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CAT Mock Test - 16 - CAT MCQ


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67 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2024 - CAT Mock Test - 16

CAT Mock Test - 16 for CAT 2024 is part of CAT Mock Test Series 2024 preparation. The CAT Mock Test - 16 questions and answers have been prepared according to the CAT exam syllabus.The CAT Mock Test - 16 MCQs are made for CAT 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for CAT Mock Test - 16 below.
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CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 1

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

A season of mists and mellow fruitfulness it may be. But autumn is also the fall, and there is little fruitfulness to be had from leafless plants. This does not matter in nature. The winter dieback has a reason: the cost of maintaining the leaves, and the risk of storm and frost damage, exceed the photosynthetic benefits to be from the pallid winter sunshine. But the interests of vegetables and the interests of their growers do not always coincide. The latter would like the former to flourish all year around.
Although artificial light can fool plants into thinking that autumn has not actually arrived, this is expensive in electricity. A new technique developed by Richard Amasino and Susheng Gan, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, may fool plants on the cheap. They have devised a way to persuade their charges to keep their leaves even when the external signals are warning that winter is nigh. As a bonus, the method also seems to keep plants green and fresh for longer after they have been cut.
It is done by meddling with the genes. When a plant prepares to drop its leaves, it first evacuates as much protein from them as possible. Annual plants recycle this protein into their seeds; perennials transport it into storage in the trunk or stem. In nature, the biochemical changes that carry out this mobilization are governed by a genetic promoter: a DNA switch that starts up the genes that code for the enzymes required for the autumnal changes to take place.
Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan have isolated this promoter and attached it to a new genetic partner. The gene they chose is for the enzyme that produces cytokinin, a hormone that invigorates many plant tissues, including the leaves. They have inserted their new gene promoter combination into tobacco and arabidopsis (a weed much favored by plant geneticists as a workhorse for experiments).
The idea was that, when autumnal changes switched on the natural promoter to start the process of leaf senescence, they would also switch on the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene, nullifying the message to close down the leaf. Cytokinin would be produced until it had managed to keep the leaves green and healthy. At that point it would shut itself off. In this way the system would be self regulating; the plant would never produce enough hormone to have side-effects beyond the leaves.
It worked. Leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for the whole of a 20 weeks trial period, while control leaves gradually turned yellow. Even when picked, leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for around 40 days. Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan see their discovery's first use as being to protect leaf vegetables such as lettuces and cabbages and to prolong their shelf life. But the new genetic combination could eventually be applied more widely. The added growth permitted by extra weeks or months of photosynthesis could boost yields of grain, and of flowers, from crops containing the hybrid gene. The transgenic tobacco plants turned out to weight 50% more seed, than normal plants. Fruitful indeed.

Q. Which of the following best states the reason for the growers to want their vegetables to flourish all year around?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 1

The answer can be inferred from the first paragraph: "But the interests of … year around." This means that vegetable growers want to grow the vegetables all year around for more profits. But this is not in the interest of vegetables. Thus, option 1 is the correct answer. Option 2 is incorrect because the passage states that growers know that vegetables cannot grow all year around, but they would want it to. Option 3 is incorrect because this is not stated in the text. Option 4 is incorrect because the passage does not discuss the new technique up to this point where it states the reason for the growers to want their vegetables to grow all year around.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 2

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

A season of mists and mellow fruitfulness it may be. But autumn is also the fall, and there is little fruitfulness to be had from leafless plants. This does not matter in nature. The winter dieback has a reason: the cost of maintaining the leaves, and the risk of storm and frost damage, exceed the photosynthetic benefits to be from the pallid winter sunshine. But the interests of vegetables and the interests of their growers do not always coincide. The latter would like the former to flourish all year around.
Although artificial light can fool plants into thinking that autumn has not actually arrived, this is expensive in electricity. A new technique developed by Richard Amasino and Susheng Gan, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, may fool plants on the cheap. They have devised a way to persuade their charges to keep their leaves even when the external signals are warning that winter is nigh. As a bonus, the method also seems to keep plants green and fresh for longer after they have been cut.
It is done by meddling with the genes. When a plant prepares to drop its leaves, it first evacuates as much protein from them as possible. Annual plants recycle this protein into their seeds; perennials transport it into storage in the trunk or stem. In nature, the biochemical changes that carry out this mobilization are governed by a genetic promoter: a DNA switch that starts up the genes that code for the enzymes required for the autumnal changes to take place.
Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan have isolated this promoter and attached it to a new genetic partner. The gene they chose is for the enzyme that produces cytokinin, a hormone that invigorates many plant tissues, including the leaves. They have inserted their new gene promoter combination into tobacco and arabidopsis (a weed much favored by plant geneticists as a workhorse for experiments).
The idea was that, when autumnal changes switched on the natural promoter to start the process of leaf senescence, they would also switch on the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene, nullifying the message to close down the leaf. Cytokinin would be produced until it had managed to keep the leaves green and healthy. At that point it would shut itself off. In this way the system would be self regulating; the plant would never produce enough hormone to have side-effects beyond the leaves.
It worked. Leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for the whole of a 20 weeks trial period, while control leaves gradually turned yellow. Even when picked, leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for around 40 days. Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan see their discovery's first use as being to protect leaf vegetables such as lettuces and cabbages and to prolong their shelf life. But the new genetic combination could eventually be applied more widely. The added growth permitted by extra weeks or months of photosynthesis could boost yields of grain, and of flowers, from crops containing the hybrid gene. The transgenic tobacco plants turned out to weight 50% more seed, than normal plants. Fruitful indeed.

Q. Which of the following best describes the action of the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene that was a part of the idea in the Amasino-Gan technique?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 2

The synthetic promoter would inhibit specific natural signals but we cannot say that it would inhibit all signals by natural promoters. So, option (1) is eliminated.
Option (2) can't be the correct as even though the synthetic promoter would cause cytokinin to be produced to keep leaves healthy (fifth para), the passage is silent on whether it would promote its market value.
Option (3) gets support from, "...switch on the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene, nullifying the message to close down the leaf." Thus, option (3) is the correct answer.

