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CAT Mock Test - 11 - CAT MCQ


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66 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2024 - CAT Mock Test - 11

CAT Mock Test - 11 for CAT 2024 is part of CAT Mock Test Series 2024 preparation. The CAT Mock Test - 11 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CAT exam syllabus.The CAT Mock Test - 11 MCQs are made for CAT 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for CAT Mock Test - 11 below.
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CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 1

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Philosophical games aside, the practical importance of understanding the brain basis of consciousness is easy to appreciate. General anaesthesia has to count as one of the greatest inventions of all time. Less happily, distressing disturbances of consciousness can accompany brain injuries and mental illnesses for the increasing number of us, me included, who encounter these conditions. And for each one of us, conscious experiences change throughout life, from the blooming and buzzing confusion of early life, through the apparent though probably illusory and certainly not universal clarity of adulthood, and on to our final drift into the gradual — and for some, disorientingly rapid — dissolution of the self as neurodegenerative decay sets in.
At each stage in this process, you exist, but the notion that there is a single unique conscious self (a soul?) that persists over time may be grossly mistaken. Indeed, one of the most compelling aspects of the mystery of consciousness is the nature of self. Is consciousness possible without self-consciousness? And if so, would it still matter so much?
Answers to difficult questions like these have many implications for how we think about the world and the life it contains. When does consciousness begin in development? Does it emerge at birth, or is it present even in the womb? What about consciousness in nonhuman animals — and not just in primates and other mammals, but in otherworldly creatures like the octopus and perhaps even in simple organisms such as nematode worms or bacteria?
Despite his now-tarnished reputation among neuroscientists, Sigmund Freud was right about many things. Looking back through the history of science, he identified three "strikes" against the perceived self-importance of the human species, each marking a major scientific advance that was strongly resisted at the time.
The first was by Copernicus, who showed with his heliocentric theory that the Earth rotates around the sun and not the other way around. With this dawned the realisation that we are not at the centre of the universe; we are just a speck somewhere out there in the vastness, a pale blue dot suspended in the abyss.
Next came Darwin, who revealed that we share common ancestry with all other living things, a realisation that is — astonishingly — still resisted in some parts of the world even today.
Immodestly, Freud's third strike against human exceptionalism was his own theory of the unconscious mind, which challenged the idea that our mental lives are under our conscious, rational control. While he may have been off target in the details, he was absolutely right to point out that a naturalistic explanation of mind and consciousness would be a further, and perhaps final, dethronement of humankind.
These shifts in how we see ourselves are to be welcomed. With each new advance in our understanding comes a new sense of wonder and a new ability to see ourselves as less apart from — and more a part of — the rest of nature.
Our conscious experiences are part of nature just as our bodies are, just as our world is. And when life ends, consciousness will end too. When I think about this, I am transported back to my experience — my non-experience — of anaesthesia. To its oblivion, perhaps comforting, but oblivion nonetheless. The novelist Julian Barnes, in his meditation on mortality, puts it perfectly. When the end of consciousness comes, there is nothing — really nothing — to be frightened of.

Q. Why does the author think that ''General anaesthesia has to count as one of the greatest inventions of all time''?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 1

The author considers general anaesthesia to be one of the greatest inventions of all time. This is because it gives additional support to the author's view that the notion of a single, unique soul that persists over time is grossly mistaken. Since anaesthesia has the ability to put our consciousness to an end, albeit temporarily, it highlights how little control we have over our consciousness. Option 3 best highlights this idea.
Option 1: This is not the reason why the author considers 'general anaesthesia' to be the greatest invention of all time.
Option 2: Although anaesthesia 'transports' us into an oblivion, we cannot infer why the author would regard anaesthesia as the greatest invention because of this property.
Option 4: Nothing about this can be inferred.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 2

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Philosophical games aside, the practical importance of understanding the brain basis of consciousness is easy to appreciate. General anaesthesia has to count as one of the greatest inventions of all time. Less happily, distressing disturbances of consciousness can accompany brain injuries and mental illnesses for the increasing number of us, me included, who encounter these conditions. And for each one of us, conscious experiences change throughout life, from the blooming and buzzing confusion of early life, through the apparent though probably illusory and certainly not universal clarity of adulthood, and on to our final drift into the gradual — and for some, disorientingly rapid — dissolution of the self as neurodegenerative decay sets in.
At each stage in this process, you exist, but the notion that there is a single unique conscious self (a soul?) that persists over time may be grossly mistaken. Indeed, one of the most compelling aspects of the mystery of consciousness is the nature of self. Is consciousness possible without self-consciousness? And if so, would it still matter so much?
Answers to difficult questions like these have many implications for how we think about the world and the life it contains. When does consciousness begin in development? Does it emerge at birth, or is it present even in the womb? What about consciousness in nonhuman animals — and not just in primates and other mammals, but in otherworldly creatures like the octopus and perhaps even in simple organisms such as nematode worms or bacteria?
Despite his now-tarnished reputation among neuroscientists, Sigmund Freud was right about many things. Looking back through the history of science, he identified three "strikes" against the perceived self-importance of the human species, each marking a major scientific advance that was strongly resisted at the time.
The first was by Copernicus, who showed with his heliocentric theory that the Earth rotates around the sun and not the other way around. With this dawned the realisation that we are not at the centre of the universe; we are just a speck somewhere out there in the vastness, a pale blue dot suspended in the abyss.
Next came Darwin, who revealed that we share common ancestry with all other living things, a realisation that is — astonishingly — still resisted in some parts of the world even today.
Immodestly, Freud's third strike against human exceptionalism was his own theory of the unconscious mind, which challenged the idea that our mental lives are under our conscious, rational control. While he may have been off target in the details, he was absolutely right to point out that a naturalistic explanation of mind and consciousness would be a further, and perhaps final, dethronement of humankind.
These shifts in how we see ourselves are to be welcomed. With each new advance in our understanding comes a new sense of wonder and a new ability to see ourselves as less apart from — and more a part of — the rest of nature.
Our conscious experiences are part of nature just as our bodies are, just as our world is. And when life ends, consciousness will end too. When I think about this, I am transported back to my experience — my non-experience — of anaesthesia. To its oblivion, perhaps comforting, but oblivion nonetheless. The novelist Julian Barnes, in his meditation on mortality, puts it perfectly. When the end of consciousness comes, there is nothing — really nothing — to be frightened of.

Q. In context of the passage, what purpose do Freud's "three strikes" serve?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 2

Freud wanted to highlight that the 'perceived' self-importance of human species, and the view that their consciousness is their own, is misplaced. He lists theories of Darwin, Copernicus, and his own, to highlight this concept. Both the author and Freud agree that our consciousness is not only our own but is a part of a larger entity, i.e. the nature. The author concludes that 'notion that there is ... be grossly mistaken'. Freud also agrees with this idea when he highlights 'naturalistic explanation of mind and consciousness'. Option 2 perfectly captures this.
Option 1 - This cannot be inferred. While Freud concludes that our consciousness is a part of nature, we cannot infer that even inanimate objects can experience consciousness.
Option 3 - The 'strikes' don't contradict the author's views; rather, they support it.
Option 4 - Freud wanted to end the 'perceived' self-importance of human beings. Nothing about the 'transient' nature of consciousness can be inferred from his 'three strikes'.

