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Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - NEET MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test Chemistry Class 11 - Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory

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Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 1

Which law is also known as Law of constant composition?

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 1

The law of definite proportions, also known as the law of constant composition states that all pure samples of the same chemical compound contain the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass.
What this law emphasizes is that, if pure samples of the same chemical substance, wherever they may be found, are analyzed, it will be found that they all consist of the same elements, as well as having these elements combine in the same proportions by mass.
For examples, pure sample of copper(II) oxide is composed of copper and oxygen, in the proportion of 1:1 by mole, or 64 g of copper to 16 g of oxygen or 1 g of copper to 0.25 g of oxygen. 

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 2

According to Dalton’s atomic theory chemical reactions involve:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 2

Chemical reactions involve merely the combination, separation, or rearrangement of atoms and that during these processes atoms are not subdivided, created, or destroyed.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 3

100mL of gaseous hydrogen combines with 50 mL of gaseous oxygen to give 100mL of water vapours. This can be explained on the basis of:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 3

According to Gay Lussac's Law of Gaseous Volume, under same pressure and temperature, whenever gases react, they do so in volumes and volumes of reacting gases bear a simple ratio with each other and with product gases formed. 100 : 50 : 100 : : 2 : 1: 2 Hence, option B is correct.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 4

According to the Avogadro’s law, equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure should contain:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 4

Avogadro's law states that, "equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, have the same number of molecules". For a given mass of an ideal gas, the volume and amount (moles) of the gas are directly proportional if the temperature and pressure are constant.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 5

The distinction between atoms and molecules was made by:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 5

Avogadro made the distinction between atoms and molecules, which today seems clear. However, Dalton rejected Avogadro's hypothesis because Dalton believed that atoms of the same kind could not combine. Since it was believed that atoms were held together by an electrical force, only unlike atoms would be attracted together, and like atoms should repel. Therefore it seemed impossible for a molecule of oxygen, O2, to exist. Avogadro's work, even if it was read appears not to have been understood, and was pushed into the dark recesses of chemistry libraries and ignored. Avogadro continued to teach at the university of Turin, when it was not closed because of the political upheavals going on in Italy at the time, and died in 1854, an unknown figure. 

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 6

Law of definite proportions is given by:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 6

Law of Definite Proportions:

1. The law of definite proportions was given by French chemist Joseph Proust in 1799.

2. The law of definite proportions is also known as the law of definite or fixed proportion.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 7

According to Avogadro’s law at the same temperature and pressure:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 7

Avogadro’s Law
Amedeo Avogadro in 1811 combined the conclusions of Dalton’s Atomic Theory and Gay Lussac’s Law to give another important Gas law called the Avogadro’s Law. According to Avogadro’s law, at constant temperature and pressure, the volume of all gases constitutes an equal number of molecules. In other words, this implies that in unchanged conditions of temperature and pressure the volume of any gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules of that gas.
Mathematically, V ∝ n
Here, n is the number of moles of the gas. Hence, V= kn

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 8

Law of constant composition does not hold good for:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 8

Law of definite proportions or Proust's law states that a chemical compound always contain the same proportion of elements by mass.
Although the law holds good for a large no. of cases, it is not universally true. It's not true in the case of non - stoichiometric compounds.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 9

Laws of chemical combinations can be explained on the basis of:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 9

The old ideas were put on a scientific scale by John Dalton in the form of a theory, known as Dalton’s atomic theory,
Main postulates of which are as follows :
• All matters are made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
• All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties.
• Atoms of different elements differ in properties and have different masses and sizes.
• Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
• A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.These are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 10

What is incorrect about the Law of conservation of mass?

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 10

The law of definite proportions, also known law of definite composition, states that regardless of the amount, a pure compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass. Law of multiple proportions, also known as Dalton s Law, states that when one element combines with another to form more than one compound, the mass ration of the elements in the compounds are simple whole numbers of each other.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 11

A statement which is not a part of Dalton’s atomic theory is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 11

Atoms are composed of particles called protons, electrons and neutrons. Protons carry a positive electrical charge, electrons carry a negative electrical charge and neutrons carry no electrical charge at all. The protons and neutrons cluster together in the central part of the atom, called the nucleus, and the electrons 'orbit' the nucleus. A particular atom will have the same number of protons and electrons and most atoms have at least as many neutrons as protons.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 12

Natural sample of cupric carbonate contains 51.35% of copper, 9.74% of oxygen and 38.91% of carbon. Synthetic sample of the compound will contain:​

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 12

According to the law of definite proportions a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight irrespective of its source.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 13

A compound prepared by any method contains the same elements in the fixed ratio by mass. The given statement is known as:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 13

Law of Definite Proportions
The discovery that mass was always conserved in chemical reactions was soon followed by the law of definite proportions, which states that a given chemical compound always contains the same elements in the exact same proportions by mass. As an example, any sample of pure water contains 11.19%11.19% hydrogen and 88.81%88.81% oxygen by mass. It does not matter where the sample of water came from or how it was prepared. Its composition, like that of every other compound, is fixed.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 14

At what conditions Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volumes is considered?

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 14

Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volumes states that when gases combine or are produced in a chemical reaction, they do so in a simple ratio by volume provided all gases are at same temperature and pressure.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 15

Law of conservation of mass was given by:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 15

The Law of Conservation of Mass (or Matter) in a chemical reaction can be stated thus:
In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
It was discovered by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-94) about 1785. However, philosophical speculation and even some quantitative experimentation preceeded him. In addition, he was certainly not the first to accept this law as true or to teach it, but he is credited as its discoverer.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 16

Which of the following statements illustrate the law of multiple proportions?

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 16

Law of multiple proportions states that when two elements combine to form two or more compounds, the masses of one element which combine with the fixed mass of another element, will always be in ratio of whole numbers. Going with the definition we will get C.

Hence C

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 17

If 6.3 g of NaHCO3 are added to 15.0 g CH3COOH solution, the residue is found to weigh 18.0 g. What will be the mass of CO2 released in the reaction?

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 17

The correct answer is Option B.
The chemical reaction will be:
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH →CH3COONa + H2O + CO2
molar mass:
NaHCO3 = 84
CH3COOH=60
CH3COONa=82
CO2 =44
84gNaHCO3 + 60gCH3COOH → 82gCH3COONa + 44gCO2
Moles of NaHCO3 = 6.3/84= 0.075
Moles of CH3COOH = 15/60= 0.25
∴NaHCO3 is the limited reagent.
Moles of CO2 formed = 0.075
Weight of CO2 = 0.075×44 = 3.3g

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 18

When hydrogen combines with oxygen, it produces water and hydrogen peroxide. This illustrates:

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 18

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 19

4.88 g of KClO3 when heated, produces 1.92 g of O2 and 2.96 g of KCl. Which of the following statements is true regarding the experiment?

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 19

2KClO3​→2KCl+3O2​ 

 

Mass of the reactant = total mass of the products (2.96+1.92=4.88 g)

According to the law of conservation of mass, the mass of the products in a chemical reaction must equal the mass of the reactants. Therefore it is the law of conservation of mass.

Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 20

Zinc sulphate contains 22.65% zinc and 43.9% water of crystallisation. If the law of constant proportions is true then the weight of zinc required to produce 20 g of the zinc sulphate crystals will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Laws Of Chemical Combinations & Dalton's Atomic Theory - Question 20

20 g of zinc sulphate

x = (20 * 22.65)/100

x = 4.53g

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