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CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 3

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

A season of mists and mellow fruitfulness it may be. But autumn is also the fall, and there is little fruitfulness to be had from leafless plants. This does not matter in nature. The winter dieback has a reason: the cost of maintaining the leaves, and the risk of storm and frost damage, exceed the photosynthetic benefits to be from the pallid winter sunshine. But the interests of vegetables and the interests of their growers do not always coincide. The latter would like the former to flourish all year around.
Although artificial light can fool plants into thinking that autumn has not actually arrived, this is expensive in electricity. A new technique developed by Richard Amasino and Susheng Gan, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, may fool plants on the cheap. They have devised a way to persuade their charges to keep their leaves even when the external signals are warning that winter is nigh. As a bonus, the method also seems to keep plants green and fresh for longer after they have been cut.
It is done by meddling with the genes. When a plant prepares to drop its leaves, it first evacuates as much protein from them as possible. Annual plants recycle this protein into their seeds; perennials transport it into storage in the trunk or stem. In nature, the biochemical changes that carry out this mobilization are governed by a genetic promoter: a DNA switch that starts up the genes that code for the enzymes required for the autumnal changes to take place.
Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan have isolated this promoter and attached it to a new genetic partner. The gene they chose is for the enzyme that produces cytokinin, a hormone that invigorates many plant tissues, including the leaves. They have inserted their new gene promoter combination into tobacco and arabidopsis (a weed much favored by plant geneticists as a workhorse for experiments).
The idea was that, when autumnal changes switched on the natural promoter to start the process of leaf senescence, they would also switch on the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene, nullifying the message to close down the leaf. Cytokinin would be produced until it had managed to keep the leaves green and healthy. At that point it would shut itself off. In this way the system would be self regulating; the plant would never produce enough hormone to have side-effects beyond the leaves.
It worked. Leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for the whole of a 20 weeks trial period, while control leaves gradually turned yellow. Even when picked, leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for around 40 days. Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan see their discovery's first use as being to protect leaf vegetables such as lettuces and cabbages and to prolong their shelf life. But the new genetic combination could eventually be applied more widely. The added growth permitted by extra weeks or months of photosynthesis could boost yields of grain, and of flowers, from crops containing the hybrid gene. The transgenic tobacco plants turned out to weight 50% more seed, than normal plants. Fruitful indeed.

Q. Each of the following is true about the Amasino-Gan technique EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 3

The correct answer is option 2 as it cannot be derived. The text does not state that cytokinin would not be produced altogether; it just states that it will be shut down after it has reached a threshold - "Cytokinin would be produced until it had managed to keep the leaves green and healthy. At that point it would shut itself off. " Option 1 can be derived from "It is done by meddling with the genes." and "The idea was that, when autumnal changes switched on the natural promoter to start the process of leaf senescence, they would also switch on the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene, nullifying the message to close down the leaf.". Option 3 can be derived from "They have inserted their new gene promoter combination into tobacco and arabidopsis (a weed much favored by plant geneticists as a workhorse for experiments)."

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 4

Directions: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

A season of mists and mellow fruitfulness it may be. But autumn is also the fall, and there is little fruitfulness to be had from leafless plants. This does not matter in nature. The winter dieback has a reason: the cost of maintaining the leaves, and the risk of storm and frost damage, exceed the photosynthetic benefits to be from the pallid winter sunshine. But the interests of vegetables and the interests of their growers do not always coincide. The latter would like the former to flourish all year around.
Although artificial light can fool plants into thinking that autumn has not actually arrived, this is expensive in electricity. A new technique developed by Richard Amasino and Susheng Gan, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, may fool plants on the cheap. They have devised a way to persuade their charges to keep their leaves even when the external signals are warning that winter is nigh. As a bonus, the method also seems to keep plants green and fresh for longer after they have been cut.
It is done by meddling with the genes. When a plant prepares to drop its leaves, it first evacuates as much protein from them as possible. Annual plants recycle this protein into their seeds; perennials transport it into storage in the trunk or stem. In nature, the biochemical changes that carry out this mobilization are governed by a genetic promoter: a DNA switch that starts up the genes that code for the enzymes required for the autumnal changes to take place.
Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan have isolated this promoter and attached it to a new genetic partner. The gene they chose is for the enzyme that produces cytokinin, a hormone that invigorates many plant tissues, including the leaves. They have inserted their new gene promoter combination into tobacco and arabidopsis (a weed much favored by plant geneticists as a workhorse for experiments).
The idea was that, when autumnal changes switched on the natural promoter to start the process of leaf senescence, they would also switch on the synthetic promoter for the cytokinin gene, nullifying the message to close down the leaf. Cytokinin would be produced until it had managed to keep the leaves green and healthy. At that point it would shut itself off. In this way the system would be self regulating; the plant would never produce enough hormone to have side-effects beyond the leaves.
It worked. Leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for the whole of a 20 weeks trial period, while control leaves gradually turned yellow. Even when picked, leaves from transgenic plants stayed green for around 40 days. Dr. Amasino and Mr. Gan see their discovery's first use as being to protect leaf vegetables such as lettuces and cabbages and to prolong their shelf life. But the new genetic combination could eventually be applied more widely. The added growth permitted by extra weeks or months of photosynthesis could boost yields of grain, and of flowers, from crops containing the hybrid gene. The transgenic tobacco plants turned out to weight 50% more seed, than normal plants. Fruitful indeed.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that plants allow leaves to fall off in autumn due to which of the following reasons?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 4

Options (1) and (3) are absurd in context to the question. They don't state why leaves are shed in the autumn. Option (2) states the opposite because if the benefits of retaining the leaves are more, then the plants will not allow the leaves to fall. Thus option (4) is the correct answer.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions:

The target audience is likely to switch channels in an attempt to whittle away the time while waiting for their favorite program to resume. Even if the ad does reach the desired target audience, the message conveyed comes and departs mostly unnoticed and many people would have trouble recalling an ad that they had seen just two minutes ago. Companies however continue to spend billions of dollars every year in an effort to attract buyers.
Instead of paying massive endorsement fees to celebrities to promote a brand and spending a pretty penny on conceptualizing and creating ads, would it not make more sense for the behemoth corporations to save that money and pass on a large share back to the consumers as loyalty benefits? A satisfied user is often the best publicity and companies can simply divide the amount of money they are going to spend on publicity of a product by the expected number of units they are going to sell in that year and share the average expected per unit savings with the consumers.
Even if the companies decide to keep a substantial portion of money saved from advertising for themselves and directly pass on the rest to consumers as an across the board price cutback, it can help the consumers to buy more for less in these times of tight liquidity.
Companies keep spending so much money on advertising because they realize that the subconscious mind is working even when the conscious mind tunes out the message. Once the subconscious learns something, that information gets stored in the vast labyrinths of the neural passages that are present in our brains and like a burr beneath the saddle of a horse, the message will keep irritating our subconscious, egging us on to buy the proffered product or service. Also, with the customer being constantly bombarded by inducements for buying, a vacillating mind might just get seduced into pulling out the credit card.
Another reason could be that the advertisers and advertising agencies are relying on a collective message that they send out to teeming humanity of equating material possessions with happiness. Another startling input could be that the promoter knows that only ten percent of advertising converts into a sale and therefore the buyers end up paying for the message that the remaining 90% did not heed. In this cat and mouse game of one trying to tempt another into buying, perhaps it is the advertising agency that has the last laugh – their product is selling even if the advertiser’s is not and the fall guy for the entire con game is the consumer who is paying for it.

