# CAT Mock Test- 3

## 66 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series | CAT Mock Test- 3

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Attempt CAT Mock Test- 3 | 66 questions in 120 minutes | Mock test for CAT preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study CAT Mock Test Series for CAT Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

### Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions: Déjà vu — French for “already seen” — is a mental sensation of intense familiarity coupled with the awareness that the familiarity is mistaken. It’s a recognition we know is wrong, a memory we know doesn’t exist. This conflict between what we know and what we remember is why déjà vu feels so eerie — almost paranormal or out-of-body. This awareness is very common. Déjà vu is almost impossible to study — people are rarely hooked up to electrodes or undergoing internal scans when they experience it — so most information about the sensation comes from self-reports, which suggest at least two-thirds of people will experience this fleeting mental trickery at some point in their lives. People who travel often or who watch a lot of movies may be more prone to déjà vu than others who don’t. The sensation does not seem to occur before age 8-9 (or perhaps children younger than that don’t have the ability to describe it), and experiences of déjà vu become less common as we age. But as for why we experience déjà vu at all — that’s less clear. Multiple theories attempt to explain it, with each being a potentially legitimate source of the sensation. Like a physical itch, the mental itch of déjà vu likely has many causes, experts say. Probably the strongest theory, with some experimental backing, is that the false familiarity isn’t a sign of faulty memory, so much as it’s a sign of a well-functioning brain that actively fact-checks itself. Human memory is notoriously faulty and malleable; this theory holds that déjà vu occurs as our brains’ frontal regions evaluate our memories and flag an error. Another explanation for déjà vu, with some experimental findings to back it up, is that our stored memories still influence our present perception even if we can’t consciously recall them. A 2012 study that immersed participants in different virtual reality scenes saw most report déjà vu when viewing a scene that appeared similar to a previous one — even if they could not directly recall the earlier scene or its similarity. They just found the new scene inexplicably familiar. Other explanations for déjà vu are more speculative. One suggests that déjà vu occurs when a familiar object appears incongruously. Seeing known objects or people out of context or unexpectedly is when familiarity strikes us, not seeing them within the usual, expected context. For instance, seeing your building’s security guard at the gate wouldn’t feel familiar — it just is; but seeing him at a restaurant might bring feelings of familiarity, even if you can’t place him. In the moment of out-of-context perception, our brains process the familiarity of known things first, even if we don’t consciously recognize them, and that initial familiarity can color our perception of the whole otherwise-unfamiliar experience. But ultimately, the mechanisms behind the creeping been-here-done-this-before feeling are as mysterious as the sensation itself. But one thing scientists know for sure: déjà vu becomes more common when we are stressed and tired.   Q. According to the author, Deja vu is almost impossible to study because:

Solution:

The author states that " Déjà vu is almost impossible to study — people are rarely hooked up to electrodes or undergoing internal scans when they experience it — so most information about the sensation comes from self-reports". Hence, it is not possible to conduct detailed laboratory studies, as the experience occurs randomly. As a result, most of the information about Deja-vu is based on anecdotal evidence. Option C aptly captures the point elucidated above (especially the part highlighting the unpredictability of the experience).

Option A is wrong. It talks about mental sensations - an idea that is irrelevant to the discussion.

Option B is not the reason. Instead, it serves to exemplify a potential outcome of Déjà vu being random. Because of the dearth of scientific information concerning this phenomenon, we largely depend on anecdotal evidence. Option B is incorrect.

Option D can be eliminated as it has not been implied in the passage.

Hence, Option C is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 2

### Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions: Déjà vu — French for “already seen” — is a mental sensation of intense familiarity coupled with the awareness that the familiarity is mistaken. It’s a recognition we know is wrong, a memory we know doesn’t exist. This conflict between what we know and what we remember is why déjà vu feels so eerie — almost paranormal or out-of-body. This awareness is very common. Déjà vu is almost impossible to study — people are rarely hooked up to electrodes or undergoing internal scans when they experience it — so most information about the sensation comes from self-reports, which suggest at least two-thirds of people will experience this fleeting mental trickery at some point in their lives. People who travel often or who watch a lot of movies may be more prone to déjà vu than others who don’t. The sensation does not seem to occur before age 8-9 (or perhaps children younger than that don’t have the ability to describe it), and experiences of déjà vu become less common as we age. But as for why we experience déjà vu at all — that’s less clear. Multiple theories attempt to explain it, with each being a potentially legitimate source of the sensation. Like a physical itch, the mental itch of déjà vu likely has many causes, experts say. Probably the strongest theory, with some experimental backing, is that the false familiarity isn’t a sign of faulty memory, so much as it’s a sign of a well-functioning brain that actively fact-checks itself. Human memory is notoriously faulty and malleable; this theory holds that déjà vu occurs as our brains’ frontal regions evaluate our memories and flag an error. Another explanation for déjà vu, with some experimental findings to back it up, is that our stored memories still influence our present perception even if we can’t consciously recall them. A 2012 study that immersed participants in different virtual reality scenes saw most report déjà vu when viewing a scene that appeared similar to a previous one — even if they could not directly recall the earlier scene or its similarity. They just found the new scene inexplicably familiar. Other explanations for déjà vu are more speculative. One suggests that déjà vu occurs when a familiar object appears incongruously. Seeing known objects or people out of context or unexpectedly is when familiarity strikes us, not seeing them within the usual, expected context. For instance, seeing your building’s security guard at the gate wouldn’t feel familiar — it just is; but seeing him at a restaurant might bring feelings of familiarity, even if you can’t place him. In the moment of out-of-context perception, our brains process the familiarity of known things first, even if we don’t consciously recognize them, and that initial familiarity can color our perception of the whole otherwise-unfamiliar experience. But ultimately, the mechanisms behind the creeping been-here-done-this-before feeling are as mysterious as the sensation itself. But one thing scientists know for sure: déjà vu becomes more common when we are stressed and tired.   Q. Which of the following statements CANNOT be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

{Déjà vu — French for “already seen” — is a mental sensation of intense familiarity coupled with the awareness that the familiarity is mistaken. It’s a recognition we know is wrong, a memory we know doesn’t exist.} Option A can be inferred from these lines.

The third and fourth paragraphs discuss two theories that are backed by experimental findings. Option B can be inferred.

{Human memory is notoriously faulty and malleable.} Option C can be inferred as well.

Option D is a distortion; the author states that "déjà vu becomes more common when we are stressed and tired." However, the corollary may not necessarily true. It is not necessary that most people who experience are tired or stressed. Hence, option D cannot be inferred.

QUESTION: 3

### Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions: Déjà vu — French for “already seen” — is a mental sensation of intense familiarity coupled with the awareness that the familiarity is mistaken. It’s a recognition we know is wrong, a memory we know doesn’t exist. This conflict between what we know and what we remember is why déjà vu feels so eerie — almost paranormal or out-of-body. This awareness is very common. Déjà vu is almost impossible to study — people are rarely hooked up to electrodes or undergoing internal scans when they experience it — so most information about the sensation comes from self-reports, which suggest at least two-thirds of people will experience this fleeting mental trickery at some point in their lives. People who travel often or who watch a lot of movies may be more prone to déjà vu than others who don’t. The sensation does not seem to occur before age 8-9 (or perhaps children younger than that don’t have the ability to describe it), and experiences of déjà vu become less common as we age. But as for why we experience déjà vu at all — that’s less clear. Multiple theories attempt to explain it, with each being a potentially legitimate source of the sensation. Like a physical itch, the mental itch of déjà vu likely has many causes, experts say. Probably the strongest theory, with some experimental backing, is that the false familiarity isn’t a sign of faulty memory, so much as it’s a sign of a well-functioning brain that actively fact-checks itself. Human memory is notoriously faulty and malleable; this theory holds that déjà vu occurs as our brains’ frontal regions evaluate our memories and flag an error. Another explanation for déjà vu, with some experimental findings to back it up, is that our stored memories still influence our present perception even if we can’t consciously recall them. A 2012 study that immersed participants in different virtual reality scenes saw most report déjà vu when viewing a scene that appeared similar to a previous one — even if they could not directly recall the earlier scene or its similarity. They just found the new scene inexplicably familiar. Other explanations for déjà vu are more speculative. One suggests that déjà vu occurs when a familiar object appears incongruously. Seeing known objects or people out of context or unexpectedly is when familiarity strikes us, not seeing them within the usual, expected context. For instance, seeing your building’s security guard at the gate wouldn’t feel familiar — it just is; but seeing him at a restaurant might bring feelings of familiarity, even if you can’t place him. In the moment of out-of-context perception, our brains process the familiarity of known things first, even if we don’t consciously recognize them, and that initial familiarity can color our perception of the whole otherwise-unfamiliar experience. But ultimately, the mechanisms behind the creeping been-here-done-this-before feeling are as mysterious as the sensation itself. But one thing scientists know for sure: déjà vu becomes more common when we are stressed and tired.   Q. Which of the following is NOT one of the theories attempting to explain deja-vu?

Solution:

In the passage, the author presents three theories that attempt to explain the occurrence of Deja-vu;

1)Deja-vu isn’t a sign of faulty memory, so much as it’s a sign of a well-functioning brain that actively fact-checks itself.

2)Our stored memories still influence our present perception even if we can’t consciously recall them.

3)Déjà vu occurs when a familiar object appears incongruously.

Options A, C and D are valid.

Option B is close to the first theory but incorrect. The author does not say that the two regions have conflicting responses to the same stimuli. The second half of the option is out of the scope of the passage.

QUESTION: 4

Déjà vu — French for “already seen” — is a mental sensation of intense familiarity coupled with the awareness that the familiarity is mistaken. It’s a recognition we know is wrong, a memory we know doesn’t exist. This conflict between what we know and what we remember is why déjà vu feels so eerie — almost paranormal or out-of-body. This awareness is very common. Déjà vu is almost impossible to study — people are rarely hooked up to electrodes or undergoing internal scans when they experience it — so most information about the sensation comes from self-reports, which suggest at least two-thirds of people will experience this fleeting mental trickery at some point in their lives. People who travel often or who watch a lot of movies may be more prone to déjà vu than others who don’t. The sensation does not seem to occur before age 8-9 (or perhaps children younger than that don’t have the ability to describe it), and experiences of déjà vu become less common as we age.

But as for why we experience déjà vu at all — that’s less clear. Multiple theories attempt to explain it, with each being a potentially legitimate source of the sensation. Like a physical itch, the mental itch of déjà vu likely has many causes, experts say.

Probably the strongest theory, with some experimental backing, is that the false familiarity isn’t a sign of faulty memory, so much as it’s a sign of a well-functioning brain that actively fact-checks itself. Human memory is notoriously faulty and malleable; this theory holds that déjà vu occurs as our brains’ frontal regions evaluate our memories and flag an error.

Another explanation for déjà vu, with some experimental findings to back it up, is that our stored memories still influence our present perception even if we can’t consciously recall them. A 2012 study that immersed participants in different virtual reality scenes saw most report déjà vu when viewing a scene that appeared similar to a previous one — even if they could not directly recall the earlier scene or its similarity. They just found the new scene inexplicably familiar.

Other explanations for déjà vu are more speculative. One suggests that déjà vu occurs when a familiar object appears incongruously. Seeing known objects or people out of context or unexpectedly is when familiarity strikes us, not seeing them within the usual, expected context. For instance, seeing your building’s security guard at the gate wouldn’t feel familiar — it just is; but seeing him at a restaurant might bring feelings of familiarity, even if you can’t place him. In the moment of out-of-context perception, our brains process the familiarity of known things first, even if we don’t consciously recognize them, and that initial familiarity can color our perception of the whole otherwise-unfamiliar experience. But ultimately, the mechanisms behind the creeping been-here-done-this-before feeling are as mysterious as the sensation itself. But one thing scientists know for sure: déjà vu becomes more common when we are stressed and tired.

Q. In the first paragraph, what is the "conflict" that the author refers to?

Solution:

The author makes the following observation-"This conflict between what we know and what we remember is why déjà vu feels so eerie — almost paranormal or out-of-body." The person is aware that the memory doesn't exist but is still trying to discern if he remembers correctly and whether his awareness is indeed true. Option B conveys this inference and is the answer.