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CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 3

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Philosophical games aside, the practical importance of understanding the brain basis of consciousness is easy to appreciate. General anaesthesia has to count as one of the greatest inventions of all time. Less happily, distressing disturbances of consciousness can accompany brain injuries and mental illnesses for the increasing number of us, me included, who encounter these conditions. And for each one of us, conscious experiences change throughout life, from the blooming and buzzing confusion of early life, through the apparent though probably illusory and certainly not universal clarity of adulthood, and on to our final drift into the gradual — and for some, disorientingly rapid — dissolution of the self as neurodegenerative decay sets in.
At each stage in this process, you exist, but the notion that there is a single unique conscious self (a soul?) that persists over time may be grossly mistaken. Indeed, one of the most compelling aspects of the mystery of consciousness is the nature of self. Is consciousness possible without self-consciousness? And if so, would it still matter so much?
Answers to difficult questions like these have many implications for how we think about the world and the life it contains. When does consciousness begin in development? Does it emerge at birth, or is it present even in the womb? What about consciousness in nonhuman animals — and not just in primates and other mammals, but in otherworldly creatures like the octopus and perhaps even in simple organisms such as nematode worms or bacteria?
Despite his now-tarnished reputation among neuroscientists, Sigmund Freud was right about many things. Looking back through the history of science, he identified three "strikes" against the perceived self-importance of the human species, each marking a major scientific advance that was strongly resisted at the time.
The first was by Copernicus, who showed with his heliocentric theory that the Earth rotates around the sun and not the other way around. With this dawned the realisation that we are not at the centre of the universe; we are just a speck somewhere out there in the vastness, a pale blue dot suspended in the abyss.
Next came Darwin, who revealed that we share common ancestry with all other living things, a realisation that is — astonishingly — still resisted in some parts of the world even today.
Immodestly, Freud's third strike against human exceptionalism was his own theory of the unconscious mind, which challenged the idea that our mental lives are under our conscious, rational control. While he may have been off target in the details, he was absolutely right to point out that a naturalistic explanation of mind and consciousness would be a further, and perhaps final, dethronement of humankind.
These shifts in how we see ourselves are to be welcomed. With each new advance in our understanding comes a new sense of wonder and a new ability to see ourselves as less apart from — and more a part of — the rest of nature.
Our conscious experiences are part of nature just as our bodies are, just as our world is. And when life ends, consciousness will end too. When I think about this, I am transported back to my experience — my non-experience — of anaesthesia. To its oblivion, perhaps comforting, but oblivion nonetheless. The novelist Julian Barnes, in his meditation on mortality, puts it perfectly. When the end of consciousness comes, there is nothing — really nothing — to be frightened of.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author most likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 3

Refer to the lines, ''Our conscious experiences are part of nature just as our bodies are, just as our world is. And when life ends, consciousness will end too." From this it is evident that the author believes in the transient and impermanent nature of consciousness.
Option 1: It is not a fact that microorganisms possess consciousness. The author is posing this question to try find answer to ''When does consciousness begin in development?''.
Option 2: This statement is neither mentioned nor inferable. Medical advances have already succeeded in replicating such phenomenon, through anaesthesia.
Option 3: This statement is neither mentioned nor inferable.
Option 4: The author implies that our conscious experiences are not permanent, and they are bound to change and finally cease after a particular time.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 4

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Philosophical games aside, the practical importance of understanding the brain basis of consciousness is easy to appreciate. General anaesthesia has to count as one of the greatest inventions of all time. Less happily, distressing disturbances of consciousness can accompany brain injuries and mental illnesses for the increasing number of us, me included, who encounter these conditions. And for each one of us, conscious experiences change throughout life, from the blooming and buzzing confusion of early life, through the apparent though probably illusory and certainly not universal clarity of adulthood, and on to our final drift into the gradual — and for some, disorientingly rapid — dissolution of the self as neurodegenerative decay sets in.
At each stage in this process, you exist, but the notion that there is a single unique conscious self (a soul?) that persists over time may be grossly mistaken. Indeed, one of the most compelling aspects of the mystery of consciousness is the nature of self. Is consciousness possible without self-consciousness? And if so, would it still matter so much?
Answers to difficult questions like these have many implications for how we think about the world and the life it contains. When does consciousness begin in development? Does it emerge at birth, or is it present even in the womb? What about consciousness in nonhuman animals — and not just in primates and other mammals, but in otherworldly creatures like the octopus and perhaps even in simple organisms such as nematode worms or bacteria?
Despite his now-tarnished reputation among neuroscientists, Sigmund Freud was right about many things. Looking back through the history of science, he identified three "strikes" against the perceived self-importance of the human species, each marking a major scientific advance that was strongly resisted at the time.
The first was by Copernicus, who showed with his heliocentric theory that the Earth rotates around the sun and not the other way around. With this dawned the realisation that we are not at the centre of the universe; we are just a speck somewhere out there in the vastness, a pale blue dot suspended in the abyss.
Next came Darwin, who revealed that we share common ancestry with all other living things, a realisation that is — astonishingly — still resisted in some parts of the world even today.
Immodestly, Freud's third strike against human exceptionalism was his own theory of the unconscious mind, which challenged the idea that our mental lives are under our conscious, rational control. While he may have been off target in the details, he was absolutely right to point out that a naturalistic explanation of mind and consciousness would be a further, and perhaps final, dethronement of humankind.
These shifts in how we see ourselves are to be welcomed. With each new advance in our understanding comes a new sense of wonder and a new ability to see ourselves as less apart from — and more a part of — the rest of nature.
Our conscious experiences are part of nature just as our bodies are, just as our world is. And when life ends, consciousness will end too. When I think about this, I am transported back to my experience — my non-experience — of anaesthesia. To its oblivion, perhaps comforting, but oblivion nonetheless. The novelist Julian Barnes, in his meditation on mortality, puts it perfectly. When the end of consciousness comes, there is nothing — really nothing — to be frightened of.

Q. Which one of the following best describes the word 'oblivion' in the context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 4

The word 'oblivion' in the context of the passage implies a state of mind where a person completely loses his consciousness and thoughts. It is used to describe a state that an individual experiences after getting anesthesia.
Option 1: This option implies a state of mind, where one is completely unaffected from external stimulus and thus, is completely unaware of his surroundings.
Option 2: The option is completely out of the context of the passage.
Option 3: The option describes something that leads to oblivion rather than specifying the actual essence of the word in the context of the passage.
Option 4: The option conveys a state of mind where one is still conscious, albeit now experiencing different kinds of emotions and situations, whereas 'oblivion' emphasises a state of complete unconsciousness.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Ask any hardcore substance addict (try this only when they are sober) how his or her very first experience was, and they will for sure tell you it was not a very pleasant one. The violent cough of the first puff, the distaste of the first sip, the bitterness of the powder, hits them first; the feel-good factor and ecstasy that ends up in an unbreakable bond comes slowly, and much later. That's why we urge you to start the new addiction programme now, whatever be the initial hiccups.
Every patient is different, from shy and submissive to bold and aggressive; some are dead scared of injections while others go in for heart surgery with a smile. But the 'argumentative' types are special and the most difficult to handle; give them a piece of advice and they would be ready with an instant counter-argument. But it is these argumentative ones who teach the old doctors a new trick or two, by asking odd and embarrassing questions, forcing us to dig up old medical journals or try surfing the Net. That's exactly what happened when this young man asked me: ''I am not overweight, neither do I have diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease. Then why do you want me to exercise?'' The answer to that question is far from simple.
fMRI, or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is a system that can track blood circulation and show the intensity of activation of a localised area of the brain during a specific activity. Reading, for example, activates the occipital cortex, speaking lights up the speech area, while decision-making switches on the frontal cortex.
In a study researchers looked into the fMRI pattern in those who do regular exercise, and found that a 'C'-shaped structure, the caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia, becomes highly active. This is caused by flooding of that area by a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This area is the reward area of the brain, and such activation makes the person feel happy. But what stumped the researchers was that the pattern of activation matched the fMRI imaging pattern of a nicotine or cocaine addict. The fMRI image of a cocaine addict who is high and a health freak doing exercise had an uncanny similarity from the perspective of neurochemistry and brain imaging.
Lack of exercise is a technology problem. Today we don't even walk to our neighbour to chat; we pick up the mobile instead. And then there is the lure of sitting back at home knowing that the world of entertainment is just a click away.
Some 150 minutes of exercise a week translates into 30 minutes a day for five days a week, or two 15 minute sessions of brisk walking. And that 15 minutes of apparent 'waste-of-time' would not only reduce your 'waist-in-time' but also reduce the chances of your developing high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and stroke, each by 30 per cent. A similar reduction of chance of depression and consequent improvement of self-confidence would be a bonus.
Powering your life and staying heart healthy is possible by getting hooked on to a new addiction - 'daily exercise'. All you need is to hold on till the initial hiccough is over - and then it would be bliss.