Q. What according to the passage is not the reason why companies spend so much on advertising?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 5

If people keep changing channels to avoid advertisements, they would never see one. Hence, there would be no point in spending money on publicizing their products. For the other three choices, it is mentioned in the text that the companies who involve into advertising their products are aware.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions:

The target audience is likely to switch channels in an attempt to whittle away the time while waiting for their favorite program to resume. Even if the ad does reach the desired target audience, the message conveyed comes and departs mostly unnoticed and many people would have trouble recalling an ad that they had seen just two minutes ago. Companies however continue to spend billions of dollars every year in an effort to attract buyers.
Instead of paying massive endorsement fees to celebrities to promote a brand and spending a pretty penny on conceptualizing and creating ads, would it not make more sense for the behemoth corporations to save that money and pass on a large share back to the consumers as loyalty benefits? A satisfied user is often the best publicity and companies can simply divide the amount of money they are going to spend on publicity of a product by the expected number of units they are going to sell in that year and share the average expected per unit savings with the consumers.
Even if the companies decide to keep a substantial portion of money saved from advertising for themselves and directly pass on the rest to consumers as an across the board price cutback, it can help the consumers to buy more for less in these times of tight liquidity.
Companies keep spending so much money on advertising because they realize that the subconscious mind is working even when the conscious mind tunes out the message. Once the subconscious learns something, that information gets stored in the vast labyrinths of the neural passages that are present in our brains and like a burr beneath the saddle of a horse, the message will keep irritating our subconscious, egging us on to buy the proffered product or service. Also, with the customer being constantly bombarded by inducements for buying, a vacillating mind might just get seduced into pulling out the credit card.
Another reason could be that the advertisers and advertising agencies are relying on a collective message that they send out to teeming humanity of equating material possessions with happiness. Another startling input could be that the promoter knows that only ten percent of advertising converts into a sale and therefore the buyers end up paying for the message that the remaining 90% did not heed. In this cat and mouse game of one trying to tempt another into buying, perhaps it is the advertising agency that has the last laugh – their product is selling even if the advertiser’s is not and the fall guy for the entire con game is the consumer who is paying for it.

Q. With reference to the passage, which of the following would be true?
I. The buyer is fickle and repeated advertisement can be easily said to be  the only way to draw his attention.
II. Unattainability of spare funds requires extra effort to make the customer loosen his purse strings.
III. More and more buyers feel that joy and pleasure and possessions are two sides of a coin.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 6

While the first paragraph deals with alternatives to advertising, the second paragraph explains how it serves a useful purpose for the seller.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions:

The target audience is likely to switch channels in an attempt to whittle away the time while waiting for their favorite program to resume. Even if the ad does reach the desired target audience, the message conveyed comes and departs mostly unnoticed and many people would have trouble recalling an ad that they had seen just two minutes ago. Companies however continue to spend billions of dollars every year in an effort to attract buyers.
Instead of paying massive endorsement fees to celebrities to promote a brand and spending a pretty penny on conceptualizing and creating ads, would it not make more sense for the behemoth corporations to save that money and pass on a large share back to the consumers as loyalty benefits? A satisfied user is often the best publicity and companies can simply divide the amount of money they are going to spend on publicity of a product by the expected number of units they are going to sell in that year and share the average expected per unit savings with the consumers.
Even if the companies decide to keep a substantial portion of money saved from advertising for themselves and directly pass on the rest to consumers as an across the board price cutback, it can help the consumers to buy more for less in these times of tight liquidity.
Companies keep spending so much money on advertising because they realize that the subconscious mind is working even when the conscious mind tunes out the message. Once the subconscious learns something, that information gets stored in the vast labyrinths of the neural passages that are present in our brains and like a burr beneath the saddle of a horse, the message will keep irritating our subconscious, egging us on to buy the proffered product or service. Also, with the customer being constantly bombarded by inducements for buying, a vacillating mind might just get seduced into pulling out the credit card.
Another reason could be that the advertisers and advertising agencies are relying on a collective message that they send out to teeming humanity of equating material possessions with happiness. Another startling input could be that the promoter knows that only ten percent of advertising converts into a sale and therefore the buyers end up paying for the message that the remaining 90% did not heed. In this cat and mouse game of one trying to tempt another into buying, perhaps it is the advertising agency that has the last laugh – their product is selling even if the advertiser’s is not and the fall guy for the entire con game is the consumer who is paying for it.

Q. What does the word vacillating means in the context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 7

The word vacillating in the given context means that the mind of the consumer is fickle. Hence the closest match is choice 1.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions:

But the reason that mathematicians are not intuitive is that they do not see what is before them, and that, accustomed to the exact and plain principles of mathematics, and not reasoning till they have well inspected and arranged their principles, they are lost in matters of intuition where the principles do not allow of such arrangement.
They are scarcely seen; they are felt rather than seen; there is the greatest difficulty in making them felt by those who do not of themselves perceive them. These principles are so fine and so numerous that a very delicate and very clear sense is needed to perceive them, and to judge rightly and justly when they are perceived, without for the most part being able to demonstrate them in order as in mathematics; because the principles are not known to us in the same way, and because it would be an endless matter to undertake it.
We must see the matter at once, at one glance, and not by a process of reasoning, at least to a certain degree. And thus it is rare that mathematicians are intuitive, and that men of intuition are mathematicians, because mathematicians wish to treat matters of intuition mathematically, which is not the way to proceed in this kind of reasoning. Not that the mind does not do so, but it does it tacitly, naturally, and without technical rules.
Intuitive minds, on the contrary, being thus accustomed to judge at a single glance, are so astonished when they are presented with propositions of which they understand nothing, and the way to which is through definitions and axioms so sterile, and which they are not accustomed to see thus in detail, that they are repelled and disheartened.