All other options are either tangential to the discussion or do not convey the above point.

Option C is wrong. The author does not mention the simultaneous nature of sensation and awareness.

Options A is extraneous to the discussion.

Option D is an exaggeration where it says that people doubt their sense of reality.

QUESTION: 5

Déjà vu — French for “already seen” — is a mental sensation of intense familiarity coupled with the awareness that the familiarity is mistaken. It’s a recognition we know is wrong, a memory we know doesn’t exist. This conflict between what we know and what we remember is why déjà vu feels so eerie — almost paranormal or out-of-body. This awareness is very common. Déjà vu is almost impossible to study — people are rarely hooked up to electrodes or undergoing internal scans when they experience it — so most information about the sensation comes from self-reports, which suggest at least two-thirds of people will experience this fleeting mental trickery at some point in their lives. People who travel often or who watch a lot of movies may be more prone to déjà vu than others who don’t. The sensation does not seem to occur before age 8-9 (or perhaps children younger than that don’t have the ability to describe it), and experiences of déjà vu become less common as we age.

But as for why we experience déjà vu at all — that’s less clear. Multiple theories attempt to explain it, with each being a potentially legitimate source of the sensation. Like a physical itch, the mental itch of déjà vu likely has many causes, experts say.

Probably the strongest theory, with some experimental backing, is that the false familiarity isn’t a sign of faulty memory, so much as it’s a sign of a well-functioning brain that actively fact-checks itself. Human memory is notoriously faulty and malleable; this theory holds that déjà vu occurs as our brains’ frontal regions evaluate our memories and flag an error.

Another explanation for déjà vu, with some experimental findings to back it up, is that our stored memories still influence our present perception even if we can’t consciously recall them. A 2012 study that immersed participants in different virtual reality scenes saw most report déjà vu when viewing a scene that appeared similar to a previous one — even if they could not directly recall the earlier scene or its similarity. They just found the new scene inexplicably familiar.

Other explanations for déjà vu are more speculative. One suggests that déjà vu occurs when a familiar object appears incongruously. Seeing known objects or people out of context or unexpectedly is when familiarity strikes us, not seeing them within the usual, expected context. For instance, seeing your building’s security guard at the gate wouldn’t feel familiar — it just is; but seeing him at a restaurant might bring feelings of familiarity, even if you can’t place him. In the moment of out-of-context perception, our brains process the familiarity of known things first, even if we don’t consciously recognize them, and that initial familiarity can color our perception of the whole otherwise-unfamiliar experience. But ultimately, the mechanisms behind the creeping been-here-done-this-before feeling are as mysterious as the sensation itself. But one thing scientists know for sure: déjà vu becomes more common when we are stressed and tired.

Q. Which of the following statements best expresses the overall argument of this passage?

Solution:

In the last paragraph, the author makes the following observation- " But ultimately, the mechanisms behind the creeping been-here-done-this-before feeling are as mysterious as the sensation itself." So, even though the author discusses certain common theories that attempt to explain the existence of deja-vu, the sensation and its cause is still a mystery, according to the author.

Option A states this very idea and is the answer.

No single theory has been able to explain the mechanism of deja-vu conclusively. Hence, it is not possible to term it a 'subjective experience'. Option B can be eliminated.

Option C contradicts what the author states in the last paragraph- the mechanism is still a mystery. Additionally, the author does not attribute deja-vu to the imperfect functioning of the brain. Hence, Option C is incorrect.

Option D is a distortion. In the first paragraph, the author does state that "People who travel often or who watch a lot of movies may be more prone to déjà vu than others who don’t." However, this is a probabilistic statement and not a categorical conclusion. Furthermore, the statement does not expand on the enigmatic nature of deja-vu.

QUESTION: 6

Plato was one of the first and most influential thinkers to address the problem of tyranny. He argued that democratic states are destined to collapse into tyranny. He believed that democratic forms of government create a licentious and undisciplined populace who are easy prey for smooth-talking politicians skilled in the art of pandering to their desires. He tells us that such politicians entice the masses with unhealthy promises rather than nourishing the public good.

Consider the work of the German sociologist Max Weber who developed the concept of ‘charismatic authority’ - a ‘certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities’. Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers. The rising tyrant has a special, almost magical aura. His followers believe that he can work miracles and transform their lives.

Sigmund Freud was wrestling with similar ideas focusing on the psychological dynamics of followership. There are two main themes that stand out. First, Freud argued that those who are attracted to authoritarian leaders idealise them. The leader is seen as an exemplary, heroic human being shorn of every serious flaw. Second, he argued that followers identify with the leader by substituting him for what Freud called the ego ideal. The ego ideal is a mental representation of one’s guiding values. It consists of beliefs about right and wrong, what is obligatory and what is impermissible. It is our moral compass: essentially the same as one’s conscience. In taking the place of their ego ideal, the authoritarian leader becomes the conscience of his followers, and his voice becomes the voice of their conscience.

The fact that the community of followers has a common identification with the authoritarian leader has another important consequence. The followers identify with one another as parts of a ‘movement’, and they experience themselves as merging into a collective whole. This intoxicating sense of unity, and the subordination of personal self-interest to a greater cause, is a very important component of authoritarian systems.

Religious convictions are Freud’s prime examples of delusions. They are, he wrote, ‘fulfillments of the oldest, strongest, and most urgent wishes of mankind. The wishes that underpin religious belief have to do with deliverance from human helplessness. We are vulnerable to the forces of nature, such as disease, natural disasters and ultimately death, and also to the acts of other human beings who can harm us, kill us or treat us unjustly. There are clear links between Freud’s analysis of the religious impulse, and psychological forces at play in the political sphere. Politics is, explicitly, a response to human vulnerability. Our deepest hopes and fears permeate the political arena, and this makes us susceptible to political illusions, which are often clung to with such impassioned tenacity, and so refractory to reasoned argument, that they fit Freud’s characterisation of delusions. From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions. Like God himself, the leader is omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent. His words define the horizons of reality. He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil.

Q. Authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions in that:

Solution:

The following excerpt enables us to determine the correct choice: "...From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions. Like God himself, the leader is omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent. His words define the horizons of reality. He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil..."

Option A: The author doesn't assert that authoritarian leaders exploit our vulnerabilities; nor does he label the followers as politically disillusioned. Hence, Option A is not implied.

Option B: The author does not mention any expectation, on the part of the followers, concerning deliverance from human helplessness. While he highlights how this facet forms the root of our vulnerabilities, he does not use this to correlate authoritarian systems and monotheistic religion. Thus, Option B can be rejected.

Option C: This aspect is presented as a belief of the followers and not as a true capability of the leader; the author does not assert that authoritarian leaders have the capacity to "define horizons of reality" (this is how the followers perceive them to be). The statement here appears to be definitive, and hence, goes beyond the scope of the discussion. Thus, Option C can be discarded.

Option D: This highlights one of the points that the author mentions: "...He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil..."

Hence, Option D is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 7

Plato was one of the first and most influential thinkers to address the problem of tyranny. He argued that democratic states are destined to collapse into tyranny. He believed that democratic forms of government create a licentious and undisciplined populace who are easy prey for smooth-talking politicians skilled in the art of pandering to their desires. He tells us that such politicians entice the masses with unhealthy promises rather than nourishing the public good.

Consider the work of the German sociologist Max Weber who developed the concept of ‘charismatic authority’ - a ‘certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities’. Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers. The rising tyrant has a special, almost magical aura. His followers believe that he can work miracles and transform their lives.

Sigmund Freud was wrestling with similar ideas focusing on the psychological dynamics of followership. There are two main themes that stand out. First, Freud argued that those who are attracted to authoritarian leaders idealise them. The leader is seen as an exemplary, heroic human being shorn of every serious flaw. Second, he argued that followers identify with the leader by substituting him for what Freud called the ego ideal. The ego ideal is a mental representation of one’s guiding values. It consists of beliefs about right and wrong, what is obligatory and what is impermissible. It is our moral compass: essentially the same as one’s conscience. In taking the place of their ego ideal, the authoritarian leader becomes the conscience of his followers, and his voice becomes the voice of their conscience.

The fact that the community of followers has a common identification with the authoritarian leader has another important consequence. The followers identify with one another as parts of a ‘movement’, and they experience themselves as merging into a collective whole. This intoxicating sense of unity, and the subordination of personal self-interest to a greater cause, is a very important component of authoritarian systems.

Religious convictions are Freud’s prime examples of delusions. They are, he wrote, ‘fulfillments of the oldest, strongest, and most urgent wishes of mankind. The wishes that underpin religious belief have to do with deliverance from human helplessness. We are vulnerable to the forces of nature, such as disease, natural disasters and ultimately death, and also to the acts of other human beings who can harm us, kill us or treat us unjustly. There are clear links between Freud’s analysis of the religious impulse, and psychological forces at play in the political sphere. Politics is, explicitly, a response to human vulnerability. Our deepest hopes and fears permeate the political arena, and this makes us susceptible to political illusions, which are often clung to with such impassioned tenacity, and so refractory to reasoned argument, that they fit Freud’s characterisation of delusions. From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions. Like God himself, the leader is omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent. His words define the horizons of reality. He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil.

Q. The purpose of the first three paragraphs is to

Solution:

The author highlights how Plato was one of the first eminent thinkers to deliberate on the concept of tyranny. His opinion on this topic is discussed briefly in the first paragraph. This is followed by Weber's version of the same subject in the second paragraph. The author mentions the idea of a 'charismatic leader' and relates it to the underlying beliefs of the followers of a tyrant. Subsequently, the author discusses two main ideas stemming from Freud's study of the psychological dynamics of followership. The ideas are briefly presented in the third paragraph, followed by their implications (in the fourth paragraph). Thus, the author intends to describe the manner in which different eminent thinkers have conceptualised the idea of tyranny and followership. Option B aptly captures this point.

Option A: The author does not attempt to contrast 'a modern take' on tyranny and an 'earlier/older version'. Neither of these categories has been understandably identified in the passage. Hence, Option A can be eliminated.

Option C: The statement here has subtle distortions and differs in the intended meaning. Plato has been labelled as "one of the first and most influential thinkers to address the problem of tyranny". Additionally, the claim in C implies that he is followed by Weber and Freud as perhaps the second and third individuals who worked on the idea of followership - a point that is not backed by any information. Thus, Option C can be rejected.

Option D: We cannot perceive the author's attitude as alarmed or concerned, nor does he attribute the establishment of authoritarian regimes to deluded followers. Hence, Option D can be discarded as the potential choice.

Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 8

Plato was one of the first and most influential thinkers to address the problem of tyranny. He argued that democratic states are destined to collapse into tyranny. He believed that democratic forms of government create a licentious and undisciplined populace who are easy prey for smooth-talking politicians skilled in the art of pandering to their desires. He tells us that such politicians entice the masses with unhealthy promises rather than nourishing the public good.

Consider the work of the German sociologist Max Weber who developed the concept of ‘charismatic authority’ - a ‘certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities’. Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers. The rising tyrant has a special, almost magical aura. His followers believe that he can work miracles and transform their lives.

Sigmund Freud was wrestling with similar ideas focusing on the psychological dynamics of followership. There are two main themes that stand out. First, Freud argued that those who are attracted to authoritarian leaders idealise them. The leader is seen as an exemplary, heroic human being shorn of every serious flaw. Second, he argued that followers identify with the leader by substituting him for what Freud called the ego ideal. The ego ideal is a mental representation of one’s guiding values. It consists of beliefs about right and wrong, what is obligatory and what is impermissible. It is our moral compass: essentially the same as one’s conscience. In taking the place of their ego ideal, the authoritarian leader becomes the conscience of his followers, and his voice becomes the voice of their conscience.

The fact that the community of followers has a common identification with the authoritarian leader has another important consequence. The followers identify with one another as parts of a ‘movement’, and they experience themselves as merging into a collective whole. This intoxicating sense of unity, and the subordination of personal self-interest to a greater cause, is a very important component of authoritarian systems.

