters are different.

Total words (with or without meaning) formed by using all these
5 letters using each letter exactly once
= Number of arrangements of 5 letters taken all at a time
= 5P5 = 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120

Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 10

A seven-digit number comprises of only 2's and 3's. How many of these are multiples of 12?

Detailed Solution for Test: Permutation & Combination- 1 - Question 10

Number should be a multiple of 3 and 4. So, the sum of the digits should be a multiple of 3. We can either have all seven digits as 3, or have three 2's and four 3's, or six 2's and a 3.
(The number of 2's should be a multiple of 3).

For the number to be a multiple of 4, the last 2 digits should be 32. Now, let us combine these two.
All seven 3's - No possibility.

Three 2's and four 3's - The first 5 digits should have two 2's and three 3's in some order.
No of possibilities = 5!3!2!5!3!2! = 10

Six 2's and one 3 - The first 5 digits should all be 2's. So, there is only one number 2222232.
So, there are a total of 10 + 1 = 11 solutions.

Hence the answer is "11"

Choice D is the correct answer.

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