Q. It can be inferred that the author of the passage makes a case for inculcating the habit of exercising because

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 5

1. Correct. The sentence "This area is the reward area of the brain, and such activation makes the person feel happy" makes it clear that the author believes that man has a need to live happy life. Option 1 is the best choice.
2. Incorrect. The author does not state that it does not require any effort at all. It requires some effort to stay healthy.
3. Incorrect. The author states this in the passage as a reason for him exploring the reason why one should exercise. He does not necessarily write the passage as a satisfying reply to the argumentative patient.
4. Incorrect. Although stated in the passage, this does not answer the question. Hence, this is incorrect.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Ask any hardcore substance addict (try this only when they are sober) how his or her very first experience was, and they will for sure tell you it was not a very pleasant one. The violent cough of the first puff, the distaste of the first sip, the bitterness of the powder, hits them first; the feel-good factor and ecstasy that ends up in an unbreakable bond comes slowly, and much later. That's why we urge you to start the new addiction programme now, whatever be the initial hiccups.
Every patient is different, from shy and submissive to bold and aggressive; some are dead scared of injections while others go in for heart surgery with a smile. But the 'argumentative' types are special and the most difficult to handle; give them a piece of advice and they would be ready with an instant counter-argument. But it is these argumentative ones who teach the old doctors a new trick or two, by asking odd and embarrassing questions, forcing us to dig up old medical journals or try surfing the Net. That's exactly what happened when this young man asked me: ''I am not overweight, neither do I have diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease. Then why do you want me to exercise?'' The answer to that question is far from simple.
fMRI, or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is a system that can track blood circulation and show the intensity of activation of a localised area of the brain during a specific activity. Reading, for example, activates the occipital cortex, speaking lights up the speech area, while decision-making switches on the frontal cortex.
In a study researchers looked into the fMRI pattern in those who do regular exercise, and found that a 'C'-shaped structure, the caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia, becomes highly active. This is caused by flooding of that area by a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This area is the reward area of the brain, and such activation makes the person feel happy. But what stumped the researchers was that the pattern of activation matched the fMRI imaging pattern of a nicotine or cocaine addict. The fMRI image of a cocaine addict who is high and a health freak doing exercise had an uncanny similarity from the perspective of neurochemistry and brain imaging.
Lack of exercise is a technology problem. Today we don't even walk to our neighbour to chat; we pick up the mobile instead. And then there is the lure of sitting back at home knowing that the world of entertainment is just a click away.
Some 150 minutes of exercise a week translates into 30 minutes a day for five days a week, or two 15 minute sessions of brisk walking. And that 15 minutes of apparent 'waste-of-time' would not only reduce your 'waist-in-time' but also reduce the chances of your developing high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and stroke, each by 30 per cent. A similar reduction of chance of depression and consequent improvement of self-confidence would be a bonus.
Powering your life and staying heart healthy is possible by getting hooked on to a new addiction - 'daily exercise'. All you need is to hold on till the initial hiccough is over - and then it would be bliss.

Q. All of the following statements can be inferred from the passage, EXCEPT that:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 6

1. Incorrect. This can be inferred from 'Lack of exercise is a technology problem. Today we don't even walk to our neighbour to chat; we pick up the mobile instead. And then there is the lure of sitting back at home knowing that the world of entertainment is just a click away, right in front of us, in our bedroom on LCD TV in high definition.'
2. Correct. The more activated the areas of a man's "brain"(not "body"), the happier he is.
3. Incorrect. This can be inferred from 'The violent cough of the first puff, the distaste of the first sip, the bitterness of the powder, hits them first; the feel-good factor and ecstasy that ends up in an unbreakable bond comes slowly, and much later. That's why we urge you to start the new addiction programme now, whatever be the initial hiccups.'
4. Incorrect. This can be inferred from 'Reading, for example, activates the occipital cortex, speaking lights up the speech area, while decision-making switches on the frontal cortex.'

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Ask any hardcore substance addict (try this only when they are sober) how his or her very first experience was, and they will for sure tell you it was not a very pleasant one. The violent cough of the first puff, the distaste of the first sip, the bitterness of the powder, hits them first; the feel-good factor and ecstasy that ends up in an unbreakable bond comes slowly, and much later. That's why we urge you to start the new addiction programme now, whatever be the initial hiccups.
Every patient is different, from shy and submissive to bold and aggressive; some are dead scared of injections while others go in for heart surgery with a smile. But the 'argumentative' types are special and the most difficult to handle; give them a piece of advice and they would be ready with an instant counter-argument. But it is these argumentative ones who teach the old doctors a new trick or two, by asking odd and embarrassing questions, forcing us to dig up old medical journals or try surfing the Net. That's exactly what happened when this young man asked me: ''I am not overweight, neither do I have diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease. Then why do you want me to exercise?'' The answer to that question is far from simple.
fMRI, or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is a system that can track blood circulation and show the intensity of activation of a localised area of the brain during a specific activity. Reading, for example, activates the occipital cortex, speaking lights up the speech area, while decision-making switches on the frontal cortex.
In a study researchers looked into the fMRI pattern in those who do regular exercise, and found that a 'C'-shaped structure, the caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia, becomes highly active. This is caused by flooding of that area by a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This area is the reward area of the brain, and such activation makes the person feel happy. But what stumped the researchers was that the pattern of activation matched the fMRI imaging pattern of a nicotine or cocaine addict. The fMRI image of a cocaine addict who is high and a health freak doing exercise had an uncanny similarity from the perspective of neurochemistry and brain imaging.
Lack of exercise is a technology problem. Today we don't even walk to our neighbour to chat; we pick up the mobile instead. And then there is the lure of sitting back at home knowing that the world of entertainment is just a click away.
Some 150 minutes of exercise a week translates into 30 minutes a day for five days a week, or two 15 minute sessions of brisk walking. And that 15 minutes of apparent 'waste-of-time' would not only reduce your 'waist-in-time' but also reduce the chances of your developing high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and stroke, each by 30 per cent. A similar reduction of chance of depression and consequent improvement of self-confidence would be a bonus.
Powering your life and staying heart healthy is possible by getting hooked on to a new addiction - 'daily exercise'. All you need is to hold on till the initial hiccough is over - and then it would be bliss.