Religious convictions are Freud’s prime examples of delusions. They are, he wrote, ‘fulfillments of the oldest, strongest, and most urgent wishes of mankind. The wishes that underpin religious belief have to do with deliverance from human helplessness. We are vulnerable to the forces of nature, such as disease, natural disasters and ultimately death, and also to the acts of other human beings who can harm us, kill us or treat us unjustly. There are clear links between Freud’s analysis of the religious impulse, and psychological forces at play in the political sphere. Politics is, explicitly, a response to human vulnerability. Our deepest hopes and fears permeate the political arena, and this makes us susceptible to political illusions, which are often clung to with such impassioned tenacity, and so refractory to reasoned argument, that they fit Freud’s characterisation of delusions. From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions. Like God himself, the leader is omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent. His words define the horizons of reality. He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil.

Q. All of the following have not been discussed in the passage except:

Solution:

Option A: The statement here coincide with the discussion undertaken in the following excerpt: "...There are clear links between Freud’s analysis of the religious impulse, and psychological forces at play in the political sphere. Politics is, explicitly, a response to human vulnerability. Our deepest hopes and fears permeate the political arena, and this makes us susceptible to political illusions, which are often clung to with such impassioned tenacity, and so refractory to reasoned argument, that they fit Freud’s characterisation of delusions..." Hence, Option A has been discussed in the passage.

Option B: The author mentions that: "Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers." However, we notice no cause-effect relationship presented; nor does the author shed light on the claim made in the latter half of Option B. Thus, we can reject B as the potential answer.

Option C: The author makes the following comments: "...Religious convictions are Freud’s prime examples of delusions. They are, he wrote, ‘fulfillments of the oldest, strongest, and most urgent wishes of mankind. The wishes that underpin religious belief have to do with deliverance from human helplessness..." However, he does not contrast political convictions with the aforementioned idea; they are not presented as opposing elements but instead have similar underlying drivers. Hence, the comparison is C is not presented, and hence, we can eliminate it.

Option D: No such assertion has been made in the passage and thus, we can eliminate D.

Hence, Option A is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 9

Plato was one of the first and most influential thinkers to address the problem of tyranny. He argued that democratic states are destined to collapse into tyranny. He believed that democratic forms of government create a licentious and undisciplined populace who are easy prey for smooth-talking politicians skilled in the art of pandering to their desires. He tells us that such politicians entice the masses with unhealthy promises rather than nourishing the public good.

Consider the work of the German sociologist Max Weber who developed the concept of ‘charismatic authority’ - a ‘certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities’. Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers. The rising tyrant has a special, almost magical aura. His followers believe that he can work miracles and transform their lives.

Sigmund Freud was wrestling with similar ideas focusing on the psychological dynamics of followership. There are two main themes that stand out. First, Freud argued that those who are attracted to authoritarian leaders idealise them. The leader is seen as an exemplary, heroic human being shorn of every serious flaw. Second, he argued that followers identify with the leader by substituting him for what Freud called the ego ideal. The ego ideal is a mental representation of one’s guiding values. It consists of beliefs about right and wrong, what is obligatory and what is impermissible. It is our moral compass: essentially the same as one’s conscience. In taking the place of their ego ideal, the authoritarian leader becomes the conscience of his followers, and his voice becomes the voice of their conscience.

The fact that the community of followers has a common identification with the authoritarian leader has another important consequence. The followers identify with one another as parts of a ‘movement’, and they experience themselves as merging into a collective whole. This intoxicating sense of unity, and the subordination of personal self-interest to a greater cause, is a very important component of authoritarian systems.

Religious convictions are Freud’s prime examples of delusions. They are, he wrote, ‘fulfillments of the oldest, strongest, and most urgent wishes of mankind. The wishes that underpin religious belief have to do with deliverance from human helplessness. We are vulnerable to the forces of nature, such as disease, natural disasters and ultimately death, and also to the acts of other human beings who can harm us, kill us or treat us unjustly. There are clear links between Freud’s analysis of the religious impulse, and psychological forces at play in the political sphere. Politics is, explicitly, a response to human vulnerability. Our deepest hopes and fears permeate the political arena, and this makes us susceptible to political illusions, which are often clung to with such impassioned tenacity, and so refractory to reasoned argument, that they fit Freud’s characterisation of delusions. From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions. Like God himself, the leader is omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent. His words define the horizons of reality. He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil.

Q. Which of the following cannot be said to be true based on the passage?

I. Submission of personal objectives for a greater collective cause is an essential feature of authoritarian regimes.

II. According to the author, oppositions of the authoritarian leader are allies of evil.

III. Followers of monotheistic religions are highly supportive of authoritarian political systems.

Solution:

Statement I: We observe that the author has discussed this point in the passage: "This intoxicating sense of unity, and the subordination of personal self-interest to a greater cause, is a very important component of authoritarian systems.". Hence, Statement I is true.

Statement II: "He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil." The above lines from the passage covey a general idea/perception concerning similarities between an authoritarian government and monotheistic religion; it does not reflect the author's opinion. The author is simply describing the common underlying beliefs.

Statement III: "From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions." The author draws a parallel between these two setups. However, it has not been implied that followers of monotheistic religions would be highly supportive of authoritarian political systems; we do not have sufficient information to substantiate this claim.

Hence, Option C is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 10

Plato was one of the first and most influential thinkers to address the problem of tyranny. He argued that democratic states are destined to collapse into tyranny. He believed that democratic forms of government create a licentious and undisciplined populace who are easy prey for smooth-talking politicians skilled in the art of pandering to their desires. He tells us that such politicians entice the masses with unhealthy promises rather than nourishing the public good.

Consider the work of the German sociologist Max Weber who developed the concept of ‘charismatic authority’ - a ‘certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities’. Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers. The rising tyrant has a special, almost magical aura. His followers believe that he can work miracles and transform their lives.

Sigmund Freud was wrestling with similar ideas focusing on the psychological dynamics of followership. There are two main themes that stand out. First, Freud argued that those who are attracted to authoritarian leaders idealise them. The leader is seen as an exemplary, heroic human being shorn of every serious flaw. Second, he argued that followers identify with the leader by substituting him for what Freud called the ego ideal. The ego ideal is a mental representation of one’s guiding values. It consists of beliefs about right and wrong, what is obligatory and what is impermissible. It is our moral compass: essentially the same as one’s conscience. In taking the place of their ego ideal, the authoritarian leader becomes the conscience of his followers, and his voice becomes the voice of their conscience.

The fact that the community of followers has a common identification with the authoritarian leader has another important consequence. The followers identify with one another as parts of a ‘movement’, and they experience themselves as merging into a collective whole. This intoxicating sense of unity, and the subordination of personal self-interest to a greater cause, is a very important component of authoritarian systems.

Religious convictions are Freud’s prime examples of delusions. They are, he wrote, ‘fulfillments of the oldest, strongest, and most urgent wishes of mankind. The wishes that underpin religious belief have to do with deliverance from human helplessness. We are vulnerable to the forces of nature, such as disease, natural disasters and ultimately death, and also to the acts of other human beings who can harm us, kill us or treat us unjustly. There are clear links between Freud’s analysis of the religious impulse, and psychological forces at play in the political sphere. Politics is, explicitly, a response to human vulnerability. Our deepest hopes and fears permeate the political arena, and this makes us susceptible to political illusions, which are often clung to with such impassioned tenacity, and so refractory to reasoned argument, that they fit Freud’s characterisation of delusions. From this perspective, authoritarian political systems echo monotheistic religions. Like God himself, the leader is omniscient, omnipotent and omnibenevolent. His words define the horizons of reality. He must be praised and appeased, but never challenged. His enemies are, by definition, in league with the forces of evil.

Q.  A commonality between Weber's and Freud's observations on the dynamics of followership would be:

Solution:

Weber comments the following with regard to followers and their perception of a tyrant: "Charismatic leaders inspire devotion, and are regarded as prophetic figures by their followers. The rising tyrant has a special, almost magical aura. His followers believe that he can work miracles and transform their lives." One of the two main ideas presented by Freud concerning the 'psychological dynamics of followership' coincides with Weber's claim: "There are two main themes that stand out. First, Freud argued that those who are attracted to authoritarian leaders idealise them. The leader is seen as an exemplary, heroic human being shorn of every serious flaw. " Thus, the adulation of the leader by the (misguided) followers is where the ideas of Weber and Freud find common ground. Option B captures this point correctly.

Option A: While the author does discuss the glorification of the leader as a part of Freud's idea, he does not delve into the source of this belief. In the case of Weber's description, we understand that a major factor contributing to the unwarranted admiration is the belief among the followers that the leader "can work miracles and transform their lives."  Hence, we cannot consider this point as a common point.

Option C: The statement here reflects the second point made by Freud concerning the 'ego ideal. Weber, however, has not discussed such an idea in his portrait of a 'charismatic leader'. Hence, we can eliminate Option C as the potential answer.

Option D: This has been presented as an important consequence of the ideas discussed by Freud. We cannot say the same concerning Weber and can, therefore, discard this choice.

Thus, Option B is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 11

Authenticity, which in its modern sense dates back to the Romantics of the late 18th century, has never had a single meaning. In much of our everyday usage, the term means something more or less analogous to the way that we speak of an object being authentic - as the genuine article, not a copy or a fake. We think of people as authentic when they’re being themselves, consistent with their own personality and without pretence or pretending.

But, as an ethical ideal...authenticity means more than self-consistency or a lack of pretentiousness. It also concerns features of the inner life that define us. While there is no one ‘essence’ of authenticity, the ideal has often been expressed as a commitment to being true to yourself, and ordering your soul and living your life so as to give faithful expression to your individuality, cherished projects and deepest convictions. Authenticity in this ethical sense also had a critical edge, standing against and challenging the utilitarian practices and conformist tendencies of the conventional social and economic order. Society erects barriers that the authentic person must break through. Finding your true self means self-reflection, engaging in candid self-appraisal and seeking ‘genuine self-knowledge’, in the words of the American philosopher Charles Guignon.

In his book The Society of Singularities (2017), the German social theorist Andreas Reckwitz argues that a larger ‘authenticity revolution’ has swept the world during the past 40 years. Authenticity has become an obligation. Reckwitz captures this conundrum with the paradoxical concept of ‘performative authenticity’. Authenticity, in this sense, is the way to be because to be ‘somebody’ is to develop your unique self, your differentness from others and your noninterchangeable life.

Performative authenticity is tied to economic success and social prestige, which means - and this is a further paradoxical feature - that your specialness and self-realisation have to be performed. In order for people to distinguish themselves, they must seek attention and visibility, and positively affect others with their self-representations, personal characteristics and quality of life. In doing so, they have to take great care that their performance isn’t perceived as staged.

Performative authenticity shares with older, inner conceptions of authenticity the notion that each of us has our own unique way of being in the world. But the concepts otherwise diverge. The inner ideal aims at a way of being that is unfeigned and without illusions. It resists the cultivation of an affirming audience, because being a ‘whole’ person, with a noninstrumental relation to self and others, is often at odds with the demands of society. In the performative mode, by contrast, this tension between self and society disappears. Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind.

Performing your difference isn’t necessarily a zero-sum game. Markets and digital technologies have greatly expanded the infrastructure of possibilities. It is, however, a competition for scarce attention that requires continuous assessment and feedback, and offers little respite. Even if you pull off a good performance, there’s a need to be flexible, to be ready to reinvent your difference. There’s always the danger of becoming inconspicuous.

Q. Which of the following best describes the reason why the author terms the concept 'performative authenticity' paradoxical?

Solution:

In the second and third paragraphs, the author advances the point that authenticity is intricately linked with self-realisation and self-appraisal, i.e., staying true to oneself. Hence, when someone 'performs' or 'builds' an authentic self that conforms to expectations, it is simply not authentic because authenticity is a natural state of being, not a manufactured one.

Comparing the options, only option B conveys this point.