Q. The tone of the author is

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 8

The author describes two categories of people and discusses how their approach towards situations is different. The passage is descriptive in nature, and hence, this is the best option.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 9

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Today, the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on raw materials and components ranges from 40% - 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on components, once a machine is made, it suffers excise duty from 5% - 10% (including on the customs duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation, i.e., Central Sales Tax or State Sales Taxes which range from 4% - 16%. This much from the tax angle. Another factor which pushes the cost of manufacture of machine tools is in advanced countries.
The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India's machine tool builders have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of India machines.
The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. Machine tools play a key role in the expansion of industrial production since nearly all products are manufactured by machines of some sort; the machine tool is not an end product per se, but it is the means of manufacturing the end product. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builders were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.
It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The Government of India has always given a great deal of importance to the development of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India's machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. Is it anybody's case that the needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away?
Then, what is it that the industry requests from the Government? It wants a level playing field. In fact all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country from the point of strategic and vital interests of the nation. Most important, it requests for the Government's consideration and understanding. It is therefore high time that the government gives the due attention to this industry which has a good potential.

Q. None of the following statements can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 9

Options (2) and (3) are incorrect because they have no reference available in the passage. Option (4) is incorrect because the industry does not seek incentives but level playing field. Option (1) has support in the line '... an enviable record ...'; henceforth it is the correct answer.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 10

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Today, the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on raw materials and components ranges from 40% - 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on components, once a machine is made, it suffers excise duty from 5% - 10% (including on the customs duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation, i.e., Central Sales Tax or State Sales Taxes which range from 4% - 16%. This much from the tax angle. Another factor which pushes the cost of manufacture of machine tools is in advanced countries.
The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India's machine tool builders have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of India machines.
The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. Machine tools play a key role in the expansion of industrial production since nearly all products are manufactured by machines of some sort; the machine tool is not an end product per se, but it is the means of manufacturing the end product. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builders were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.
It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The Government of India has always given a great deal of importance to the development of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India's machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. Is it anybody's case that the needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away?
Then, what is it that the industry requests from the Government? It wants a level playing field. In fact all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country from the point of strategic and vital interests of the nation. Most important, it requests for the Government's consideration and understanding. It is therefore high time that the government gives the due attention to this industry which has a good potential.

Q. Which of the following statements is/are definitely true in the context of the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 10

Option 1 can be derived from the last paragraph, 'In fact, all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact…'
Option 2 can be derived from the lines, 'Today, they are in need of help from India's machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs.'
Option 3 can be derived from the last line of the second paragraph, 'The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of India machines.'
Since options 1, 2, and 3 are true, it is clear that option (4) is the correct answer.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 11

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Today, the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on raw materials and components ranges from 40% - 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on components, once a machine is made, it suffers excise duty from 5% - 10% (including on the customs duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation, i.e., Central Sales Tax or State Sales Taxes which range from 4% - 16%. This much from the tax angle. Another factor which pushes the cost of manufacture of machine tools is in advanced countries.
The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India's machine tool builders have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of India machines.
The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. Machine tools play a key role in the expansion of industrial production since nearly all products are manufactured by machines of some sort; the machine tool is not an end product per se, but it is the means of manufacturing the end product. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builders were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.
It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The Government of India has always given a great deal of importance to the development of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India's machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. Is it anybody's case that the needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away?
Then, what is it that the industry requests from the Government? It wants a level playing field. In fact all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country from the point of strategic and vital interests of the nation. Most important, it requests for the Government's consideration and understanding. It is therefore high time that the government gives the due attention to this industry which has a good potential.

Q. When the author states that the machine tool industry 'wants a level playing field' in the passage, he implies that it

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 11

Option (2) gets support from the first paragraph where the author compares the import duties on complete machinery and various tariffs on import of components. Thus by specifying the difference between the two, the author prepares the case to advocate level playing field for machine tool industry. The correct answer is (2). Other options are incorrect as they fail to capture what the author means when he implies a level playing field. The whole concern of the passage is to lower the import costs.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 12

Directions: The passage below is followed by a question based on its content. Answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage.

Today, the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on raw materials and components ranges from 40% - 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on components, once a machine is made, it suffers excise duty from 5% - 10% (including on the customs duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation, i.e., Central Sales Tax or State Sales Taxes which range from 4% - 16%. This much from the tax angle. Another factor which pushes the cost of manufacture of machine tools is in advanced countries.
The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India's machine tool builders have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of India machines.
The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. Machine tools play a key role in the expansion of industrial production since nearly all products are manufactured by machines of some sort; the machine tool is not an end product per se, but it is the means of manufacturing the end product. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builders were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.
It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The Government of India has always given a great deal of importance to the development of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India's machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. Is it anybody's case that the needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away?
Then, what is it that the industry requests from the Government? It wants a level playing field. In fact all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country from the point of strategic and vital interests of the nation. Most important, it requests for the Government's consideration and understanding. It is therefore high time that the government gives the due attention to this industry which has a good potential.

Q. All of the following inferences can be drawn from the information provided in the passage EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 12

Option 1 can be inferred from the last two paragraphs where the author states that the government has helped in the past but now they have grown apathetic to the plight of the machine tool industry owners. He calls upon the government to help improve the present state of affairs of the machine tools industry.
Option 2 can also be inferred from the line "It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene." and the concern that the author has expressed throughout the passage.
Option 3 is the only option that cannot be inferred from the passage.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 13