Q. It can be inferred from the author's mention of the phrase 'waste-of-time' that he believes

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 7

1. Incorrect. The author does not state this phrase in the context of his interaction with his patient.
2. Incorrect. The author states that one can make for 15 minutes in a day, not that one is too short of it.
3. Incorrect. The author though breaks down the time required to exercise into daily routines, no such promise of 'large benefits' or whether spending it on 'certain tasks' can be inferred from the statement.
4. Correct. By 'waste-of- time', the author means that even though 15 minutes is not much time and almost anybody can afford to make for such amount of time, still it may be regarded as a waste for alternative benefits that seem more attractive or rewarding or simply better. So this option is correct.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Ask any hardcore substance addict (try this only when they are sober) how his or her very first experience was, and they will for sure tell you it was not a very pleasant one. The violent cough of the first puff, the distaste of the first sip, the bitterness of the powder, hits them first; the feel-good factor and ecstasy that ends up in an unbreakable bond comes slowly, and much later. That's why we urge you to start the new addiction programme now, whatever be the initial hiccups.
Every patient is different, from shy and submissive to bold and aggressive; some are dead scared of injections while others go in for heart surgery with a smile. But the 'argumentative' types are special and the most difficult to handle; give them a piece of advice and they would be ready with an instant counter-argument. But it is these argumentative ones who teach the old doctors a new trick or two, by asking odd and embarrassing questions, forcing us to dig up old medical journals or try surfing the Net. That's exactly what happened when this young man asked me: ''I am not overweight, neither do I have diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease. Then why do you want me to exercise?'' The answer to that question is far from simple.
fMRI, or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is a system that can track blood circulation and show the intensity of activation of a localised area of the brain during a specific activity. Reading, for example, activates the occipital cortex, speaking lights up the speech area, while decision-making switches on the frontal cortex.
In a study researchers looked into the fMRI pattern in those who do regular exercise, and found that a 'C'-shaped structure, the caudate nucleus, a part of the basal ganglia, becomes highly active. This is caused by flooding of that area by a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This area is the reward area of the brain, and such activation makes the person feel happy. They also discovered that exercise released a hormone called BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) and endorphins, which resulted in such activation. While BDNF neutralised stress, endorphins took away the pain and fatigue of the exercise. But what stumped the researchers was that the pattern of activation matched the fMRI imaging pattern of a nicotine or cocaine addict. The fMRI image of a cocaine addict who is high and a health freak doing exercise had an uncanny similarity from the perspective of neurochemistry and brain imaging.
Lack of exercise is a technology problem. Today we don't even walk to our neighbour to chat; we pick up the mobile instead. And then there is the lure of sitting back at home knowing that the world of entertainment is just a click away, right in front of us, in our bedroom on LCD TV in high definition.
Some 150 minutes of exercise a week translates into 30 minutes a day for five days a week, which you can split it up into two 15 minute sessions of brisk walking. And that 15 minutes of apparent 'waste-of-time' would not only reduce your 'waist-in-time' but also reduce the chances of your developing high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and stroke, each by 30 per cent. A similar reduction of chance of depression and consequent improvement of self-confidence would be a bonus. For the eight-to-five creatures, who claim to be too busy, we advise them to walk or cycle to office.
The theme of World Heart Day, which fell last week on September 29, was, 'power your life' and stay heart healthy. You can do that by getting hooked on to a new addiction - 'daily exercise'. All you need is to hold on till the initial hiccough is over - and then it would be bliss. No legal restrictions, side-effects or withdrawal problems.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following revelations was rather surprising?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 8

1. Incorrect. Although mentioned in the passage, this is not what the author states as surprising.
2. Correct. "But what stumped the researchers was that the pattern of activation matched the fMRI imaging pattern of a nicotine or cocaine addict. The fMRI image of a cocaine addict who is high and a health freak doing exercise had an uncanny similarity from the perspective of neurochemistry and brain imaging." So this option is correct.
3. Incorrect. Although mentioned in the passage, this is not what the author states as surprising.
4. Incorrect. This is incorrect because option 2 is right.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 9

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Beliefs in witchcraft in the generic sense are conspicuous in most small-scale communities where interaction is based upon personal relationships that tend to be life-long and difficult to break. In such societies belief in witches makes it possible for misfortunes to be explained in terms of disturbed social relationships; and the threat either of being accused of witchcraft or of being attacked by witches may well be a source of social control, making people more circumspect about their conduct toward others. Witches who are blamed for misfortunes, while visit near kinsmen and neighbours, are conceived of as inhuman and beyond the pale of decent society. They are, thus, convenient scapegoats who are blamed for events otherwise inexplicable in terms of the limited empirical knowledge prevailing in a society with a poorly developed technology - e.g., events such as sudden death or persistent illness or even accidents.
This explanatory function of witchcraft is widespread. So too are some of the details of the witch's believed habits and techniques, such as operating at night flying through the air on broomsticks or saucer shaped winnowing baskets.
The inherent disharmonies in the social system are cloaked under an insistence that there is harmony in the values of the society, and the surface disturbances that they cause are attributed to the wickedness of individuals. This is why the witch and sorcerer become the villains of the society's morality plays, the ones to whom the most inhuman crimes and characteristics are attributed. So numerous and so revolting are the believed practices of witches that to accuse anyone of witchcraft is a condensed way of charging him with a long list of the foulest crimes - and much the same may be said of sorcery, except that the alleged sorcerer might find some room for defence in the ambiguity as to when the use of destructive magic is legitimate and when it is to be regarded as sorcery.
Because accusations of witchcraft, if they are successful, are devastating attacks on reputation, they punctuate the micro-political processes relating to many forms of competition for some scarce status, power, resource, or personal affiliation. The believed victim of witchcraft or sorcery may also sometimes be regarded as getting his just deserts if he has, by tactless folly, incurred the wrath of dangerous, powerful persons in the community.
Because in such belief systems the transgressors of a society's ideals are depicted with dramatic disapproval, witchcraft and sorcery are usually powerful brakes upon social change. In many preliterate societies in modem times it is often those who have progressed economically and educationally who are most obsessed by fears of attack by witches and sorcerers or of accusation of employing witchcraft or sorcery. This is because they find themselves either out of line in social orders that economically at least are equalitarian or with a new-found status that lacks a niche in the traditional hierarchy.
On the other hand, belief in witchcraft may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of accelerating social change; e.g., by facilitating the rupture of close relationships that have become redundant but are difficult to break off in such a situation an accusation of witchcraft has the effect of making a public issue out of what started as a private quarrel.