Options A and D have not been implied in the passage. Option C is not incorrect but does not convey the larger point.

QUESTION: 12

Authenticity, which in its modern sense dates back to the Romantics of the late 18th century, has never had a single meaning. In much of our everyday usage, the term means something more or less analogous to the way that we speak of an object being authentic - as the genuine article, not a copy or a fake. We think of people as authentic when they’re being themselves, consistent with their own personality and without pretence or pretending.

But, as an ethical ideal...authenticity means more than self-consistency or a lack of pretentiousness. It also concerns features of the inner life that define us. While there is no one ‘essence’ of authenticity, the ideal has often been expressed as a commitment to being true to yourself, and ordering your soul and living your life so as to give faithful expression to your individuality, cherished projects and deepest convictions. Authenticity in this ethical sense also had a critical edge, standing against and challenging the utilitarian practices and conformist tendencies of the conventional social and economic order. Society erects barriers that the authentic person must break through. Finding your true self means self-reflection, engaging in candid self-appraisal and seeking ‘genuine self-knowledge’, in the words of the American philosopher Charles Guignon.

In his book The Society of Singularities (2017), the German social theorist Andreas Reckwitz argues that a larger ‘authenticity revolution’ has swept the world during the past 40 years. Authenticity has become an obligation. Reckwitz captures this conundrum with the paradoxical concept of ‘performative authenticity’. Authenticity, in this sense, is the way to be because to be ‘somebody’ is to develop your unique self, your differentness from others and your noninterchangeable life.

Performative authenticity is tied to economic success and social prestige, which means - and this is a further paradoxical feature - that your specialness and self-realisation have to be performed. In order for people to distinguish themselves, they must seek attention and visibility, and positively affect others with their self-representations, personal characteristics and quality of life. In doing so, they have to take great care that their performance isn’t perceived as staged.

Performative authenticity shares with older, inner conceptions of authenticity the notion that each of us has our own unique way of being in the world. But the concepts otherwise diverge. The inner ideal aims at a way of being that is unfeigned and without illusions. It resists the cultivation of an affirming audience, because being a ‘whole’ person, with a noninstrumental relation to self and others, is often at odds with the demands of society. In the performative mode, by contrast, this tension between self and society disappears. Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind.

Performing your difference isn’t necessarily a zero-sum game. Markets and digital technologies have greatly expanded the infrastructure of possibilities. It is, however, a competition for scarce attention that requires continuous assessment and feedback, and offers little respite. Even if you pull off a good performance, there’s a need to be flexible, to be ready to reinvent your difference. There’s always the danger of becoming inconspicuous.

Q. According to Charles Guignon, finding one's true self involves all of the following, EXCEPT:

Solution:

{Finding your true self means self-reflection, engaging in candid self-appraisal and seeking ‘genuine self-knowledge’, in the words of the American philosopher Charles Guignon."}. So, self-reflection, self-appraisal and seeking self-knowledge are the three activities associated with finding one's true self, according to Charles Guignon.

Options A, B and C convey these activities. Option D has not been implied explicitly in the passage. Hence, option D is the answer.

Option A talks about bonafide knowledge of one's characteristics, which is the same as, genuine self-knowledge.

Option B discusses introspection, part of self-realisation.

Self-appraisal refers to one's worth and significance. Option C conveys this

QUESTION: 13

Authenticity, which in its modern sense dates back to the Romantics of the late 18th century, has never had a single meaning. In much of our everyday usage, the term means something more or less analogous to the way that we speak of an object being authentic - as the genuine article, not a copy or a fake. We think of people as authentic when they’re being themselves, consistent with their own personality and without pretence or pretending.

But, as an ethical ideal...authenticity means more than self-consistency or a lack of pretentiousness. It also concerns features of the inner life that define us. While there is no one ‘essence’ of authenticity, the ideal has often been expressed as a commitment to being true to yourself, and ordering your soul and living your life so as to give faithful expression to your individuality, cherished projects and deepest convictions. Authenticity in this ethical sense also had a critical edge, standing against and challenging the utilitarian practices and conformist tendencies of the conventional social and economic order. Society erects barriers that the authentic person must break through. Finding your true self means self-reflection, engaging in candid self-appraisal and seeking ‘genuine self-knowledge’, in the words of the American philosopher Charles Guignon.

In his book The Society of Singularities (2017), the German social theorist Andreas Reckwitz argues that a larger ‘authenticity revolution’ has swept the world during the past 40 years. Authenticity has become an obligation. Reckwitz captures this conundrum with the paradoxical concept of ‘performative authenticity’. Authenticity, in this sense, is the way to be because to be ‘somebody’ is to develop your unique self, your differentness from others and your noninterchangeable life.

Performative authenticity is tied to economic success and social prestige, which means - and this is a further paradoxical feature - that your specialness and self-realisation have to be performed. In order for people to distinguish themselves, they must seek attention and visibility, and positively affect others with their self-representations, personal characteristics and quality of life. In doing so, they have to take great care that their performance isn’t perceived as staged.

Performative authenticity shares with older, inner conceptions of authenticity the notion that each of us has our own unique way of being in the world. But the concepts otherwise diverge. The inner ideal aims at a way of being that is unfeigned and without illusions. It resists the cultivation of an affirming audience, because being a ‘whole’ person, with a noninstrumental relation to self and others, is often at odds with the demands of society. In the performative mode, by contrast, this tension between self and society disappears. Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind.

Performing your difference isn’t necessarily a zero-sum game. Markets and digital technologies have greatly expanded the infrastructure of possibilities. It is, however, a competition for scarce attention that requires continuous assessment and feedback, and offers little respite. Even if you pull off a good performance, there’s a need to be flexible, to be ready to reinvent your difference. There’s always the danger of becoming inconspicuous.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author LEAST likely to agree with?

Solution:

Option A: In the second paragraph, the author states that "...as an ethical ideal...authenticity means more than self-consistency or a lack of pretentiousness." So, though it is not limited to self-consistency, it is still an essential feature. And a self-consistent person would react similarly in familiar situations. Hence option A can be inferred. The author is bound to stand by his claim, and hence, we can eliminate this choice.

Option B: "...Authenticity in this ethical sense also had a critical edge, standing against and challenging the utilitarian practices and conformist tendencies of the conventional social and economic order. Society erects barriers that the authentic person must break through..." Thus, Option B echoes the author's opinion and can be eliminated as the potential answer.

Option C: The author highlights the difference between performative and inner authenticity in the following manner: "...The inner ideal aims at a way of being that is unfeigned and without illusions. It resists the cultivation of an affirming audience, because being a ‘whole’ person, with a noninstrumental relation to self and others, is often at odds with the demands of society. In the performative mode, by contrast, this tension between self and society disappears. Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind..." The author does not present a cause-effect relationship concerning performative authenticity not requiring external validation and the "disappearance of tension between the self and the society". He mentions that inner authenticity disregards or does not demand the "cultivation of an affirming audience" and the opposite applies to performative authenticity. Thus, performative authenticity does require an audience. Hence, the author is unlikely to agree with the statement in C since it conflicts with his assertions.

Option D: "...In the performative mode, by contrast, this tension between self and society disappears. Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind..." Option D can be inferred from these lines. Even in the performative mode, self-examination is necessary.

Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 14

Authenticity, which in its modern sense dates back to the Romantics of the late 18th century, has never had a single meaning. In much of our everyday usage, the term means something more or less analogous to the way that we speak of an object being authentic - as the genuine article, not a copy or a fake. We think of people as authentic when they’re being themselves, consistent with their own personality and without pretence or pretending.

But, as an ethical ideal...authenticity means more than self-consistency or a lack of pretentiousness. It also concerns features of the inner life that define us. While there is no one ‘essence’ of authenticity, the ideal has often been expressed as a commitment to being true to yourself, and ordering your soul and living your life so as to give faithful expression to your individuality, cherished projects and deepest convictions. Authenticity in this ethical sense also had a critical edge, standing against and challenging the utilitarian practices and conformist tendencies of the conventional social and economic order. Society erects barriers that the authentic person must break through. Finding your true self means self-reflection, engaging in candid self-appraisal and seeking ‘genuine self-knowledge’, in the words of the American philosopher Charles Guignon.

In his book The Society of Singularities (2017), the German social theorist Andreas Reckwitz argues that a larger ‘authenticity revolution’ has swept the world during the past 40 years. Authenticity has become an obligation. Reckwitz captures this conundrum with the paradoxical concept of ‘performative authenticity’. Authenticity, in this sense, is the way to be because to be ‘somebody’ is to develop your unique self, your differentness from others and your noninterchangeable life.

Performative authenticity is tied to economic success and social prestige, which means - and this is a further paradoxical feature - that your specialness and self-realisation have to be performed. In order for people to distinguish themselves, they must seek attention and visibility, and positively affect others with their self-representations, personal characteristics and quality of life. In doing so, they have to take great care that their performance isn’t perceived as staged.

Performative authenticity shares with older, inner conceptions of authenticity the notion that each of us has our own unique way of being in the world. But the concepts otherwise diverge. The inner ideal aims at a way of being that is unfeigned and without illusions. It resists the cultivation of an affirming audience, because being a ‘whole’ person, with a noninstrumental relation to self and others, is often at odds with the demands of society. In the performative mode, by contrast, this tension between self and society disappears. Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind.

Performing your difference isn’t necessarily a zero-sum game. Markets and digital technologies have greatly expanded the infrastructure of possibilities. It is, however, a competition for scarce attention that requires continuous assessment and feedback, and offers little respite. Even if you pull off a good performance, there’s a need to be flexible, to be ready to reinvent your difference. There’s always the danger of becoming inconspicuous.

Q. The inner and performative modes of authenticity differ in all of the following ways, EXCEPT:

Solution:

In the second paragraph, the author makes the following observation about inner mode - {Authenticity in this ethical sense also had a critical edge, standing against and challenging the utilitarian practices and conformist tendencies of the conventional social and economic order.} Furthermore, in the fourth paragraph, the author states that "Performative authenticity is tied to economic success and social prestige" Hence, option B can be inferred.

{Performative authenticity is tied to economic success and social prestige, which means... that your specialness and self-realisation have to be performed...The inner ideal aims at a way of being that is unfeigned and without illusions.} Option C can be inferred from these lines.

In the penultimate paragraph, the author remarks the following about performative mode-{Self-elaboration still requires self-examination, but not necessarily of any inner or even aesthetic kind.} Option D can be inferred as well.

This leaves us with option A. The former part of option A is true- {...they must ...positively affect others with their self-representations, personal characteristics and quality of life.}

However, the latter part has not been implied in the passage. The inner mode resists the cultivation of an affirming audience, true, but this cannot be equated to a lack of desire to affect others positively.

QUESTION: 15

Dinosaur and fossil aficionados are intimately familiar with the meteorite strike that drove Tyrannosaurus rex and all nonavian dinosaurs to extinction around 66 million years ago. But it is often overlooked that the impact also wiped out entire ecosystems. A new study shows how those casualties, in turn, led to another particularly profound evolutionary outcome: the emergence of the Amazon rain forest of South America, the most spectacularly diverse environment on the planet. Yet the Amazon’s bounty of tropical species and habitats now face their own existential threat because of unprecedented destruction from human activity, including land clearing for agriculture.
Modern-day rain forests are integral to life on Earth. The Amazon, in particular, plays a crucial role in regulating the planet’s freshwater cycle and climate. Yet Western European and North American palaeontologists have paid little attention to tropical forests, focusing instead on temperate latitudes. Many academic and amateur fossil hunters have also tended to write off warm, wet locales as a lost cause for finds because they have assumed that conditions there would prevent organic materials from being preserved long enough to fossilize. “It’s this combination of factors that has led us to this absence of much data in the tropics,” says Bonnie Jacobs, a paleobiologist at Southern Methodist University.
Scientists already knew that the effects of the meteorite collision and its aftermath—at least in temperate zones—varied with local conditions and distance from the Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. New Zealand forests, for example, escaped relatively unscathed. But researchers have had no idea how the event changed the tropical rain forests of Africa or, until now, those of South America.
The new study, published in Science, analyzed tens of thousands of plant fossils and "represents a fundamental advance in knowledge,” says Peter Wilf, a geoscientist at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in the research. The findings paint a picture of a sudden, cataclysmic annihilation of life after the impact—but also of a phoenix-like rebirth in the millions of years afterward. Prior to the meteorite, the authors determined, South America’s forests featured many conifers and a brightly lit open canopy supporting a lush understory of ferns. Dinosaurs likely played key roles in maintaining these Cretaceous forests by knocking down trees and clearing out vegetation, among other things. Within moments of the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact, however, this ecosystem was irrevocably altered. Fires, which likely burned for several years, engulfed South America’s southerly forests.
It took six million years for the forests to return to the level of diversity they had before the meteorite, and the species that slowly grew back were completely different than what came before. Legumes—plants that form symbiotic relationships with bacteria that allow them to fix nitrogen from the air—were the first to appear, and they enriched the formerly nutrient-poor soil. This influx of nitrogen, along with phosphorus from the meteorite’s ash, enabled other flowering plants to thrive alongside the legumes and to displace conifers. As flowering species competed for light, they formed dense canopies of leaves and created the layered Amazon rain forest we know today.