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

The Communist Party of China was founded in 1921 and Mao was one of the 13 founder members. In 1945, he was elected Chairman of the Communist Party of China and that position he held until his death in 1976. Many have called Mao not only ruthless but also crude. He had no hesitation publicly to exhort his close comrades to "break the wind." However, the man of power was also a man of poetry. He could resort, by turn, to inspiration, eloquence, persuasion, intimidation and liquidation. He could act, almost simultaneously, as an imperious Emperor as well as "a lone monk walking in the world with a leaky umbrella."
Although he was considered to be infallible, he made many mistakes of a serious nature. The Hundred Flowers not only failed to bloom but turned into poisonous weeds. The Great Leap Forward turned out to be a total failure. His two handpicked successors proved to be Vipers under his pillow. Whatever the compulsion that forced him to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the convulsions caused by it haunted China for long. India cannot forgive him for her humiliation at his hands in 1962.
Mao believed that to some extent the personality cult was indispensable. He is said to have observed, "Khrushchev had fallen because he had no cult of personality at all." On one occasion, Mao is said to have observed that the "four greats" – Great Teacher, Great Leader, Great Supreme Commander and Great Helmsman – thrust on him were a "nuisance". He was confident that sooner or later three of them will disappear and only the Teacher will remain.
While adapting Marxist theories to the Chinese environment, Mao was an innovator. He was firmly of the view that the Marxist principles had to be adjusted to the circumstances prevailing in China and could not be used in an abstract manner. To talk of Marxism without taking into consideration the Chinese peculiarities, was an empty abstraction. To quote him, "Consequently, the significance of Marxism that is to say, making certain that in all of its manifestations it is imbued with Chinese peculiarities, becomes a problem that must be understood and solved by the whole party without delay. We must put an end to writing eight legged essays on foreign models. We must discard our dogmatism and replace it by a new and vital Chinese style and manner pleasing to the eye and to the ear of the Chinese common people." Mao put Marxism in Chinese dress. He used anecdotes from the ancient writings from Chinese history and the language of the peasants to make his political points with telling force.
Mao's great contribution to the Chinese Revolution was his reliance on the peasants as a revolutionary force. When the uprisings in the cities failed, Mao realised that China did not possess an urban proletariat in the Marxist sense and hence he had to depend upon the peasants for a revolution in the country. Mao's confidence in peasant initiative and resourcefulness became a cause of tension between him and the Politburo's pragmatists after liberation.

Q. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 13

1. Incorrect. Mao's role and cult have been talked about in paragraphs 2 and 3. We cannot deduce that Mao was pleased with his role or that his ego was satisfied.

2. Correct. The very use of the term 'Great' clearly indicates that option (2) is the correct option.

3. Incorrect. Mao's role and cult have been talked about in paragraphs 2 and 3. We cannot deduce from Mao's remarks about Khrushchev that the former held the latter in such high esteem.

4. Incorrect. Though option (4) could be loosely applied to Mao, there is no hint that he was or could be the first.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 14

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

The Communist Party of China was founded in 1921 and Mao was one of the 13 founder members. In 1945, he was elected Chairman of the Communist Party of China and that position he held until his death in 1976. Many have called Mao not only ruthless but also crude. He had no hesitation publicly to exhort his close comrades to "break the wind." However, the man of power was also a man of poetry. He could resort, by turn, to inspiration, eloquence, persuasion, intimidation and liquidation. He could act, almost simultaneously, as an imperious Emperor as well as "a lone monk walking in the world with a leaky umbrella."
Although he was considered to be infallible, he made many mistakes of a serious nature. The Hundred Flowers not only failed to bloom but turned into poisonous weeds. The Great Leap Forward turned out to be a total failure. His two handpicked successors proved to be Vipers under his pillow. Whatever the compulsion that forced him to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the convulsions caused by it haunted China for long. India cannot forgive him for her humiliation at his hands in 1962.
Mao believed that to some extent the personality cult was indispensable. He is said to have observed, "Khrushchev had fallen because he had no cult of personality at all." On one occasion, Mao is said to have observed that the "four greats" – Great Teacher, Great Leader, Great Supreme Commander and Great Helmsman – thrust on him were a "nuisance". He was confident that sooner or later three of them will disappear and only the Teacher will remain.
While adapting Marxist theories to the Chinese environment, Mao was an innovator. He was firmly of the view that the Marxist principles had to be adjusted to the circumstances prevailing in China and could not be used in an abstract manner. To talk of Marxism without taking into consideration the Chinese peculiarities, was an empty abstraction. To quote him, "Consequently, the significance of Marxism that is to say, making certain that in all of its manifestations it is imbued with Chinese peculiarities, becomes a problem that must be understood and solved by the whole party without delay. We must put an end to writing eight legged essays on foreign models. We must discard our dogmatism and replace it by a new and vital Chinese style and manner pleasing to the eye and to the ear of the Chinese common people." Mao put Marxism in Chinese dress. He used anecdotes from the ancient writings from Chinese history and the language of the peasants to make his political points with telling force.
Mao's great contribution to the Chinese Revolution was his reliance on the peasants as a revolutionary force. When the uprisings in the cities failed, Mao realised that China did not possess an urban proletariat in the Marxist sense and hence he had to depend upon the peasants for a revolution in the country. Mao's confidence in peasant initiative and resourcefulness became a cause of tension between him and the Politburo's pragmatists after liberation.

Q. Which one of the following best describes Mao's views regarding Marxism?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 14

1. Incorrect. This option is too general to be the answer that can be specifically derived.
2. Incorrect. The role of peasants was not necessarily at the cost of urban workers. If at all, this option covers only one part of Mao's views regarding Marxism; it needs to be adapted to Chinese conditions.
3. Incorrect. This option does not even address the question. The question is about Marxism, and the option is about proletarianism and capitalism.
4. Correct. The lines 'Consequently, the significance of Marxism that is to say ... Chinese peculiarities' and 'Mao put Marxism in Chinese dress' clearly indicate that Mao wanted to adapt Marxism as per typical conditions of China. Thus, option (4) is the correct answer.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 15

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

The Communist Party of China was founded in 1921 and Mao was one of the 13 founder members. In 1945, he was elected Chairman of the Communist Party of China and that position he held until his death in 1976. Many have called Mao not only ruthless but also crude. He had no hesitation publicly to exhort his close comrades to "break the wind." However, the man of power was also a man of poetry. He could resort, by turn, to inspiration, eloquence, persuasion, intimidation and liquidation. He could act, almost simultaneously, as an imperious Emperor as well as "a lone monk walking in the world with a leaky umbrella."
Although he was considered to be infallible, he made many mistakes of a serious nature. The Hundred Flowers not only failed to bloom but turned into poisonous weeds. The Great Leap Forward turned out to be a total failure. His two handpicked successors proved to be Vipers under his pillow. Whatever the compulsion that forced him to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the convulsions caused by it haunted China for long. India cannot forgive him for her humiliation at his hands in 1962.
Mao believed that to some extent the personality cult was indispensable. He is said to have observed, "Khrushchev had fallen because he had no cult of personality at all." On one occasion, Mao is said to have observed that the "four greats" – Great Teacher, Great Leader, Great Supreme Commander and Great Helmsman – thrust on him were a "nuisance". He was confident that sooner or later three of them will disappear and only the Teacher will remain.
While adapting Marxist theories to the Chinese environment, Mao was an innovator. He was firmly of the view that the Marxist principles had to be adjusted to the circumstances prevailing in China and could not be used in an abstract manner. To talk of Marxism without taking into consideration the Chinese peculiarities, was an empty abstraction. To quote him, "Consequently, the significance of Marxism that is to say, making certain that in all of its manifestations it is imbued with Chinese peculiarities, becomes a problem that must be understood and solved by the whole party without delay. We must put an end to writing eight legged essays on foreign models. We must discard our dogmatism and replace it by a new and vital Chinese style and manner pleasing to the eye and to the ear of the Chinese common people." Mao put Marxism in Chinese dress. He used anecdotes from the ancient writings from Chinese history and the language of the peasants to make his political points with telling force.
Mao's great contribution to the Chinese Revolution was his reliance on the peasants as a revolutionary force. When the uprisings in the cities failed, Mao realised that China did not possess an urban proletariat in the Marxist sense and hence he had to depend upon the peasants for a revolution in the country. Mao's confidence in peasant initiative and resourcefulness became a cause of tension between him and the Politburo's pragmatists after liberation.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the Politburo's pragmatists and Mao:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 15