Q. According to the author, witches are blamed unnecessarily and made to bear misdeeds of others in small scale communities because

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 9

1. Incorrect. The fact given is true according to the passage but condemnation is a part of misdeed done by the society to the witches. This does not even concur with the reason given in the text for the unnecessary blaming.
2. Incorrect. The passage is all about the lot of witches in real life. They are not mythical figures.
3. Incorrect. This is true according to the passage but ostracism is a part of misdeed done by the society to the witches. The reason is also not their 'superstitious' beliefs.
4. Correct. The answer to this question can be found upon reading the first paragraph. The author clearly terms witches being "scapegoats" for events, which are inexplicable in terms of empirical knowledge.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 10

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Beliefs in witchcraft in the generic sense are conspicuous in most small-scale communities where interaction is based upon personal relationships that tend to be life-long and difficult to break. In such societies belief in witches makes it possible for misfortunes to be explained in terms of disturbed social relationships; and the threat either of being accused of witchcraft or of being attacked by witches may well be a source of social control, making people more circumspect about their conduct toward others. Witches who are blamed for misfortunes, while visit near kinsmen and neighbours, are conceived of as inhuman and beyond the pale of decent society. They are, thus, convenient scapegoats who are blamed for events otherwise inexplicable in terms of the limited empirical knowledge prevailing in a society with a poorly developed technology - e.g., events such as sudden death or persistent illness or even accidents.
This explanatory function of witchcraft is widespread. So too are some of the details of the witch's believed habits and techniques, such as operating at night flying through the air on broomsticks or saucer shaped winnowing baskets.
The inherent disharmonies in the social system are cloaked under an insistence that there is harmony in the values of the society, and the surface disturbances that they cause are attributed to the wickedness of individuals. This is why the witch and sorcerer become the villains of the society's morality plays, the ones to whom the most inhuman crimes and characteristics are attributed. So numerous and so revolting are the believed practices of witches that to accuse anyone of witchcraft is a condensed way of charging him with a long list of the foulest crimes - and much the same may be said of sorcery, except that the alleged sorcerer might find some room for defence in the ambiguity as to when the use of destructive magic is legitimate and when it is to be regarded as sorcery.
Because accusations of witchcraft, if they are successful, are devastating attacks on reputation, they punctuate the micro-political processes relating to many forms of competition for some scarce status, power, resource, or personal affiliation. The believed victim of witchcraft or sorcery may also sometimes be regarded as getting his just deserts if he has, by tactless folly, incurred the wrath of dangerous, powerful persons in the community.
Because in such belief systems the transgressors of a society's ideals are depicted with dramatic disapproval, witchcraft and sorcery are usually powerful brakes upon social change. In many preliterate societies in modem times it is often those who have progressed economically and educationally who are most obsessed by fears of attack by witches and sorcerers or of accusation of employing witchcraft or sorcery. This is because they find themselves either out of line in social orders that economically at least are equalitarian or with a new-found status that lacks a niche in the traditional hierarchy.
On the other hand, belief in witchcraft may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of accelerating social change; e.g., by facilitating the rupture of close relationships that have become redundant but are difficult to break off in such a situation an accusation of witchcraft has the effect of making a public issue out of what started as a private quarrel.

Q. The author asserts that belief in witchcraft, by helping to break redundant close relationships, can

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 10

1. Incorrect. The phrase 'by helping to break redundant close relationships' in the question stem has a positive connotation. So, the effect also has to be positive. Hence, (1) that is negative can't be the answer.
2. Correct. The answer to this question lies in this line from last paragraph '...have the effect of accelerating social change; e.g., by facilitating the rupture of close relationships that have become redundant'. Thus, option (2) is the only positive impact of witches and sorcerers on the societies as given in passage.
3. Incorrect. It is negative and can't be the answer.
4. Incorrect. It is negative and can't be the answer.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 11

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Beliefs in witchcraft in the generic sense are conspicuous in most small-scale communities where interaction is based upon personal relationships that tend to be life-long and difficult to break. In such societies belief in witches makes it possible for misfortunes to be explained in terms of disturbed social relationships; and the threat either of being accused of witchcraft or of being attacked by witches may well be a source of social control, making people more circumspect about their conduct toward others. Witches who are blamed for misfortunes, while visit near kinsmen and neighbours, are conceived of as inhuman and beyond the pale of decent society. They are, thus, convenient scapegoats who are blamed for events otherwise inexplicable in terms of the limited empirical knowledge prevailing in a society with a poorly developed technology - e.g., events such as sudden death or persistent illness or even accidents.
This explanatory function of witchcraft is widespread. So too are some of the details of the witch's believed habits and techniques, such as operating at night flying through the air on broomsticks or saucer shaped winnowing baskets.
The inherent disharmonies in the social system are cloaked under an insistence that there is harmony in the values of the society, and the surface disturbances that they cause are attributed to the wickedness of individuals. This is why the witch and sorcerer become the villains of the society's morality plays, the ones to whom the most inhuman crimes and characteristics are attributed. So numerous and so revolting are the believed practices of witches that to accuse anyone of witchcraft is a condensed way of charging him with a long list of the foulest crimes - and much the same may be said of sorcery, except that the alleged sorcerer might find some room for defence in the ambiguity as to when the use of destructive magic is legitimate and when it is to be regarded as sorcery.
Because accusations of witchcraft, if they are successful, are devastating attacks on reputation, they punctuate the micro-political processes relating to many forms of competition for some scarce status, power, resource, or personal affiliation. The believed victim of witchcraft or sorcery may also sometimes be regarded as getting his just deserts if he has, by tactless folly, incurred the wrath of dangerous, powerful persons in the community.
Because in such belief systems the transgressors of a society's ideals are depicted with dramatic disapproval, witchcraft and sorcery are usually powerful brakes upon social change. In many preliterate societies in modem times it is often those who have progressed economically and educationally who are most obsessed by fears of attack by witches and sorcerers or of accusation of employing witchcraft or sorcery. This is because they find themselves either out of line in social orders that economically at least are equalitarian or with a new-found status that lacks a niche in the traditional hierarchy.
On the other hand, belief in witchcraft may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of accelerating social change; e.g., by facilitating the rupture of close relationships that have become redundant but are difficult to break off in such a situation an accusation of witchcraft has the effect of making a public issue out of what started as a private quarrel.

Q. According to the author, an alleged sorcerer is sometimes better off when compared to a witch as

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 11

1. Incorrect. 'Sometimes better off' should not mean always 'acceptable'.
2. Incorrect. 'Sometimes better off' should not mean always 'beneficial'.
3. Correct. The answer (3) to this question finds reference in the last lines of third paragraph where we find that there is ambiguity as to when the use of destructive magic is legitimate and when it is to be regarded as sorcery. It is in this ambiguity that the sorcerer finds defence when compared to a witch.
4. Incorrect. 'Sometimes better off' should not mean always 'not evil'.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 12

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Beliefs in witchcraft in the generic sense are conspicuous in most small-scale communities where interaction is based upon personal relationships that tend to be life-long and difficult to break. In such societies belief in witches makes it possible for misfortunes to be explained in terms of disturbed social relationships; and the threat either of being accused of witchcraft or of being attacked by witches may well be a source of social control, making people more circumspect about their conduct toward others. Witches who are blamed for misfortunes, while visit near kinsmen and neighbours, are conceived of as inhuman and beyond the pale of decent society. They are, thus, convenient scapegoats who are blamed for events otherwise inexplicable in terms of the limited empirical knowledge prevailing in a society with a poorly developed technology - e.g., events such as sudden death or persistent illness or even accidents.
This explanatory function of witchcraft is widespread. So too are some of the details of the witch's believed habits and techniques, such as operating at night flying through the air on broomsticks or saucer shaped winnowing baskets.
The inherent disharmonies in the social system are cloaked under an insistence that there is harmony in the values of the society, and the surface disturbances that they cause are attributed to the wickedness of individuals. This is why the witch and sorcerer become the villains of the society's morality plays, the ones to whom the most inhuman crimes and characteristics are attributed. So numerous and so revolting are the believed practices of witches that to accuse anyone of witchcraft is a condensed way of charging him with a long list of the foulest crimes - and much the same may be said of sorcery, except that the alleged sorcerer might find some room for defence in the ambiguity as to when the use of destructive magic is legitimate and when it is to be regarded as sorcery.
Because accusations of witchcraft, if they are successful, are devastating attacks on reputation, they punctuate the micro-political processes relating to many forms of competition for some scarce status, power, resource, or personal affiliation. The believed victim of witchcraft or sorcery may also sometimes be regarded as getting his just deserts if he has, by tactless folly, incurred the wrath of dangerous, powerful persons in the community.
Because in such belief systems the transgressors of a society's ideals are depicted with dramatic disapproval, witchcraft and sorcery are usually powerful brakes upon social change. In many preliterate societies in modem times it is often those who have progressed economically and educationally who are most obsessed by fears of attack by witches and sorcerers or of accusation of employing witchcraft or sorcery. This is because they find themselves either out of line in social orders that economically at least are equalitarian or with a new-found status that lacks a niche in the traditional hierarchy.
On the other hand, belief in witchcraft may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of accelerating social change; e.g., by facilitating the rupture of close relationships that have become redundant but are difficult to break off in such a situation an accusation of witchcraft has the effect of making a public issue out of what started as a private quarrel.