Q. Which of the following statements is definitely TRUE according to the passage?

Solution:

In the first paragraph, the author states that the meteorite strike wiped out non-avian dinosaurs. However, the author does not discuss the fate of avian dinosaurs in the passage. Option A cannot be inferred.

The author states the following: "But researchers have had no idea how the event changed the tropical rain forests of Africa or, until now, those of South America." In the penultimate paragraph, the author notes that "Within moments of the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact, however, this ecosystem was irrevocably altered." This description, however, is only limited to South America's forest ecosystems. The author then extends on how these ecosystems changed drastically. However, no information is provided concerning forests in Africa; the author focuses solely on the alterations in the tropical rainforests of South America. Hence, Option B can be eliminated.

"Yet Western European and North American palaeontologists have paid little attention to tropical forests". This statement, however, does not imply that Asian and African palaeontologists majorly carried out the research. Option C can be eliminated as well.

{" Prior to the meteorite, the authors determined, South America’s forests featured many conifers and a brightly lit open canopy...As flowering species competed for light, they formed dense canopies of leaves and created the layered Amazon rain forest we know today.}

So, before the meteorite strike, the forests had open canopies, while currently, they have dense canopies. Option D can be inferred.

Hence, Option D is the correct choice.

QUESTION: 16

Dinosaur and fossil aficionados are intimately familiar with the meteorite strike that drove Tyrannosaurus rex and all nonavian dinosaurs to extinction around 66 million years ago. But it is often overlooked that the impact also wiped out entire ecosystems. A new study shows how those casualties, in turn, led to another particularly profound evolutionary outcome: the emergence of the Amazon rain forest of South America, the most spectacularly diverse environment on the planet. Yet the Amazon’s bounty of tropical species and habitats now face their own existential threat because of unprecedented destruction from human activity, including land clearing for agriculture.
Modern-day rain forests are integral to life on Earth. The Amazon, in particular, plays a crucial role in regulating the planet’s freshwater cycle and climate. Yet Western European and North American palaeontologists have paid little attention to tropical forests, focusing instead on temperate latitudes. Many academic and amateur fossil hunters have also tended to write off warm, wet locales as a lost cause for finds because they have assumed that conditions there would prevent organic materials from being preserved long enough to fossilize. “It’s this combination of factors that has led us to this absence of much data in the tropics,” says Bonnie Jacobs, a paleobiologist at Southern Methodist University.
Scientists already knew that the effects of the meteorite collision and its aftermath—at least in temperate zones—varied with local conditions and distance from the Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. New Zealand forests, for example, escaped relatively unscathed. But researchers have had no idea how the event changed the tropical rain forests of Africa or, until now, those of South America.
The new study, published in Science, analyzed tens of thousands of plant fossils and "represents a fundamental advance in knowledge,” says Peter Wilf, a geoscientist at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in the research. The findings paint a picture of a sudden, cataclysmic annihilation of life after the impact—but also of a phoenix-like rebirth in the millions of years afterward. Prior to the meteorite, the authors determined, South America’s forests featured many conifers and a brightly lit open canopy supporting a lush understory of ferns. Dinosaurs likely played key roles in maintaining these Cretaceous forests by knocking down trees and clearing out vegetation, among other things. Within moments of the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact, however, this ecosystem was irrevocably altered. Fires, which likely burned for several years, engulfed South America’s southerly forests.
It took six million years for the forests to return to the level of diversity they had before the meteorite, and the species that slowly grew back were completely different than what came before. Legumes—plants that form symbiotic relationships with bacteria that allow them to fix nitrogen from the air—were the first to appear, and they enriched the formerly nutrient-poor soil. This influx of nitrogen, along with phosphorus from the meteorite’s ash, enabled other flowering plants to thrive alongside the legumes and to displace conifers. As flowering species competed for light, they formed dense canopies of leaves and created the layered Amazon rain forest we know today.

Q. According to the passage, academic and amateur fossil hunters paid little attention to tropical forests because:

Solution:

{Many academic and amateur fossil hunters have also tended to write off warm, wet locales as a lost cause for finds because they have assumed that conditions there would prevent organic materials from being preserved long enough to fossilize.} From this line, it can be inferred that they believed the tropical climate did not favour the fossilization of organic materials. Comparing the options, option C conveys this inference.

All other options are either distorted or do not convey the above point, central to the discussion.

QUESTION: 17

Dinosaur and fossil aficionados are intimately familiar with the meteorite strike that drove Tyrannosaurus rex and all nonavian dinosaurs to extinction around 66 million years ago. But it is often overlooked that the impact also wiped out entire ecosystems. A new study shows how those casualties, in turn, led to another particularly profound evolutionary outcome: the emergence of the Amazon rain forest of South America, the most spectacularly diverse environment on the planet. Yet the Amazon’s bounty of tropical species and habitats now face their own existential threat because of unprecedented destruction from human activity, including land clearing for agriculture.
Modern-day rain forests are integral to life on Earth. The Amazon, in particular, plays a crucial role in regulating the planet’s freshwater cycle and climate. Yet Western European and North American palaeontologists have paid little attention to tropical forests, focusing instead on temperate latitudes. Many academic and amateur fossil hunters have also tended to write off warm, wet locales as a lost cause for finds because they have assumed that conditions there would prevent organic materials from being preserved long enough to fossilize. “It’s this combination of factors that has led us to this absence of much data in the tropics,” says Bonnie Jacobs, a paleobiologist at Southern Methodist University.
Scientists already knew that the effects of the meteorite collision and its aftermath—at least in temperate zones—varied with local conditions and distance from the Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. New Zealand forests, for example, escaped relatively unscathed. But researchers have had no idea how the event changed the tropical rain forests of Africa or, until now, those of South America.
The new study, published in Science, analyzed tens of thousands of plant fossils and "represents a fundamental advance in knowledge,” says Peter Wilf, a geoscientist at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in the research. The findings paint a picture of a sudden, cataclysmic annihilation of life after the impact—but also of a phoenix-like rebirth in the millions of years afterward. Prior to the meteorite, the authors determined, South America’s forests featured many conifers and a brightly lit open canopy supporting a lush understory of ferns. Dinosaurs likely played key roles in maintaining these Cretaceous forests by knocking down trees and clearing out vegetation, among other things. Within moments of the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact, however, this ecosystem was irrevocably altered. Fires, which likely burned for several years, engulfed South America’s southerly forests.
It took six million years for the forests to return to the level of diversity they had before the meteorite, and the species that slowly grew back were completely different than what came before. Legumes—plants that form symbiotic relationships with bacteria that allow them to fix nitrogen from the air—were the first to appear, and they enriched the formerly nutrient-poor soil. This influx of nitrogen, along with phosphorus from the meteorite’s ash, enabled other flowering plants to thrive alongside the legumes and to displace conifers. As flowering species competed for light, they formed dense canopies of leaves and created the layered Amazon rain forest we know today.

Q. Which of the following statements CAN be inferred from the passage?

I. The tropical rain forest ecosystem would not have developed had the dinosaurs not gone extinct.

II. Location of the impact crater is crucial to understanding the effects of the meteoritic collision.

III. The effects of the collision on African tropical rain forests were not known until recently.

IV. Fires caused by the meteoritic collision led to the depletion of soil nutrients.

Solution:

In the penultimate paragraph, the author states that dinosaurs played a crucial role in maintaining the pre-meteoritic ecosystem. However, it has not been implied that their extinction was necessary for the new ecosystem to develop. It was merely a chain of events. Statment I cannot be inferred.

{Scientists already knew that the effects of the meteorite collision and its aftermath—at least in temperate zones—varied with local conditions and distance from the Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula.} Hence, the effects varied with distance from the crater. So the location of the crater is important. Statement II can be inferred.

{But researchers have had no idea how the event changed the tropical rain forests of Africa or, until now, those of South America.} The study is centred on the effects of the collision on South American forests. The effects on African tropical forests remain a mystery. Statement III is wrong.

Though the soil was deficient in nutrients for a long-time after the collision, the exact cause for this depletion has not been discussed in the passage. Statement iv cannot be inferred.

QUESTION: 18

Dinosaur and fossil aficionados are intimately familiar with the meteorite strike that drove Tyrannosaurus rex and all nonavian dinosaurs to extinction around 66 million years ago. But it is often overlooked that the impact also wiped out entire ecosystems. A new study shows how those casualties, in turn, led to another particularly profound evolutionary outcome: the emergence of the Amazon rain forest of South America, the most spectacularly diverse environment on the planet. Yet the Amazon’s bounty of tropical species and habitats now face their own existential threat because of unprecedented destruction from human activity, including land clearing for agriculture.
Modern-day rain forests are integral to life on Earth. The Amazon, in particular, plays a crucial role in regulating the planet’s freshwater cycle and climate. Yet Western European and North American palaeontologists have paid little attention to tropical forests, focusing instead on temperate latitudes. Many academic and amateur fossil hunters have also tended to write off warm, wet locales as a lost cause for finds because they have assumed that conditions there would prevent organic materials from being preserved long enough to fossilize. “It’s this combination of factors that has led us to this absence of much data in the tropics,” says Bonnie Jacobs, a paleobiologist at Southern Methodist University.
Scientists already knew that the effects of the meteorite collision and its aftermath—at least in temperate zones—varied with local conditions and distance from the Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. New Zealand forests, for example, escaped relatively unscathed. But researchers have had no idea how the event changed the tropical rain forests of Africa or, until now, those of South America.
The new study, published in Science, analyzed tens of thousands of plant fossils and "represents a fundamental advance in knowledge,” says Peter Wilf, a geoscientist at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in the research. The findings paint a picture of a sudden, cataclysmic annihilation of life after the impact—but also of a phoenix-like rebirth in the millions of years afterward. Prior to the meteorite, the authors determined, South America’s forests featured many conifers and a brightly lit open canopy supporting a lush understory of ferns. Dinosaurs likely played key roles in maintaining these Cretaceous forests by knocking down trees and clearing out vegetation, among other things. Within moments of the Chicxulub meteorite’s impact, however, this ecosystem was irrevocably altered. Fires, which likely burned for several years, engulfed South America’s southerly forests.
It took six million years for the forests to return to the level of diversity they had before the meteorite, and the species that slowly grew back were completely different than what came before. Legumes—plants that form symbiotic relationships with bacteria that allow them to fix nitrogen from the air—were the first to appear, and they enriched the formerly nutrient-poor soil. This influx of nitrogen, along with phosphorus from the meteorite’s ash, enabled other flowering plants to thrive alongside the legumes and to displace conifers. As flowering species competed for light, they formed dense canopies of leaves and created the layered Amazon rain forest we know today.

Q. According to the passage, all of the following aided in the emergence of the Amazon rainforest ecosystem, EXCEPT:

Solution:

The passage does not discuss the impact of rainfall anywhere. Hence, option C is the answer.