1. Incorrect. The divergence has been referred to in the last line of the passage. It cannot be inferred that there is a difference of opinion in the likely results of cultural revolution.
2. Incorrect. It cannot be inferred from the passage that they had different approaches to urban reactionary politics. In fact, Mao had to break away from the conventional Marxist sense and depend on peasants for a revolution in the country. We don't know from the passage about what the Politburo's pragmatists' approach was.
3. Incorrect. Whether or not they had a similar approach to 'national politics' is not stated in the last paragraph. Hence, this cannot be inferred.
4. Correct. The last line of the passage 'Mao's confidence ... after liberation' explicates that (4) is the correct option.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 16

Direction: Read the passage carefully and answer the questions

The magic of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually by their residents. To a planner’s eye, these cities look chaotic. I trained as a biologist and to my eye, they look organic. Squatter cities are also unexpectedly green. They have maximum density—1 million people per square mile in some areas of Mumbai—and have minimum energy and material use. People get around by foot, bicycle, rickshaw, or the universal shared taxi.

Not everything is efficient in the slums, though. In the Brazilian favelas where electricity is stolen and therefore free, people leave their lights on all day. But in most slums recycling is literally a way of life. The Dharavi slum in Mumbai has 400 recycling units and 30,000 ragpickers. Six thousand tons of rubbish are sorted every day. In 2007, the Economist reported that in Vietnam and Mozambique, “Waves of gleaners sift the sweepings of Hanoi’s streets, just as Mozambiquan children pick over the rubbish of Maputo’s main tip. Every city in Asia and Latin America has an industry based on gathering up old cardboard boxes.” . . .

In his 1985 article, Calthorpe made a statement that still jars with most people: “The city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.” “Green Manhattan” was the inflammatory title of a 2004 New Yorker article by David Owen. “By the most significant measures,” he wrote, “New York is the greenest community in the United States, and one of the greenest cities in the world . . . The key to New York’s relative environmental benignity is its extreme compactness. . . . Placing one and a half million people on a twenty-three-square-mile island sharply reduces their opportunities to be wasteful.” He went on to note that this very compactness forces people to live in the world’s most energy-efficient apartment buildings. . . .

Urban density allows half of humanity to live on 2.8 per cent of the land. . . . Consider just the infrastructure efficiencies. According to a 2004 UN report: “The concentration of population and enterprises in urban areas greatly reduces the unit cost of piped water, sewers, drains, roads, electricity, garbage collection, transport, health care, and schools.” . . .

The nationally subsidised city of Manaus in northern Brazil “answers the question” of how to stop deforestation: give people decent jobs. Then they can afford houses, and gain security. One hundred thousand people who would otherwise be deforesting the jungle around Manaus are now prospering in town making such things as mobile phones and televisions. . . .

Of course, fast-growing cities are far from an unmitigated good. They concentrate crime, pollution, disease and injustice as much as business, innovation, education and entertainment. . . . But if they are overall a net good for those who move there, it is because cities offer more than just jobs. They are transformative: in the slums, as well as the office towers and leafy suburbs, the progress is from hick to metropolitan to cosmopolitan . . .

Q. From the passage it can be inferred that cities are good places to live in for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that they:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 16
This might prove to be a little challenging to most students as it asks to choose the one that cannot be inferred. In other words, we have to eliminate the ones that can be inferred and choose the as right answer the one that cannot be inferred.

The last paragraph helps us eliminate two choices. The first that cities indeed help create jobs, and the second that they help prevent destruction of environment. Both the choices can be inferred when the author gives example of Manaus. Option 1 and 3 can be ruled out.

So we are left with two choices, option 4 tells us that cities contribute to cultural transformation. This can be inferred from the last sentence of the para. The author has used the word transformative in the last sentence of the passage “the progress is from hick to metropolitan to cosmopolitan”, we can infer that this is cultural transformation, after all you are moving from metropolitan to cosmopolitan.

Many of you might say that option 2 can also be inferred from the last sentence of the passage. But this is not the reason why the author feels that cities are good places to live in.

The last para has clues to all the choices except 2.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 17

