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Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - CAT MCQ


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15 Questions MCQ Test Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - Test: Reading Comprehension- 4

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Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 1

Which of the following scenarios, if true, would most weaken the argument contained in the paradox of tolerance which ―admonishes us that tolerance of the intolerant leads to intolerance?

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 1

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the ―"paradox of intolerance."
¶2 gives examples of countries that have taken the paradox into consideration by banning extreme speech, and argues that the United States tolerates even extremist speech.
¶3 introduces a justification for the defense of extremist speech: the classical model.
¶s4 and 5 introduce another justification: the fortress model.

Take a moment to review the paradox and its implications before attacking the choices. The paradox essentially states that free speech should be limited at its extremes when the extremes could contribute to eliminating free speech. Looking for an answer choice that weakens the implications of the paradox turns up (D): The paradox states that extreme speech weakens stable government, a point weakened by a scenario in which extreme speech and stable government coexist.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 2

All of the following actions have been put forth by one or another group in this country as being of value in our society. Which actions would violate a principle of the classical model of free speech?  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 2

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the ―"paradox of intolerance."
¶2 gives examples of countries that have taken the paradox into consideration by banning extreme speech, and argues that the United States tolerates even extremist speech.
¶3 introduces a justification for the defense of extremist speech: the classical model.
¶s4 and 5 introduce another justification: the fortress model.

Review the classical model in ¶3, paying particular attention to its scope. The classical model argues that political speech should be protected, whether it‘s extremist or not. While three of the answer choices deal with non-political speech, only (C) deals with political speech that the classical model would propose to
protect.

 

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 3

The fortress model is ―built on a foundation of pessimism, individualism, relativism, and self-doubt.‖ Based on information in the passage, each of the following statements is a view held by those who believe in the fortress model of free speech EXCEPT:  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 3

Mapping the Passage
¶1 introduces the ―"paradox of intolerance."
¶2 gives examples of countries that have taken the paradox into consideration by banning extreme speech, and argues that the United States tolerates even extremist speech.
¶3 introduces a justification for the defense of extremist speech: the classical model.
¶s4 and 5 introduce another justification: the fortress model.

Review the fortress model before eliminating answer choices that match with what a proponent would believe. The fortress model argues that extremist speech should be protected because more harm is done in banning it than in allowing the speech itself. While three choices reasonably follow from this, (A) contradicts the main point of the model in general: free speech shouldn’t be banned.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 4

Considering the arguments made in the passage, with which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 4

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that in reality the Hellenic period was tumultuous, not the idealized community that Alexander desired.
¶2 gives a time frame for Greek civilization and the Olympic games.
¶3 argues that the games reflected Greek culture, but not positively as the founders intended.
¶4 argues that the games reinforced disunity instead of promoting the unity originally intended.

Review the author‘s main point in the passage: the Olympic Games didn‘t bring Greece together; they just reinforced divisions. Scan for an answer choice that touches on this main point: choice (C). Using the denial test to double-check works: if the author thought that sporting events never did this, he couldn‘t believe what he does about the Games.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 5

For which of the following statements does the passage provide some evidence or explanation?  
I. Alexander united ancient Greece through a series of military conquests.  

II. The divisions among Greek city-states were reflected in the Olympics.  

III. The Olympic Games could not have occurred without a city-state system. 

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 5

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that in reality the Hellenic period was tumultuous, not the idealized community that Alexander desired.
¶2 gives a time frame for Greek civilization and the Olympic games.
¶3 argues that the games reflected Greek culture, but not positively as the founders intended.
¶4 argues that the games reinforced disunity instead of promoting the unity originally intended.

Take a moment to remind yourself of the author‘s main point about the Games and look at the layout of the choices before trying to answer. RN II is the most frequent, so hit that first. RN II is basically the author‘s main argument, and the passage itself is explanation and example for this. Eliminate (B). RN I offers a point not made by the passage: the author argues that Alexander never truly unified Greece (and he offers no evidence for this). Eliminate (C). The author never makes the claim in RN III, and therefore (D) can be eliminated. (A) alone is left.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 6

The statement: ―"The Olympic spirit was not one of communal bliss but bitter lasting competition institutionalized in games" indicates that the author believes that:  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 6

Mapping the Passage
¶1 argues that in reality the Hellenic period was tumultuous, not the idealized community that Alexander desired.
¶2 gives a time frame for Greek civilization and the Olympic games.
¶3 argues that the games reflected Greek culture, but not positively as the founders intended.
¶4 argues that the games reinforced disunity instead of promoting the unity originally intended.