All the other options can be inferred from the information presented in the last paragraph. {This influx of nitrogen, along with phosphorus from the meteorite’s ash, enabled other flowering plants to thrive alongside the legumes and to displace conifers. As flowering species competed for light, they formed dense canopies of leaves and created the layered Amazon rain forest we know today.}

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS for the question: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. Competition is the driving force behind the real benefits such systems achieve, but the logic of competition also imprisons its players to stay within their roles.
2. Liberal democracy is like capitalism, a game designed to make its players compete against each other for points and prizes.
3. As a result, democracies are surprisingly vulnerable to take over, as we have seen from the recent examples of Turkey, Hungary, and India.
4. It is no one's job to defend the system of rules governing that competition.

Solution:

After reading the given collection of statements, we identify that the core of the discussion appears to be liberal democracies and the inherent limitations associated with them. Statement 2 (independent sentence) first introduces us to this subject and sets the context, comparing liberal democracy to capitalism and subsequently to a competition/game. Sentence 1 follows 2 because the phrase 'such systems' (in 1) refers to liberal democracy and capitalism, discussed in the opening sentence. The author also describes the limitation originating from such competition: "imprisons its players to stay within their roles". Sentence 4 follows 1- 'that competition' (in 4) refers to the competition described in 1. Additionally, it adds to the preceding point that discusses the limitations. Finally, 3 ends the paragraph as it discusses a consequence of the drawback mentioned in 4. Hence, 2143 is the answer.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS for the question: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. By definition, parasites live in or on a host and take something from that host.
2. Scientists warn of dire consequences if we disregard the rest.
3. This has made them the pariahs of the animal world.
4. But not all parasites cause noticeable harm to their hosts, and only a small percentage affect humans.

Solution:

Sentence 1 is the opening line, as it introduces the subject of discussion-parasites. 3 follows 1. Because of the behaviour mentioned in 1, parasites are seen as pariahs or outcasts. 42 form a bloc. 4 discusses the other side associated with parasites and why they may not be all bad. And 2 builds on 4, urging us to consider this other side.  Hence, the correct order is 1342

QUESTION: 21

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

The magnitude of plastic packaging that is used and casually discarded — air pillows, Bubble Wrap, shrink wrap, envelopes, bags — portends gloomy consequences. These single-use items are primarily made from polyethylene, though vinyl is also used. In marine environments, this plastic waste can cause disease and death for coral, fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Plastic debris is often mistaken for food, and microplastics release chemical toxins as they degrade. Data suggests that plastics have infiltrated human food webs and placentas. These plastics have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system, which releases hormones into the bloodstream that help control growth and development during childhood, among many other important processes.

Solution:

The passage predicts the dreary consequences of mounting plastic waste; it infiltrates both marine and human food webs. It causes disease and death in marine organisms, whereas by infiltrating human food webs, it inhibits growth and development during childhood.

Option A focuses on plastic usage, whereas the author is more concerned about plastic waste. Option A can be eliminated.

Option B talks about the effect on the quality of life, which has not been implied in the passage.

Option C covers all the key points discussed above. Option C is the answer.

Option D is close but is too narrow as it mentions only unprocessed plastic. The author does not make an explicit distinction.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 22

DIRECTIONS for the question: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

• The Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the paradox that while we are more connected, we are also more divided.
• The age of individualism is passing.
• A politics that strengthens belonging can reverse the excesses of individualism.
• Now Covid-19 has highlighted our mutual dependence on one another and a desire for community.
• The past 50 years in the West saw a celebration of unfettered freedom.

Solution:

Going through the sentences, we understand that the passage talks about how the Covid-19 pandemic has made people realise the importance and need for a community. Sentence 3, however, is extreme and does not fit the context as it talks about undoing the excesses of individualism. The other sentences do not talk about the drawbacks of individualism.

Sentence 2 is the opening sentence. Th author makes a claim: 'The age of individualism is passing'. The subsequent statements try to justify this assertion by highlighting the changing times. In this regard, sentences 5-4 forms a bloc. 5 talks about the situation before the pandemic, and 4 builds on that, describing the current scenario. 1 expands on the idea presented in 4, i.e., the importance of community. Hence, 2541 form a coherent paragraph. Statement 3 discusses politics and its role in staving off "excesses of individualism" - an idea that cannot be associated with any other sentence.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 23

The question consists of two sentences, each with an italicised word. Mark the appropriate answer.
A. The minimal energy requirement for you to carry out basic bodily functions is one thousand two hundred calories.
B. The minimum age of the string of race horses participating in this year's Derby is two years.
1. if the use of the word in statement one is correct, but in two it is not
2. if the use of the word in statement two is correct, but in one it is not
3. if the use of the words in both sentences is correct
4. if the use of the words in both sentences is incorrect

Solution:

A 'minimum' value is 'the least value' that any element in a data set can take.
A 'minimal' value is the measure of the item 'of least value' in a data set.
For example, in a set of natural numbers, the minimum value that a number can take is 1. But if the elements of a set of natural numbers are 3,4, 5 and 9, the minimal value of the set is 3.
'Minimal' is an adjective and 'Minimum' may be used as a noun or as an adjective.
Both words have been used incorrectly in the respective sentences. Therefore, statements A and B can be correctly written as.
A. The minimum energy requirement for you to carry out basic bodily functions is one thousand two hundred calories.
B. The minimal age of the string of race horses participating in this year's Derby is two years.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 24

Choose the correct word which will fit from among the two given words in the sets of five sentences given below.
The principal enjoyed the quietude [A] / tranquility [B] of retirement.
The minister surpassed [A] / superseded [B] the king, assuming more political and military power than the king ever had.
The situation was exasperated [A] / exacerbated [B] as the police arrived late on the scene of the accident.
Some of the top brass of the police force consists of percipient [A] / perceptible [B] officers.
The previous government had a more practical [A] / pragmatic [B] plan to tackle terrorism.
1. AAAAB
2. AABAB
3. AABBB
4. ABBAB

Solution:

The correct answer is (2). In the first sentence, quietude and tranquility although are very similar in meaning, quietude is a more correct word to describe the state of a human mind/soul. Moreover, the answer options give the answer away. In the second sentence, the second half talks of the minister having more power, hence surpassed is the correct choice here. Superseded means to replace in power or authority but the second half of this sentence does not lend support to this word. In the third sentence, exacerbate is correct. It means to worsen a condition or a situation. Exasperate means to annoy or irritate someone. This is a common error in usage. Percipient is the quality of being capable of perceiving whereas perceptible refers to something that can be perceived or recognized. In this sentence, since the adjective is describing the officers, the correct word is percipient. In the last sentence, although both words are very similar in meaning, pragmatic is a better word to describe an approach. In this case the government's approach or plan to handle something.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 25

CEOs of 8 companies came together to have a meeting to discuss the business practices followed in their industry. The names of the CEOs were Achraj, Bibhu, Chandan, Dhanush, Eelam, Farhan, Gautam and Harish. A circular table was booked for the meeting in a banquet hall with had 8 equally-spaced chairs for the CEOs to sit. Each CEO came to the meeting in a different car and is from a different native city. The following things are known about their seating arrangement.

1. The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.
2. Harish came in BMW
3. Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi.
4. Eelam is the CEO of the rival company of Harish and hence sits exactly opposite to him. Also, Eelam  is sitting next to the CEO who is from Guwahati and drives Honda City
5. CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad
6. Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish.
7. Chandan who drives Honda City is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad. One of the CEO is from Erode
8. Farhan came to the meeting in Camaro and sits opposite Gautam who came to the meeting in Lancer
9. CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad
10. There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi
11. Guy from Agra has BMW owner  as his neighbour on the table
12. Bibhu drives Fortuner and sits opposite Chandan.lo

Q. How many seating arrangement are possible?

Solution:

We observe that in the above information, a lot of information is given about Harish and hence it'll be better to start by placing him on the table

We know the following things

> Harish came in BMW

> Eelam sits exact opposite Harish

> Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish

All can be shown as

Furthermore, we know

>  The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.

>CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi

> Eelam is sitting next to the CEO  from Guwahati who also drives Honda City

> Chandan who drives Hondacity is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad and Eelam is not from Hyderabad

> There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad

> CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad

>  Guy from Agra has BMW owners as his neighbour on the table

>Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi nor Agra. It implies Dhanush has to be from Bangalore

>It implies Achraj is from Erode

Furthermore, we know that Farhan came in Camaro and Gautam in Lancer. But we know know their native so we can not uniquely determine the seating arrangements.

Overall there are 2 possible seating arrangements

QUESTION: 26

CEOs of 8 companies came together to have a meeting to discuss the business practices followed in their industry. The names of the CEOs were Achraj, Bibhu, Chandan, Dhanush, Eelam, Farhan, Gautam and Harish. A circular table was booked for the meeting in a banquet hall with had 8 equally-spaced chairs for the CEOs to sit. Each CEO came to the meeting in a different car and is from a different native city. The following things are known about their seating arrangement.

1. The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.
2. Harish came in BMW
3. Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi.
4. Eelam is the CEO of the rival company of Harish and hence sits exactly opposite to him. Also, Eelam  is sitting next to the CEO who is from Guwahati and drives Honda City
5. CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad
6. Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish.
7. Chandan who drives Honda City is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad. One of the CEO is from Erode
8. Farhan came to the meeting in Camaro and sits opposite Gautam who came to the meeting in Lancer
9. CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad
10. There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi
11. Guy from Agra has BMW owner  as his neighbour on the table
12. Bibhu drives Fortuner and sits opposite Chandan.lo

Q. Who is from Erode?

Solution:

We observe that in the above information, a lot of information is given about Harish and hence it'll be better to start by placing him on the table

We know the following things

> Harish came in BMW

> Eelam sits exact opposite Harish

> Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish

All can be shown as

Furthermore, we know

>  The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi

> Eelam is sitting next to the CEO  from Guwahati who also drives Honda City

> Chandan who drives Hondacity is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad and Eelam is not from Hyderabad

> There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad

> CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad

> Guy from Agra has BMW owners as his neighbour on the table

> Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi nor Agra. It implies Dhanush has to be from Bangalore

> It implies Achraj is from Erode

Furthermore, we know that Farhan came in Camaro and Gautam in Lancer. But we know know their native so we can not uniquely determine the seating arrangements.

Achraj is from Erode.

QUESTION: 27

CEOs of 8 companies came together to have a meeting to discuss the business practices followed in their industry. The names of the CEOs were Achraj, Bibhu, Chandan, Dhanush, Eelam, Farhan, Gautam and Harish. A circular table was booked for the meeting in a banquet hall with had 8 equally-spaced chairs for the CEOs to sit. Each CEO came to the meeting in a different car and is from a different native city. The following things are known about their seating arrangement.

1. The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.
2. Harish came in BMW
3. Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi.
4. Eelam is the CEO of the rival company of Harish and hence sits exactly opposite to him. Also, Eelam  is sitting next to the CEO who is from Guwahati and drives Honda City
5. CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad
6. Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish.
7. Chandan who drives Honda City is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad. One of the CEO is from Erode
8. Farhan came to the meeting in Camaro and sits opposite Gautam who came to the meeting in Lancer
9. CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad
10. There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi
11. Guy from Agra has BMW owner  as his neighbour on the table
12. Bibhu drives Fortuner and sits opposite Chandan.lo

Q. Which of the following is definitely the correct combination of the CEO's car and his native place?

Solution:

We observe that in the above information, a lot of information is given about Harish and hence it'll be better to start by placing him on the table

We know the following things

> Harish came in BMW

> Eelam sits exact opposite Harish

> Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish

All can be shown as

Furthermore, we know

>  The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi

> Eelam is sitting next to the CEO  from Guwahati who also drives Honda City

> Chandan who drives Hondacity is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad and Eelam is not from Hyderabad

> There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad

> CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad

>  Guy from Agra has BMW owners as his neighbour on the table

> Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi nor Agra. It implies Dhanush has to be from Bangalore

> It implies Achraj is from Erode

Furthermore, we know that Farhan came in Camaro and Gautam in Lancer. But we know know their native so we can not uniquely determine the seating arrangements.