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

The Communist Party of China was founded in 1921 and Mao was one of the 13 founder members. In 1945, he was elected Chairman of the Communist Party of China and that position he held until his death in 1976. Many have called Mao not only ruthless but also crude. He had no hesitation publicly to exhort his close comrades to "break the wind." However, the man of power was also a man of poetry. He could resort, by turn, to inspiration, eloquence, persuasion, intimidation and liquidation. He could act, almost simultaneously, as an imperious Emperor as well as "a lone monk walking in the world with a leaky umbrella."
Although he was considered to be infallible, he made many mistakes of a serious nature. The Hundred Flowers not only failed to bloom but turned into poisonous weeds. The Great Leap Forward turned out to be a total failure. His two handpicked successors proved to be Vipers under his pillow. Whatever the compulsion that forced him to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the convulsions caused by it haunted China for long. India cannot forgive him for her humiliation at his hands in 1962.
Mao believed that to some extent the personality cult was indispensable. He is said to have observed, "Khrushchev had fallen because he had no cult of personality at all." On one occasion, Mao is said to have observed that the "four greats" – Great Teacher, Great Leader, Great Supreme Commander and Great Helmsman – thrust on him were a "nuisance". He was confident that sooner or later three of them will disappear and only the Teacher will remain.
While adapting Marxist theories to the Chinese environment, Mao was an innovator. He was firmly of the view that the Marxist principles had to be adjusted to the circumstances prevailing in China and could not be used in an abstract manner. To talk of Marxism without taking into consideration the Chinese peculiarities, was an empty abstraction. To quote him, "Consequently, the significance of Marxism that is to say, making certain that in all of its manifestations it is imbued with Chinese peculiarities, becomes a problem that must be understood and solved by the whole party without delay. We must put an end to writing eight legged essays on foreign models. We must discard our dogmatism and replace it by a new and vital Chinese style and manner pleasing to the eye and to the ear of the Chinese common people." Mao put Marxism in Chinese dress. He used anecdotes from the ancient writings from Chinese history and the language of the peasants to make his political points with telling force.
Mao's great contribution to the Chinese Revolution was his reliance on the peasants as a revolutionary force. When the uprisings in the cities failed, Mao realised that China did not possess an urban proletariat in the Marxist sense and hence he had to depend upon the peasants for a revolution in the country. Mao's confidence in peasant initiative and resourcefulness became a cause of tension between him and the Politburo's pragmatists after liberation.

Q. All of the following tactics were used by Mao to impress the Chinese EXCEPT that:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 17

1. Incorrect. Refer the sentences - "We must discard our dogmatism and replace it by a new and vital Chinese style and manner pleasing to the eye and to the ear of the Chinese common people." Mao put Marxism in Chinese dress." This shows that he used this method to appeal to the Chinese.
2. Incorrect. Refer the sentence - "He used anecdotes from the ancient writings from Chinese history ... to make his political points with telling force." This was again used by Mao to impress the Chinese.
3. Incorrect. Refer the sentence - "He used ... the language of the peasants to make his political points with telling force." This was again used by Mao to impress the Chinese.
4. Correct. Though the belief in personality cult has been discussed, it is not in context with impressing the Chinese. It was a belief that he held. He did not hold this belief to impress the Chinese. So, this is the correct answer which cannot be inferred from the passage.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 18

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. But I have learned that prose often benefits from the cushioning of a few extra words — for rhythm, for sense, sometimes simply to counter the airlessness of sentences that are so straitened they can't breathe.

2. Yes, by all means trim away what I call the Throat-Clearers and Wan Intensifiers — "to be sure," "that said," "of course," "in sum," "rather," "actually," and, to be sure (ahem), "very."

3. That there are few absolutes in writing is why a case can be made for just about any word on a list of the proscribed.

4. It's a common misapprehension that editing is a synonym for "deleting."


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 18

The author in this text expresses what he feels about words which he feels are the fluff. He begins the discussion by stating that it is misconception that 'editing' is synonymous to 'deleting' in 4. He then states what he means by deleting the extra words when he uses the synonymous 'trim away' in 2, referring back to 'deleting' in 4. So 2 should come after 4. He then contrasts this by stating in 1 that such words as referred in 2 provide the cushioning. So 1 should follow 2. He ends on the note that just like this a lot of cases can be made for just about any unwanted words in 3. So the correct order is 4-2-1-3.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 19

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The school-to-prison pipeline, a "partnership'' between juvenile courts and the school system, "developed through a punitive and harmful framework to the detriment of many vulnerable children and adolescents,'' is a phenomenon of the late twentieth century. However, juvenile courts and the school system have been historically linked through their focus on controlling young people perceived as troublesome. As early as the 1800s and as late as the 1970s, corporal punishment, such as beatings with a ruler, was used by many schools as a normalized method of dealing with students "acting out.'' The popularity of corporal punishment was diminished as school populations grew during the 1970s, forcing schools to turn to suspensions and expulsions to keep disruptive students away from classrooms.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 19

The passage talks about how corporal punishment was used as a normal method to deal with students, which involved physical beatings indicating a very harsh attitude. However, this practice slowly started to diminish with the growth of school populations and preference for more procedural and formal methods.
(1) - This is the most accurate and comprehensive summary as can be seen from the explanation.
(2) - No such contrast between regulation and correction is either mentioned or inferable. The passage only talks about how corporal punishment lost its popularity with the rise in school populations.
(3) - 'Breaking down of partnership' as the reason for fall in popularity of corporal punishment is neither mentioned nor inferable.
(4) - Again, 'doing away with the partnership' as a deliberate action is not inferable. It was a natural result of increase in school populations.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 20

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: But any obligation to be kind to animals merely concerned animals; the obligation of kind treatment was owed only to other humans.

Paragraph: Before the 19th century, at least in the West, animals were largely excluded from the moral and legal community. ___(1)___. They were considered to be things. This is contrasted with Eastern thinking, which generally accorded at least some moral value to animals that accounted for the vegetarianism that remains prevalent in the Jain, Hindu and most Buddhist traditions. ___(2)___. The Western view was that we could have moral and legal obligations that concerned animals but were not owed to them. ___(3)___. To the extent that the cruel treatment of animals was thought to present a moral problem, it was only because it made us more likely to be cruel to other humans. ___(4)___. This was the view of Immanuel Kant, Thomas Aquinas and others. We had a legal obligation not to harm our neighbour's property - whether that property was a cow or a cart. But that was an obligation owed to our neighbour as a property owner, not to the cow or the cart.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 20

The sentence best fits blank 4. 'This was the view . . .' in the following sentence refers to the view presented in the given statement. The last line then gives an example to explain the 'view' given in the statement. Options 1 and 2 are incorrect as the passage initially simply presents a contrast between the Eastern and Western views. It is only later that solely the Western view is elaborated. Option 3 is also incorrect as it is redundant and both the following and the preceding statements contextually connect with each other.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 21

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. As compression increases, a very dense plasma forms.

2. However, if the star was originally more massive, the white dwarf plasma can't resist the gravitational pressures, and in rapid collapse, all nuclei of the star are converted to a gas of free neutrons.

3. If the initial star had mass of less than 1.4 solar masses (1.4 times the mass of our sun), the process ceases at the density of 1,000 tons per cubic inch, and the star becomes the white dwarf.