Q. According to the author, successful accusation of witchcraft can prove to be disastrous on reputation when

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 12

1. Correct. The author in the fourth paragraph has described the dire consequences of accusations of witchcraft. It has clearly been described to have disastrous effects in cases where competition for power or status in a micro-political process exists.
2. Incorrect. This is incorrect as it is not mentioned in the passage as a situation where the accusation of witchcraft will be dangerous.
3. Incorrect. If this were true, it will be like an effect preceding the cause. So this is incorrect.
4. Incorrect. The option is irrelevant to the question and to the passage.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 13

Directions: Answer the question based on the following passage:

The famous gorilla experiment conducted by Harvard University when a woman dressed in a gorilla suit ambled across the floor thumping her chest, but 50 % of the audience didn't notice. The study shows we often err when it comes to concentration and perception. Humans have a limited capacity for attention which in turn means that we have a limited capacity to process information at any given point of time.
When we open our eyes, the whole image gets projected on the retina, but only selective parts of the image are sensed by the brain. This is because as the amount of information in the image was too great to be processed, the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. Scientists have found that highly prominent events may go unnoticed.
Researchers now recognize a phenomenon known as "change blindness", which means that people often fail to detect changes in their field of vision, so long that the change takes place during an eye movement or when the view is somehow interrupted. It has been discovered that our brain tries to construct a meaningful whole out of stimuli that fits in with the scenario of its interest and is capable of discarding majority of other information. This fact can be easily explained by observing a child play the game "spot the difference". On the first look the child finds the pictures to be similar. Only after careful attention, does he find the differences. The present decade has seen a lot of research into this field. The questions that the scientists are trying to answer are: What is the amount of visual input a brain can consciously and unconsciously encode?
Why do some objects come in the field of observation and not others? What happens to information that is subconsciously perceived?
Arien Mack and Irvin Rock also conducted many experiments and co-authored a book "Inattentional Blindness" in 1998. One of their experiments was very simple. They asked the subjects to observe a cross on the computer screen. The subjects were repetitively asked to judge which arm of the cross was longer. They were in a way made to concentrate on the cross. After some time, unrepentantly, another brightly coloured object was inserted in their field of vision. The researchers reported that the participants often failed to notice the unexpected object on the screen, even when it appeared in the middle of their line of vision. The study gave a conclusive proof that there exists a wide gulf between perception and attention. Some psychologists are of the view that intentional blindness may be in some way related to selective memory instead of selective perception. The cause of the 'intentional amnesia' may be organic, functional or circumstantial.
Harvard university researchers have concluded that "we consciously see far less of our world than we think we do. We might well encode much of our visual world without awareness." We believe that we generally see what is in front of us and by basically looking. But looking and seeing are two different events. It has been observed that we look without seeing during moments of intense concentration. We have all observed that our eyes may be open, the images form on the retina, but still we have limited perception. We all remember these moments of blurred visuals and they come usually when either we are in deep thoughts or involved in an interesting conversation.

Q. Which of the following statements can be directly inferred from the passage about "Inattentional blindness"?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 13

Option (1) is supported by the lines, ''This is because as the amount of information in the image was too great to be processed, the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. Scientists have found that highly prominent events may go unnoticed.''
Option (2) According to the passage, the reason for highly prominent events going unnoticed is that the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. It is nowhere stated that we live in a world of our own.
Option (3) contradicts the author. The passage states that though the whole image gets projected on the retina, only selective parts of the image are sensed by the brain. Thus, the mind certainly doesn't recall what the eyes see.
Option (4) can be contradicted by the following line of the passage: ''Some psychologists are of the view that intentional blindness may be in some way related to selective memory instead of selective perception.''
The last one is too sweeping a statement. Thus, (1) is correct.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 14

Directions: Answer the question based on the following passage:

The famous gorilla experiment conducted by Harvard University when a woman dressed in a gorilla suit ambled across the floor thumping her chest, but 50 % of the audience didn't notice. The study shows we often err when it comes to concentration and perception. Humans have a limited capacity for attention which in turn means that we have a limited capacity to process information at any given point of time.
When we open our eyes, the whole image gets projected on the retina, but only selective parts of the image are sensed by the brain. This is because as the amount of information in the image was too great to be processed, the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. Scientists have found that highly prominent events may go unnoticed.
Researchers now recognize a phenomenon known as "change blindness", which means that people often fail to detect changes in their field of vision, so long that the change takes place during an eye movement or when the view is somehow interrupted. It has been discovered that our brain tries to construct a meaningful whole out of stimuli that fits in with the scenario of its interest and is capable of discarding majority of other information. This fact can be easily explained by observing a child play the game "spot the difference". On the first look the child finds the pictures to be similar. Only after careful attention, does he find the differences. The present decade has seen a lot of research into this field. The questions that the scientists are trying to answer are: What is the amount of visual input a brain can consciously and unconsciously encode?
Why do some objects come in the field of observation and not others? What happens to information that is subconsciously perceived?
Arien Mack and Irvin Rock also conducted many experiments and co-authored a book "Inattentional Blindness" in 1998. One of their experiments was very simple. They asked the subjects to observe a cross on the computer screen. The subjects were repetitively asked to judge which arm of the cross was longer. They were in a way made to concentrate on the cross. After some time, unrepentantly, another brightly coloured object was inserted in their field of vision. The researchers reported that the participants often failed to notice the unexpected object on the screen, even when it appeared in the middle of their line of vision. The study gave a conclusive proof that there exists a wide gulf between perception and attention. Some psychologists are of the view that intentional blindness may be in some way related to selective memory instead of selective perception. The cause of the 'intentional amnesia' may be organic, functional or circumstantial.
Harvard university researchers have concluded that "we consciously see far less of our world than we think we do. We might well encode much of our visual world without awareness." We believe that we generally see what is in front of us and by basically looking. But looking and seeing are two different events. It has been observed that we look without seeing during moments of intense concentration. We have all observed that our eyes may be open, the images form on the retina, but still we have limited perception. We all remember these moments of blurred visuals and they come usually when either we are in deep thoughts or involved in an interesting conversation.