Review the phrase in context; it reinforces the author‘s main point that the Games made a bad situation worse. Looking for a similar point leads to (C). The author clearly believes that the Games made the Greeks‘ warlike tensions worse than they already were.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 7

As the author creates the analogy between war and painting in the passage, the Commander-in-Chief is to the battleground as the:  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 7

Mapping the Passage
¶1 compares painting a picture to fighting a battle, lists two similarities, planning and
backup, and discusses planning.
¶2 explains that practicing art is a great way to become a lover of art.
¶s3 and 4 draws in the analogy of the general and explain the need to study previous masters in war and art.
¶s5 and 6 explain the need to keep reserves in battle and painting.

The Commander-in-Chief is mentioned in the first paragraph, so begin your search there. The author says that the battleground must be inspected and studied. What is the equivalent in painting? The subject being painted. (A) fits the bill.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 8

Following the example of the master Manet, the young Matisse often inserted in his pictures areas of white such as tablecloths or crockery that allowed for striking contrasts with black objects such as a knife or a dark bottle. What is the relevance of this information to the passage?  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 8

Mapping the Passage
¶1 compares painting a picture to fighting a battle, lists two similarities, planning and
backup, and discusses planning.
¶2 explains that practicing art is a great way to become a lover of art.
¶s3 and 4 draws in the analogy of the general and explain the need to study previous masters in war and art.
¶s5 and 6 explain the need to keep reserves in battle and painting.

A synthesis question testing your ability to evaluate the relevance of a new situation to the author‘s arguments. Zero in on elements of the new situation that sound relevant to the passage. Black and white are mentioned in the final paragraph. Recall that the author argues that black and white make weak impressions when contrasted. However, in the question stem situation, the impression is strong. We‘re looking for an answer that points this out, in other words, one that argues the new situation weakens the author‘s view (C) fits exactly.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 9

The author‘s statement ―"But [the fighting troops], in the absence of high direction, are apt to get into sad confusion, all mixed together in a nasty mess, without order or plan—and consequently without effect" assumes that

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 9

Mapping the Passage
¶1 compares painting a picture to fighting a battle, lists two similarities, planning and
backup, and discusses planning.
¶2 explains that practicing art is a great way to become a lover of art.
¶s3 and 4 draws in the analogy of the general and explain the need to study previous masters in war and art.
¶s5 and 6 explain the need to keep reserves in battle and painting.

Yet another question testing your understanding of the author‘s extended metaphor. These will be very common in any passage where unusual parallels are drawn. The quoted statement comes from ¶5; since all of the answer choices mention painting, work through how this part of the metaphor corresponds. The author is arguing that without a reserve, colours, like troops, will be confused and without order and therefore useless. For this to be true, the author must also believe that a painting without order suffers artistically, choice (A). To test an assumption in your practice, use the denial test: If the author does in fact assume X, the argument should fall apart if X is false. In this case, if chaotic painting can have an artistic effect, then the author‘s point about confused troops becomes meaningless. The assumption as it is written is therefore valid.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 10

If the author of the passage travelled to a political convention and saw various candidates speak he would most likely have the highest regard for an orator who:  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 10

Mapping the Passage:
¶1 introduces the importance of rhetoric in Greek life and the fact that it was taught.
¶2 explains why rhetorical skill was sometimes mistrusted, but still sought after.
¶3 states that as rhetoric (in writing and speech) became more of an art, its original purpose was corrupted.
¶4 states that the Greek system required rhetorical skills and therefore inherited rhetoric's drawbacks as well.