4. In the lifecycle of the star, after all of the hydrogen and helium fuel has been burned, the delicate balance between the outer nuclear radiation pressure and the stable gravitational force becomes disturbed and slow contraction begins.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 21

The paragraph explains what happens to a star at the end of its lifecycle. 41 is an easy pair: contraction begins … compression increases (both 'contraction' and 'compression' are the same). 32 can be paired the same way: If the initial star… however, if the star. 2 is the last sentence.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 22

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The ability to cooperate with others, including strangers, has generated prosperity within human society since the beginning of time. The evolution of cooperation has received much attention from social scientists, yet the concept of cooperation is still unexplained. Direct reciprocity is an acceptable explanation when there is repetition, meaning that A helps B, then B helps A, and so on. When the opportunity for such repetition does not occur, indirect reciprocity - where cooperation is based on reputation rather than repetition - offers a more substantial solution. Indirect reciprocity is effectively conditional cooperation. It is underpinned by social norms that enable us to distinguish between the good who deserve to be cooperated with, and the bad who should be refused cooperation.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 22

The passage specifies that there is little understanding of the concept of cooperation. Still, a general understanding exists that states that when the action is repeatable, the cooperation is expected, whereas when the action does not involve an expectation of future reciprocity, then it is the will of the person which decides whether one wants to cooperate or not.
(1) - No such view can be inferred. Cooperation, although, has led to prosperity of the human race, but its role in cognitive development seems farfetched.
(2) - The difference part is inferable, but the reason is not. The text does not suggest it that the difference between the two types increases when expectations fall with loss of favour.
(3) - The guiding principle in indirect reciprocity is whether the person is good enough to be cooperated with, i.e. reputation. The latter part of this summary cannot be inferred from the text.
(4) - This addresses all major themes of the passage: Poor understanding, obviousness in direct reciprocity, and free will of indirect reciprocity.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 23

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Identity is intimately personal; at the same time, it shares ties with the larger collective existence.

Paragraph: Identity is the fundamental expression of our social existence based on our understanding, however imperfect or incomplete, of self and others. ___(1)___. But it is not easy to define identity. The difficulty can be traced to its seemingly contradictory characteristics. ___(2)___. Identity can be fixed, yet amorphously fluid. It is erroneously conceived as monolithic even though it bears shades of multiplicity. ___(3)___. Our inability to negotiate with identity in an agreeable manner has resulted in numerous conflicts. ___(4)___. Human history has also been a story that has revolved around identity - it tells how identity is shaped and shattered, valorised and vilified, subjugated and celebrated.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 23

The given sentence best fits blank 2. 'Personal' and 'larger collective existence' link with 'contradictory characteristics' in the line preceding the blank. Even the statement following the blank gives an example of the contrary nature of identity. None of the other blanks provides this link with the sentence given.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 24

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The evolution of Barbie features a few paradoxes. In order to communicate the message that any girl can aspire to be and identify with a Barbie, the designers initially made Barbie's facial features look bland. Over time, however, Barbie has evolved to become incrementally more beautiful to generate more revenue by satiating America's obsession with beauty: For example, Barbie's doll packaging overuses the word beautiful, hinting at an excessive obsession with linking beauty to superficiality, materialism, and consumerism - many criticized aspects of American culture from which children should be protected. Even as a touchable icon, the standard of beauty that Barbie creates is still virtually unattainable. Barbie has promoted a doll culture where its centerpiece, the "American Waistland", encourages the idea of seeing women as bodies rather than possessing bodies, and has repeatedly provoked criticisms related to eating disorders.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 24

The passage talks about a well-intended toy that eventually gave in to the critical traits of the American society, itself promoting even more negative traits like objectification and eating disorders to attain the virtually unattainable.
(1) - Here, 'negative trends' is overly concise. Also, the statement does not mention about the earlier 'bland' equitable intentions of the makers of the product.
(2) - Barbie has linked to, and not developed the traits like consumerism or materialism. Also, historical context of 'objectification' is neither mentioned nor inferable. Hence, we cannot know that more of it is happening 'now' than 'before'.
(3) - Girls themselves have not started doing so, rather the view of other people towards the gender have changed. Although it may be true, but in that case, it would be overly concise with respect to views of others.
(4) - This is the most accurate and comprehensive summary.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 25

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. However in India, economic policy is driven largely by the interests of the poor, rather than taxpayers, since taxpayers are relatively few and non-taxpayers command more votes.

2. In most democracies, economic policies are dictated by the wishes of taxpayers, who, naturally, want a strong say in how their taxes are spent.

3. The politician's accountability is inevitably more to the majority of the voters than to the minority of taxpayers, which is a special feature of Indian economic policy-making.

4. But most voters in those countries are in any case taxpayers.


Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 25

The correct sequence is 2413. As the flow should be from general to specific, 1-3 should come after 2-4. 2-4 state about 'democracies' and 'countries' in general. 1-3 talks about Indian democratic structure specifically. Statement 2 serves as the opening sentence as it introduces the idea of taxpayers having the control on economic policies. This is followed by 4 as 'those countries' refers to the democracies mentioned earlier. The next sentence is 1 as it narrows the scope to discussion about India providing a contrast stating how in India economic policy is not driven by taxpayers. Sentence 3, by stating "more to the majority of the voters than to the minority of taxpayers", further extends support to 1.

CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 26

5 friends Anay, Bhola, Chintu, Dinu and Eshwar spend their entire salary on Rent, Groceries and Travel. The following graph shows the amount of money spent by each of the 5 friends on a particular expense as a percentage of the total amount of money spent by all of the 5 friends on a particular expense. For example, if the amount spend by all the friends on Rent is ‘R’ then the amount spent by Anay on rent is 0.26R. The total amount of money spent by exactly 3 friends is equal.

Q. If the total amount spent on Rent is 10000 rupees then how much money did Dinu spent on Travelling?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test - 16 - Question 26
Let R be the total amount spent by all the friends on Rent, G be the total amount spent by all the friends on Groceries and T be the total amount spent by all the friends on Travelling.

The given information in table form is as shown below:-

The total amount of money spent by exactly 3 friends is equal.

There are 10 possible combinations for this.

But as can be observed the amount spent by Anay, Bhola and Chintu on each of Rent, Groceries and Travel is greater than the amount spent by Eshwar on each of Rent, Groceries and Travel.

Thus, Amount of money spent by Eshwar cannot be equal to the amount of money spent by 2 other friends.

Thus, only 4 possible combinations now remain.

Out of these 4, the amount of money spent by Anay and Bhola on each of Rent, Groceries and Travel is greater than the amount spent by Dinu on each of Rent, Groceries and Travel

Thus, Amount of money spent by Dinu cannot be equal to the amount