Q. The primary purpose of the passage is

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 14

Option (1): The passage doesn't aim at narrating the investigation or research about inattentional blindness conducted by the researchers. Its primary purpose is to explain the wide gulf between perception and attention by explaining the concept of inattentional blindness.
Option (2): The passage is not about tracing reasons for the occurrence of inattentional blindness. It is not about occasions.
Option (3): The passage is not about views of rational scientists about human perception and attention.
Option (4): The main purpose of the passage is to explain the concept of 'inattentional blindness' and its predominance.
Also, the passage is not about the difference between conscious and unconscious mind. It is rather about the theory of inattentional blindness and its predominance.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 15

Directions: Answer the question based on the following passage:

The famous gorilla experiment conducted by Harvard University when a woman dressed in a gorilla suit ambled across the floor thumping her chest, but 50 % of the audience didn't notice. The study shows we often err when it comes to concentration and perception. Humans have a limited capacity for attention which in turn means that we have a limited capacity to process information at any given point of time.
When we open our eyes, the whole image gets projected on the retina, but only selective parts of the image are sensed by the brain. This is because as the amount of information in the image was too great to be processed, the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. Scientists have found that highly prominent events may go unnoticed.
Researchers now recognize a phenomenon known as "change blindness", which means that people often fail to detect changes in their field of vision, so long that the change takes place during an eye movement or when the view is somehow interrupted. It has been discovered that our brain tries to construct a meaningful whole out of stimuli that fits in with the scenario of its interest and is capable of discarding majority of other information. This fact can be easily explained by observing a child play the game "spot the difference". On the first look the child finds the pictures to be similar. Only after careful attention, does he find the differences. The present decade has seen a lot of research into this field. The questions that the scientists are trying to answer are: What is the amount of visual input a brain can consciously and unconsciously encode?
Why do some objects come in the field of observation and not others? What happens to information that is subconsciously perceived?
Arien Mack and Irvin Rock also conducted many experiments and co-authored a book "Inattentional Blindness" in 1998. One of their experiments was very simple. They asked the subjects to observe a cross on the computer screen. The subjects were repetitively asked to judge which arm of the cross was longer. They were in a way made to concentrate on the cross. After some time, unrepentantly, another brightly coloured object was inserted in their field of vision. The researchers reported that the participants often failed to notice the unexpected object on the screen, even when it appeared in the middle of their line of vision. The study gave a conclusive proof that there exists a wide gulf between perception and attention. Some psychologists are of the view that intentional blindness may be in some way related to selective memory instead of selective perception. The cause of the 'intentional amnesia' may be organic, functional or circumstantial.
Harvard university researchers have concluded that "we consciously see far less of our world than we think we do. We might well encode much of our visual world without awareness." We believe that we generally see what is in front of us and by basically looking. But looking and seeing are two different events. It has been observed that we look without seeing during moments of intense concentration. We have all observed that our eyes may be open, the images form on the retina, but still we have limited perception. We all remember these moments of blurred visuals and they come usually when either we are in deep thoughts or involved in an interesting conversation.

Q. The passage answers all the below given questions, except:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 15

1. Not correct. The passage answers this question. Refer the part - "It has been discovered that our brain tries to construct a meaningful whole out of stimuli that fits in with the scenario of its interest and is capable of discarding majority of other information."
2. Not correct. The passage answers this question. Refer the part - "When we open our eyes, the whole image gets projected on the retina, but only selective parts of the image are sensed by the brain. This is because as the amount of information in the image was too great to be processed, the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. "
3. Not correct. The passage answers this question. Refer the sentence - "The study gave a conclusive proof that there exists a wide gulf between perception and attention."
4. Correct. The passage does pose this as a question. The last paragraph says that 'Harvard university researchers have concluded that we consciously see far less of our world than we think we do.'
Thus the apt question that the last paragraph explains ought to be 'Why we consciously see far less of our world than we think we do?'

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 16

Directions: Answer the question based on the following passage:

The famous gorilla experiment conducted by Harvard University when a woman dressed in a gorilla suit ambled across the floor thumping her chest, but 50 % of the audience didn't notice. The study shows we often err when it comes to concentration and perception. Humans have a limited capacity for attention which in turn means that we have a limited capacity to process information at any given point of time.
When we open our eyes, the whole image gets projected on the retina, but only selective parts of the image are sensed by the brain. This is because as the amount of information in the image was too great to be processed, the brain selectively puts its attention on the most important aspects. Scientists have found that highly prominent events may go unnoticed.
Researchers now recognize a phenomenon known as "change blindness", which means that people often fail to detect changes in their field of vision, so long that the change takes place during an eye movement or when the view is somehow interrupted. It has been discovered that our brain tries to construct a meaningful whole out of stimuli that fits in with the scenario of its interest and is capable of discarding majority of other information. This fact can be easily explained by observing a child play the game "spot the difference". On the first look the child finds the pictures to be similar. Only after careful attention, does he find the differences. The present decade has seen a lot of research into this field. The questions that the scientists are trying to answer are: What is the amount of visual input a brain can consciously and unconsciously encode?
Why do some objects come in the field of observation and not others? What happens to information that is subconsciously perceived?
Arien Mack and Irvin Rock also conducted many experiments and co-authored a book "Inattentional Blindness" in 1998. One of their experiments was very simple. They asked the subjects to observe a cross on the computer screen. The subjects were repetitively asked to judge which arm of the cross was longer. They were in a way made to concentrate on the cross. After some time, unrepentantly, another brightly coloured object was inserted in their field of vision. The researchers reported that the participants often failed to notice the unexpected object on the screen, even when it appeared in the middle of their line of vision. The study gave a conclusive proof that there exists a wide gulf between perception and attention. Some psychologists are of the view that intentional blindness may be in some way related to selective memory instead of selective perception. The cause of the 'intentional amnesia' may be organic, functional or circumstantial.
Harvard university researchers have concluded that "we consciously see far less of our world than we think we do. We might well encode much of our visual world without awareness." We believe that we generally see what is in front of us and by basically looking. But looking and seeing are two different events. It has been observed that we look without seeing during moments of intense concentration. We have all observed that our eyes may be open, the images form on the retina, but still we have limited perception. We all remember these moments of blurred visuals and they come usually when either we are in deep thoughts or involved in an interesting conversation.

Q. The role of the last paragraph of the passage is to

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 16

Option (1): The last paragraph doesn`t merely aim at summing up. This is just a partial answer.
Option (2): To lend credence to the concept the paragraph uses scientific analysis, not empirical evidence.
Option(3): The final passage doesn`t mention cynics or unbelievers.
Option (4): The best answer is (4), as the paragraph tends to support the assertions through scientific findings of the Harvard University researchers.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 17

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: For in India, turmeric is much more than an unassuming kitchen spice, assuming a significant place in culture.

Paragraph: In the Tamil harvest festival of Pongal in mid-January, fresh turmeric leaves and roots are tied to the mouth of the ceremonial pot, indicating abundance. ___(1)___. Among many Hindu communities, turmeric is used in festive occasions like weddings as a marker of fertility and prosperity. The pre-wedding haldi ceremony, for instance, involves family elders applying turmeric paste on the faces of the bride and the groom in a blessing-meets-beauty ritual. ___(2)___. The mangalsutra is often a thick woven thread dipped in turmeric water; and even now, clothes worn on auspicious occasions (including weddings) have a touch of turmeric powder in some corner. ___(3)___. Also, Indian women have always added a pinch of turmeric to their homemade face packs, believing that it leaves the skin clear and glowing. ___(4)___.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 17

The given sentence will most appropriately fit blank (1). It links with both the preceding and the succeeding sentences. 'For in . . .' talks about the cultural significance of turmeric, which is further elaborated in the next sentence. The first sentence states that the spice 'turmeric' is used for ceremonial purposes, particularly to indicate 'abundance'. Thus, in India, turmeric is much more than simply a kitchen spice. The '. . . significant place in culture . . .' is then detailed in the following sentences using various examples to highlight the cultural and ceremonial importance of turmeric. Placing the sentence anywhere else would break the flow of various examples being given in continuum to corroborate the central idea.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 18

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

A dream pictures earthly beauty to our eyes in a truly heavenly splendour and clothes dignity with the highest majesty. It shows us everyday fears in the ghastliest shape and turns our amusement into jokes of indescribable pungency. And sometimes when we are awake and still under the full impact of an experience like one of these, we cannot but feel that never in our life has the real world offered us its equal.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 18

1. Not true. The forms cannot be said to be weird but exaggerated.
2. True. The very first sentence with words 'truly heavenly' and 'clothes dignity with the highest majesty' would be a strange idealistic interpretation.
3. Not true. These won't be nearest to reality (refer to the last sentence of the paragraph).
4. Not true. A dream only enhances the effects of real-life experiences. No way can it be said that it has deep understanding of them. Also, pushing the limits of a sane and sober mind is out of context.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 19

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. Bombyx Mori, the domestic silk moths, are an unusual species that have been so selectively bred they are entirely dependent on humans for their survival.