Option A may or may not be correct. We do not have sufficient information to conclude it. But option C is definitely true

QUESTION: 28

CEOs of 8 companies came together to have a meeting to discuss the business practices followed in their industry. The names of the CEOs were Achraj, Bibhu, Chandan, Dhanush, Eelam, Farhan, Gautam and Harish. A circular table was booked for the meeting in a banquet hall with had 8 equally-spaced chairs for the CEOs to sit. Each CEO came to the meeting in a different car and is from a different native city. The following things are known about their seating arrangement.

1. The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.
2. Harish came in BMW
3. Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi.
4. Eelam is the CEO of the rival company of Harish and hence sits exactly opposite to him. Also, Eelam  is sitting next to the CEO who is from Guwahati and drives Honda City
5. CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad
6. Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish.
7. Chandan who drives Honda City is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad. One of the CEO is from Erode
8. Farhan came to the meeting in Camaro and sits opposite Gautam who came to the meeting in Lancer
9. CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad
10. There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi
11. Guy from Agra has BMW owner  as his neighbour on the table
12. Bibhu drives Fortuner and sits opposite Chandan.lo

Q. How many people are sitting between guy from Delhi and Dhanush

Solution:

We observe that in the above information, a lot of information is given about Harish and hence it'll be better to start by placing him on the table

We know the following things

> Harish came in BMW

> Eelam sits exact opposite Harish

> Achraj drives Mercedes and is 3 places left of Harish

All can be shown as

Furthermore, we know

>  The person from Bangalore is sitting opposite the CEO who came in Mercedes.

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi

> Eelam is sitting next to the CEO  from Guwahati who also drives Honda City

> Chandan who drives Hondacity is sitting next to a person who is from Hyderabad and Eelam is not from Hyderabad

> There is exactly 1 person between Harish and the CEO from Delhi

> CEO whose native is Bangalore drives an Audi and sits next to the CEO who is from Faizabad

> CEO who came in Jaguar is from Chennai and sits opposite to the person from Faizabad

>  Guy from Agra has BMW owners as his neighbour on the table

> Dhanush is neither from Hyderabad nor Delhi nor Agra. It implies Dhanush has to be from Bangalore

> It implies Achraj is from Erode

Furthermore, we know that Farhan came in Camaro and Gautam in Lancer. But we know know their native so we can not uniquely determine the seating arrangements.

Exaclty 2 people are sitting between the CEO from Delhi and Dhanush.

QUESTION: 29

There are 4 cricketers, A , B, C, D, each having a different age among 24, 28, 32 and 36 years. Also, they have 4 different roles among a left-hand batsman, a right-hand batsman, a spinner and a fast bowler. It is known that only one of them is a truth-teller, and also, there is at least one each of an alternator and a liar. A truth-teller always speaks the truth, a liar always lies and an alternator always alternates between a truth and a lie. Each of them says 3-4 statements as recorded below.

A: 1) I am not a spinner.
2) I am 32 years old.
3) B is not a liar.
4) C is not a left-hand batsman.

B: 1) A is not a liar.
2) D is a liar.
3) C is 32 years old.

C: 1) I am a truth-teller.
2) I am 36 years old.
3) B is 32 years old.
4) A is a liar.

D: 1) C is not a liar.
2) C is not 36 years old.
3) I am 28 years old.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow:

Q. Who is the spinner?

Solution:

In the given problem set, we have been provided with the information that there is one truth-teller, at least one liar and at least one alternator. Let us assume each of them as a truth-teller separately and follow the other hints to reach a final conclusion.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

In this particular case, all his statements are true, he is not a spinner, he is 32 years old, B is not a liar and C is not a left-hand batsman. Also, since B is not a liar, he must be an alternator since there is only one truth-teller, which is A.  Hence, we can represent them as follows:

In the above representation, TT - truth-teller, L - liar, A - alternator, S - spinner, FB - Fast Bowler, LHB - left-hand batsman, RHB - right-hand batsman. ~ - not(negation)

Now, since B is an alternator, let us analyze his statements. B's first statement is that A is not a liar, which is true. Hence his second statement must be false and the third statement must be true. The third statement is C is 2 years old, which must be true, but in the arrangement, we already have A as 32 years old. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller

In this particular case, B's statements are true. So, A is not a liar, D is a liar and C is 32 years old. If A is not a liar, he must be an alternator, because there can be only one truth-teller. Hence, we can represent them as follows:

Now, let us analyze A's statements. His third statement is B is not a liar which is true. Hence, his first statement should be true, and his second and fourth statements should be false. Hence, A is not a spinner, A is not 32 years old and C is a left-hand batsman.

Considering C's statements, C says that he is a truth-teller, which is not true since there is only one truth-teller. Hence the first statement is a lie. His second statement is he is 36 years old, but we already know that he is 32 years old from the arrangement, hence this is also a lie. Hence, C is a liar. His third statement is B is 3 years old is a lie as well and his fourth statement is that A is a liar, which is again a lie. So, we don't get any additional information apart from the fact that C is a liar.

Considering D's statements, the first statement is C is not a liar, which is a lie. His second statement is C is not 36 years old, which is true, hence he is an alternator. But the arrangement says that D is a liar. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

C's statements are true. Therefore, C is 36 years old, B is 32 years old, A is a liar.

Since A is a liar, let us analyze his statements. A says he is not a spinner, so he is actually the spinner. He says he is 32 years old, so he is not 32 years old., he says B is not a liar, hence B is a liar. He also says C is not a left-handed batsman, hence C is a left-handed batsman.

There must be at least one alternator, so D is the alternator.

Since D is an alternator, and his first statement that C is not a liar is true, his second statement must be a lie and his third statement must be true. Hence his second statement that C is not 36 years old is a lie and his third statement that he is 28 years old is true.

Therefore, the age of A is 24 years.

This is a possible arrangement.

Case 4: Let D be the truth-teller.

D's statements must be true. Hence C is not a liar, C is not 36 years old and D is 28 years old.

Now, since C is an alternator, his first statement that he is a truth-teller is false. Hence his second statement that he is 36 years old is true. But the arrangement already shows that he is not 36 years old, hence this arrangement is invalidated.

So, we come up with the following arrangement:

Hence, A is the spinner.

QUESTION: 30

There are 4 cricketers, A , B, C, D, each having a different age among 24, 28, 32 and 36 years. Also, they have 4 different roles among a left-hand batsman, a right-hand batsman, a spinner and a fast bowler. It is known that only one of them is a truth-teller, and also, there is at least one each of an alternator and a liar. A truth-teller always speaks the truth, a liar always lies and an alternator always alternates between a truth and a lie. Each of them says 3-4 statements as recorded below.

A: 1) I am not a spinner.
2) I am 32 years old.
3) B is not a liar.
4) C is not a left-hand batsman.

B: 1) A is not a liar.
2) D is a liar.
3) C is 32 years old.

C: 1) I am a truth-teller.
2) I am 36 years old.
3) B is 32 years old.
4) A is a liar.

D: 1) C is not a liar.
2) C is not 36 years old.
3) I am 28 years old.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow:

Q. Who is the right-hand batsman?

Solution:

In the given problem set, we have been provided with the information that there is one truth-teller, at least one liar and at least one alternator. Let us assume each of them as a truth-teller separately and follow the other hints to reach a final conclusion.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

In this particular case, all his statements are true, he is not a spinner, he is 32 years old, B is not a liar and C is not a left-hand batsman. Also, since B is not a liar, he must be an alternator since there is only one truth-teller, which is A.  Hence, we can represent them as follows:

In the above representation, TT - truth-teller, L - liar, A - alternator, S - spinner, FB - Fast Bowler, LHB - left-hand batsman, RHB - right-hand batsman. ~ - not(negation)

Now, since B is an alternator, let us analyze his statements. B's first statement is that A is not a liar, which is true. Hence his second statement must be false and the third statement must be true. The third statement is C is 2 years old, which must be true, but in the arrangement, we already have A as 32 years old. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller

In this particular case, B's statements are true. So, A is not a liar, D is a liar and C is 32 years old. If A is not a liar, he must be an alternator, because there can be only one truth-teller. Hence, we can represent them as follows:

Now, let us analyze A's statements. His third statement is B is not a liar which is true. Hence, his first statement should be true, and his second and fourth statements should be false. Hence, A is not a spinner, A is not 32 years old and C is a left-hand batsman.

Considering C's statements, C says that he is a truth-teller, which is not true since there is only one truth-teller. Hence the first statement is a lie. His second statement is he is 36 years old, but we already know that he is 32 years old from the arrangement, hence this is also a lie. Hence, C is a liar. His third statement is B is 3 years old is a lie as well and his fourth statement is that A is a liar, which is again a lie. So, we don't get any additional information apart from the fact that C is a liar.

Considering D's statements, the first statement is C is not a liar, which is a lie. His second statement is C is not 36 years old, which is true, hence he is an alternator. But the arrangement says that D is a liar. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

C's statements are true. Therefore, C is 36 years old, B is 32 years old, A is a liar.

Since A is a liar, let us analyze his statements. A says he is not a spinner, so he is actually the spinner. He says he is 32 years old, so he is not 32 years old., he says B is not a liar, hence B is a liar. He also says C is not a left-handed batsman, hence C is a left-handed batsman.

There must be at least one alternator, so D is the alternator.

Since D is an alternator, and his first statement that C is not a liar is true, his second statement must be a lie and his third statement must be true. Hence his second statement that C is not 36 years old is a lie and his third statement that he is 28 years old is true.

Therefore, the age of A is 24 years.

This is a possible arrangement.

Case 4: Let D be the truth-teller.

D's statements must be true. Hence C is not a liar, C is not 36 years old and D is 28 years old.

Now, since C is an alternator, his first statement that he is a truth-teller is false. Hence his second statement that he is 36 years old is true. But the arrangement already shows that he is not 36 years old, hence this arrangement is invalidated.

So, we come up with the following arrangement:

Hence, B or D can be the right-hand batsman.

QUESTION: 31

There are 4 cricketers, A , B, C, D, each having a different age among 24, 28, 32 and 36 years. Also, they have 4 different roles among a left-hand batsman, a right-hand batsman, a spinner and a fast bowler. It is known that only one of them is a truth-teller, and also, there is at least one each of an alternator and a liar. A truth-teller always speaks the truth, a liar always lies and an alternator always alternates between a truth and a lie. Each of them says 3-4 statements as recorded below.

A: 1) I am not a spinner.
2) I am 32 years old.
3) B is not a liar.
4) C is not a left-hand batsman.

B: 1) A is not a liar.
2) D is a liar.
3) C is 32 years old.

C: 1) I am a truth-teller.
2) I am 36 years old.
3) B is 32 years old.
4) A is a liar.

D: 1) C is not a liar.
2) C is not 36 years old.
3) I am 28 years old.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow:

Q. What is the age(in years) of the left-hand batsman?

Solution:

In the given problem set, we have been provided with the information that there is one truth-teller, at least one liar and at least one alternator. Let us assume each of them as a truth-teller separately and follow the other hints to reach a final conclusion.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

In this particular case, all his statements are true, he is not a spinner, he is 32 years old, B is not a liar and C is not a left-hand batsman. Also, since B is not a liar, he must be an alternator since there is only one truth-teller, which is A.  Hence, we can represent them as follows:

In the above representation, TT - truth-teller, L - liar, A - alternator, S - spinner, FB - Fast Bowler, LHB - left-hand batsman, RHB - right-hand batsman. ~ - not(negation)

Now, since B is an alternator, let us analyze his statements. B's first statement is that A is not a liar, which is true. Hence his second statement must be false and the third statement must be true. The third statement is C is 2 years old, which must be true, but in the arrangement, we already have A as 32 years old. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller

In this particular case, B's statements are true. So, A is not a liar, D is a liar and C is 32 years old. If A is not a liar, he must be an alternator, because there can be only one truth-teller. Hence, we can represent them as follows:

Now, let us analyze A's statements. His third statement is B is not a liar which is true. Hence, his first statement should be true, and his second and fourth statements should be false. Hence, A is not a spinner, A is not 32 years old and C is a left-hand batsman.