What is the author‘s main argument about oratory? It was necessary for the Greeks, but became a "weakness" when they focused too much on making it artistic (¶s 3 and 4). Therefore the author would admire an orator who didn't sacrifice the facts and reason to too much rhetoric. (C) keeps the good parts of rhetoric while leaving out the artistic flourishes the author dislikes.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 11

Historians agree that those seeking public office in modern America make far fewer speeches in the course of their campaign than those seeking a public position in ancient Greece did. The author would most likely explain this by pointing out that: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 11

Mapping the Passage:
¶1 introduces the importance of rhetoric in Greek life and the fact that it was taught.
¶2 explains why rhetorical skill was sometimes mistrusted, but still sought after.
¶3 states that as rhetoric (in writing and speech) became more of an art, its original purpose was corrupted.
¶4 states that the Greek system required rhetorical skills and therefore inherited rhetoric's drawbacks as well.

An application question. What would the author consider a main difference between ancient Greece and modern America? The opening lines mention that a Greek citizen had to rely on the spoken rather than the written word, and had "no" backcloth of daily reportage to make his own or others‘ views familiar to his hearers" as modern culture has. Therefore fewer speeches are needed nowadays, as (B) states.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 12

Implicit in the statement that the exaltation of virtuosity was not due mainly to Isocrates because public display was normal in a world that talked far more than it read is the assumption that:  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 12

Mapping the Passage:
¶1 introduces the importance of rhetoric in Greek life and the fact that it was taught.
¶2 explains why rhetorical skill was sometimes mistrusted, but still sought after.
¶3 states that as rhetoric (in writing and speech) became more of an art, its original purpose was corrupted.
¶4 states that the Greek system required rhetorical skills and therefore inherited rhetoric's drawbacks as well.

Make sure that you untangle tough questions, paraphrasing what‘s being asked, before trying to answer them. What paragraph is being discussed? ¶3, the argument that the art of rhetoric became too important. The question stem just says that this happened because the culture was concerned with public display. Assumptions bridge gaps in reasoning. Here, it would connect art and public display. Only (B) and (C) deal with both of these concepts. If (B) is true, we have a valid explanation for why art became so important in this particular culture. If it‘s not true, there‘s no reason why they should be connected, and the author‘s argument falls apart. (B) has to be a valid assumption

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 13

Based on information in the passage, with which of the following statements about opinions would the author most likely NOT disagree?  

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 13

Mapping the Passage:
¶1 (first half) introduces the limits that should be placed on expression of opinions.
¶1 (second half) argues that differences of opinions are necessary.
¶2 offers three reasons why individual opinions are necessary to personal growth.

Quickly review the author‘s opinions on opinions before hitting the answer choices, making sure they‘re clear in your map and your mind. Note that the question is a double negative—you're looking for something with which the author "does not disagree," i.e. does agree. (B) summarizes the idea expressed in the first half of ¶1: opinions are harmless in some cases, deadly in others.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 14

The author holds that one should not necessarily defer to the traditions and customs of other people. The author supports his position by arguing that:  

I. traditions and customs are usually the result of misinterpreted experiences.  

II. customs are based on experiences in the past, which are different from modern experiences.

III. customs can stifle one‘s individual development. 

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 14

Mapping the Passage:
¶1 (first half) introduces the limits that should be placed on expression of opinions.
¶1 (second half) argues that differences of opinions are necessary.
¶2 offers three reasons why individual opinions are necessary to personal growth.

Use your reasoning from the last question to help yourself with this one. Remember to eliminate answer choices as you either select or eliminate Roman numerals. RN III is in three choices, so look there first. The author argues that customs aren‘t always good, and therefore can stifle growth. RN III is correct. Eliminate (A). Next to RN II: it also contradicts the author‘s argument that customs can be useful. By default, the answer must be (B), but check RN I to be sure. The author defends the general usefulness of customs. While sometimes experiences are misinterpreted, there‘s nothing to indicate that the usually are, which knocks RN I out immediately. RN II.

Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 15

The existence of which of the following phenomena would most strongly challenge the author‘s argument about ―conforming to custom merely as custom? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Reading Comprehension- 4 - Question 15

Mapping the Passage:
¶1 (first half) introduces the limits that should be placed on expression of opinions.
¶1 (second half) argues that differences of opinions are necessary.
¶2 offers three reasons why individual opinions are necessary to personal growth.

Find the relevant text in the passage. The author is arguing that conforming to custom for custom‘s sake stifles development. We want to find an answer choice that challenges this, so look for an answer where custom is followed but development isn’t stifled. Choice (C) is tailor-made for the occasion.

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