2. The dependence of the silk trade on mulberry trees makes them highly prized plants, so research into protecting and optimising their productivity is critical for the future of the silk industry.

3. They cannot fly, and swathes of fresh mulberry leaves must be brought to sustain their ravenous larvae so they can form their precious, and economically valuable, silk cocoons.

4. Mulberry trees have the unique status of being the only food that Mulberry silkworms will feast on.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 19

They in 3 refers to domestic silk moths introduced in 1. Also, the fact that they are dependent on humans as stated in 1 is further elaborated in 3 – must be brought to sustain…. So, 3 should come after 1. 4 comes next as it further elaborates on the dependence of the silkworms on mulberry leaves. 2 will end the text as it talks about how the silkworm's dependence adds to the significance of mulberry plants.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 20

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Helvetius, amongst many false positions and licentious reveries, observes with much justice, that the education of man begins at his birth, and is carried on during the whole course of his life. The lowest mechanic, though he may not have distinct and accurate science, has yet such a store of geography, of natural history, of mechanics, and other parts of knowledge, that were his mind to be emptied of it, the wretched vacancy would amaze us.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 20

1. Incorrect. Although true, the essence is not the wisdom of Helvetius or his wise discernment but his view or perspective on education.
2. Incorrect. This is what Helvetius says. However, this option does not put education in the right perspective. According to Helvetius, education is more a matter of experience from one's routine interactions of life and less a matter of science.
3. Incorrect. This is not what Helvetius perceived. From 'The lowest mechanic, though he may not have distinct and accurate science, has yet...' it can be perceived that science was valued more.
4. Correct. This captures the essence of the paragraph. According to Helvetius, education is more a matter of experience from one's routine interactions of life and less a matter of science.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 21

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

One principle of life drives man. This principle is physical sensibility. What produces in him this sensibility? A feeling of love for pleasure, and of hatred for pain? It is from both these feelings joined together in man and always present in his mind that is formed what one calls in him the feeling of self-love. This self-love engenders the desire for happiness; the desire for happiness that for power; and it is this latter that in turn brings forth envy, avarice, ambition and generally all the artificial passions, which, under different names, are only a disguised love of power in us and applied to the various means of obtaining it.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 21

1. Incorrect. Ambitions or passions do not direct man's life.
2. Incorrect. It is not explained in the paragraph that an altruist cannot be happy.
3. Incorrect. This is true; however, the essence is that every man is driven by self-love and self-love excites all artificial passions.
4. Correct. True and best captures the essence. The pursuit of power is paradoxical as this yearning for power makes one more vulnerable to one's passions.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 22

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. Such experiments which are considered 'crucial' are important; they deliver a decisive answer to a question.

2. Usually, an experiment is considered crucial when it confirms a hypothesis among alternative competitors, and thus settles a dispute.

3. It is from this ability to deliver a decisive answer to the question of how DNA replicates that the Meselson-Stahl experiment can be considered to derive its beauty.

4. One of the reasons why this experiment is celebrated in science is that it is an example of an experimentum crucis, or a 'crucial experiment'.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 22

2134 is the sequence of the paragraph. 2 begins the paragraph by describing when an experiment is considered 'crucial'. 1 logically follows 2 as 'Such experiments which are considered 'crucial' in 1 links with 'experiment is considered crucial' in 2. 3 follows 1 as 'they deliver a decisive answer' in 1 links with 'It is from this ability to deliver a decisive answer' in 3. 4 follows 3 as 'this experiment' in 4 refers to the 'Meselson-Stahl experiment ' in 3.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 23

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. This implies a relationship of mutual responsibility between human beings and nature.

2. The biblical texts are to be read in their context, with an appropriate hermeneutic, recognizing that they tell us to 'till and keep' the garden of the world.

3. Although it is true that we Christians have at times incorrectly interpreted the Scriptures, we must reject the notion that we being given dominion over the Earth justifies absolute domination over other creatures.

4. 'Tilling' refers to cultivating, ploughing or working, while 'keeping' means caring, protecting, overseeing and preserving.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 23

Sentence 3 begins the text as it can stand alone. The biblical texts' in 2 is first introduced in 3 as 'Christians…Scriptures'. So 2 will come after 3. 'Till and keep' in 2 is further elaborated in sentence 4. So 4 follows 2. 'This' in 1 refers to the relationship between 'tilling and keeping' that were earlier explained in 4. So 1 will come after 4. So the correct order is 3241.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 24

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: But this daunting reorganisation, or breakup, could also provide banks with a huge opportunity: higher margins, new revenue streams, and loftier valuations.

Paragraph: Banking is facing a future marked by restructuring. ___(1)___. But we also believe that banks that successfully manage this transition will become bigger and more profitable and grow faster. ___(2)___. In the next era, banks can realign to compete in new arenas, organised around distinct customer needs. ___(3)___. These arenas will expand far beyond the current definition of financial services, and they will also be hotly contested by a wide range of tech giants, tech start-ups, and other non-banks. ___(4)___. Ambitious banks can break free from stagnant valuations, thrive, and grow if they are willing to embrace the platforms of the future and make a few strategic, informed big bets.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 24

The sentence appropriately fits blank 4. The sentence given refers to 'this daunting reorganisation'. The fact that reorganisation would be 'daunting' links well with the phrase 'hotly contested' in the sentence preceding blank 4. The given sentence also links with the sentence following blank 4. Since the reorganisation would make it possible to attain loftier valuations, thus '. . . banks can break free from stagnant valuations . . .' The sentence would not fit blank 1 or 2 as both sentences relate to the possible benefits of reorganisation and use of the contrast word 'but' in both sentences would make the context incorrect.

CAT Mock Test - 11 - Question 25

Directions: Shivani is a private employee and she earns a fixed salary every month. She also pays tax. The tax is always calculated after the deductions if there exists any kind of deductions. The deductions are as follows:

(i) Shivani donates 40,000 in an orphanage which has 100% exemption.

(ii) The standard deductions is one - third of the annual salary.

After allowing the deductions, the remaining income is taxed, which is so called tax before rebate. The rate of the tax on her taxable income is 20%. As she saves 35,000 rupees towards the contributory provident fund and 25,000 towards public provident fund, 20% of each can be deducted from the tax calculated before the rebate. This is the tax after rebate.

There is a surcharge to be imposed and it is imposed after the rebate and the total amount to be paid is calculated. The surcharge is 5% on the tax after the rebate which amounts to 5000 rupees.

Q. If the savings in the contributory provident fund and the public provident fund fetches 10% interest and the tax on the interest earned is 50/3% and the tax paid by her includes the tax due to this interest, then what will be the difference between the salary of Shivani in this case and her salary calculated before without considering the tax on the interest, assuming all the other things remain the same.