Considering C's statements, C says that he is a truth-teller, which is not true since there is only one truth-teller. Hence the first statement is a lie. His second statement is he is 36 years old, but we already know that he is 32 years old from the arrangement, hence this is also a lie. Hence, C is a liar. His third statement is B is 3 years old is a lie as well and his fourth statement is that A is a liar, which is again a lie. So, we don't get any additional information apart from the fact that C is a liar.

Considering D's statements, the first statement is C is not a liar, which is a lie. His second statement is C is not 36 years old, which is true, hence he is an alternator. But the arrangement says that D is a liar. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

C's statements are true. Therefore, C is 36 years old, B is 32 years old, A is a liar.

Since A is a liar, let us analyze his statements. A says he is not a spinner, so he is actually the spinner. He says he is 32 years old, so he is not 32 years old., he says B is not a liar, hence B is a liar. He also says C is not a left-handed batsman, hence C is a left-handed batsman.

There must be at least one alternator, so D is the alternator.

Since D is an alternator, and his first statement that C is not a liar is true, his second statement must be a lie and his third statement must be true. Hence his second statement that C is not 36 years old is a lie and his third statement that he is 28 years old is true.

Therefore, the age of A is 24 years.

This is a possible arrangement.

Case 4: Let D be the truth-teller.

D's statements must be true. Hence C is not a liar, C is not 36 years old and D is 28 years old.

Now, since C is an alternator, his first statement that he is a truth-teller is false. Hence his second statement that he is 36 years old is true. But the arrangement already shows that he is not 36 years old, hence this arrangement is invalidated.

So, we come up with the following arrangement:

Hence, the left-hand batsman is 36 years old.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 32

There are 4 cricketers, A , B, C, D, each having a different age among 24, 28, 32 and 36 years. Also, they have 4 different roles among a left-hand batsman, a right-hand batsman, a spinner and a fast bowler. It is known that only one of them is a truth-teller, and also, there is at least one each of an alternator and a liar. A truth-teller always speaks the truth, a liar always lies and an alternator always alternates between a truth and a lie. Each of them says 3-4 statements as recorded below.

A: 1) I am not a spinner.
2) I am 32 years old.
3) B is not a liar.
4) C is not a left-hand batsman.

B: 1) A is not a liar.
2) D is a liar.
3) C is 32 years old.

C: 1) I am a truth-teller.
2) I am 36 years old.
3) B is 32 years old.
4) A is a liar.

D: 1) C is not a liar.
2) C is not 36 years old.
3) I am 28 years old.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow:

Q. For how many players can we uniquely identify their ages?

Solution:

In the given problem set, we have been provided with the information that there is one truth-teller, at least one liar and at least one alternator. Let us assume each of them as a truth-teller separately and follow the other hints to reach a final conclusion.

Case 1: Let A be the truth-teller.

In this particular case, all his statements are true, he is not a spinner, he is 32 years old, B is not a liar and C is not a left-hand batsman. Also, since B is not a liar, he must be an alternator since there is only one truth-teller, which is A.  Hence, we can represent them as follows:

In the above representation, TT - truth-teller, L - liar, A - alternator, S - spinner, FB - Fast Bowler, LHB - left-hand batsman, RHB - right-hand batsman. ~ - not(negation)

Now, since B is an alternator, let us analyze his statements. B's first statement is that A is not a liar, which is true. Hence his second statement must be false and the third statement must be true. The third statement is C is 2 years old, which must be true, but in the arrangement, we already have A as 32 years old. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 2: Let B be the truth-teller

In this particular case, B's statements are true. So, A is not a liar, D is a liar and C is 32 years old. If A is not a liar, he must be an alternator, because there can be only one truth-teller. Hence, we can represent them as follows:

Now, let us analyze A's statements. His third statement is B is not a liar which is true. Hence, his first statement should be true, and his second and fourth statements should be false. Hence, A is not a spinner, A is not 32 years old and C is a left-hand batsman.

Considering C's statements, C says that he is a truth-teller, which is not true since there is only one truth-teller. Hence the first statement is a lie. His second statement is he is 36 years old, but we already know that he is 32 years old from the arrangement, hence this is also a lie. Hence, C is a liar. His third statement is B is 3 years old is a lie as well and his fourth statement is that A is a liar, which is again a lie. So, we don't get any additional information apart from the fact that C is a liar.

Considering D's statements, the first statement is C is not a liar, which is a lie. His second statement is C is not 36 years old, which is true, hence he is an alternator. But the arrangement says that D is a liar. Hence, this case is not valid.

Case 3: Let C be the truth-teller.

C's statements are true. Therefore, C is 36 years old, B is 32 years old, A is a liar.

Since A is a liar, let us analyze his statements. A says he is not a spinner, so he is actually the spinner. He says he is 32 years old, so he is not 32 years old., he says B is not a liar, hence B is a liar. He also says C is not a left-handed batsman, hence C is a left-handed batsman.

There must be at least one alternator, so D is the alternator.

Since D is an alternator, and his first statement that C is not a liar is true, his second statement must be a lie and his third statement must be true. Hence his second statement that C is not 36 years old is a lie and his third statement that he is 28 years old is true.

Therefore, the age of A is 24 years.

This is a possible arrangement.

Case 4: Let D be the truth-teller.

D's statements must be true. Hence C is not a liar, C is not 36 years old and D is 28 years old.

Now, since C is an alternator, his first statement that he is a truth-teller is false. Hence his second statement that he is 36 years old is true. But the arrangement already shows that he is not 36 years old, hence this arrangement is invalidated.

So, we come up with the following arrangement:

We can uniquely identify the ages of all 4 players.

QUESTION: 33

DG Pvt Ltd is a multinational conglomerate that has many subsidiaries in various industries. In India, the company has penetration in 5 industries which are Apparel, IT, Telecom, Petroleum and Automobile. Raj is overseeing the overall function. He is supposed to present the annual report for the companies profits and expenses for the previous 3 years which will be reviewed by the Board. He made the following two charts which represent the percentage of revenue and expenses contributed by each of the five industries across the three years.

For the year 2019, the company had a profit percentage of 10%. Which of the following sectors had the maximum profit percentage.

Solution:

Let the revenue be R and expense be E. Profit is given to be 10% thus R−E​/E × 100% = 10%  or R = 1.1E

a) for the Apparels, revenue = 0.15R = 0.165 E. Expenses = 0.2 E. This one incurrred the loss and loss %  = × 100% = 17.5%

b) for IT, revenue  = 0.2R = 0.22 E. Expenses = 0.15 E. Total profit = 0.22E-0.15E = 0.07E. Profit % 0.07E/0.15E ​× 100% = 46.66%

c) for Telecom, revenue = 0.2R=0.22E and expense=0.3E. It is in loss

d) for Automobile, revenue = 0.15R=0.165E and expense = 0.1E. It is a profit of 0.165E-0.1E = 0.065E and profit% = 65%

e) for Petroleum, revenue = 0.3R =0.33E and expense = 0.25E. It is  a profit of  0.33E-0.25E = 0.08E. Profit% = 32%

The automobile has the maximum profit%

QUESTION: 34

DG Pvt Ltd is a multinational conglomerate that has many subsidiaries in various industries. In India, the company has penetration in 5 industries which are Apparel, IT, Telecom, Petroleum and Automobile. Raj is overseeing the overall function. He is supposed to present the annual report for the companies profits and expenses for the previous 3 years which will be reviewed by the Board. He made the following two charts which represent the percentage of revenue and expenses contributed by each of the five industries across the three years.

For 2019, the company had a profit percentage 10%. Which of the following sectors had the maximum profit compared to other departments

Solution:

Let the revenue be R and expense be E. Profit is given to be 10% thus R−E​/E × 100% = 10%  or R = 1.1E

a) for the Apparels, revenue = 0.15R = 0.165 E. Expenses = 0.2 E. This one incurrred the loss

b) for IT, revenue = 0.2R = 0.22 E. Expenses = 0.15 E. Total profit = 0.22E-0.15E = 0.07E.

c) for Telecom, revenue = 0.2R=0.22E and expense=0.3E. It is in loss

d) for Automobile, revenue = 0.15R=0.165E and expense = 0.1E. It is a profit of 0.165E-0.1E = 0.065E

e) for Petroleum, revenue = 0.3R =0.33E and expense = 0.25E. It is a profit of 0.33E-0.25E = 0.08E

Petroleum contributed the most to the profit

The maximum contribution to the profit is done by Petroleum

QUESTION: 35

DG Pvt Ltd is a multinational conglomerate that has many subsidiaries in various industries. In India, the company has penetration in 5 industries which are Apparel, IT, Telecom, Petroleum and Automobile. Raj is overseeing the overall function. He is supposed to present the annual report for the companies profits and expenses for the previous 3 years which will be reviewed by the Board. He made the following two charts which represent the percentage of revenue and expenses contributed by each of the five industries across the three years.

For the year 2020, the automobile sector had a profit percentage of 20%. What is the profit percentage of DG Pvt Ltd for the year 2020

Solution:
*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 36

DG Pvt Ltd is a multinational conglomerate that has many subsidiaries in various industries. In India, the company has penetration in 5 industries which are Apparel, IT, Telecom, Petroleum and Automobile. Raj is overseeing the overall function. He is supposed to present the annual report for the companies profits and expenses for the previous 3 years which will be reviewed by the Board. He made the following two charts which represent the percentage of revenue and expenses contributed by each of the five industries across the three years.

If for the year 2018 and 2020, the Apparel unit did not make any profit or loss. Then how many the other units were profitable for both years?

Solution:

Let us take the year 2018. Let the revenue be R1​ and expenses be E1​. We are given that:

Since no profit or loss was observed. Revenue = Expense for the Apparels.

Therefore 0.15R1 ​= 0.2E1​ or R1​ = 4/3 ​E1

Let us check for the other departments

a) For IT sector , Revenue = 0.15R1​ = 0.2E1​ and expense = 0.3E1​. Expense > Revenue hence a loss

b) For Petrloeum, revenue = 0.25R1​ = 0.33E1​ and expense = 0.2E1​. It is in profit

c) For automobile, revenue = 0.25R1​ = 0.33E1​ and expense = 0.15R1​. It is in profit

d) For Telecom, revenue = 0.2R1​ = 0.266E1​ and expense = 0.15E1​. It is in profit

For the year 2020, we have to check only for Petroleum, Automobile and Telecom whether they are in profit or not. (IT not considered as they are in loss already)

Let the revenue be R2​ and expenses be E2​. We are given that:

Since no profit or loss was observed. Revenue = Expense for the Apparels.

Therefore 0.2R​= 0.15E2​ or R2​ = 3/4​E2​

a) For Telecom, revenue = 0.25R2​ = 0.1875E2​ and expense = 0.2E2​. It is in loss

b) For Petrloeum, revenue = 0.2R​= 0.15E2​ and expense = 0.3E2​. It is in loss

c) For automobile, revenue = 0.1R2​ = 0.075E2​ and expense = 0.2R2​. It is in loss

Thus none of the sectors were profitable for both years

QUESTION: 37

DG Pvt Ltd is a multinational conglomerate that has many subsidiaries in various industries. In India, the company has penetration in 5 industries which are Apparel, IT, Telecom, Petroleum and Automobile. Raj is overseeing the overall function. He is supposed to present the annual report for the companies profits and expenses for the previous 3 years which will be reviewed by the Board. He made the following two charts which represent the percentage of revenue and expenses contributed by each of the five industries across the three years.

If for the year 2020, the Apparel unit did not make any profit or loss. Then what was profit/loss% for the IT  in the same year

Solution:

Let the revenue be R2​ and expenses be E2​. We are given that:

Since no profit or loss was observed. Revenue = Expense for the Apparels.

Therefore 0.2R = 0.15E or R = 3/4​E

For IT, revenue = 0.25R = 0.1875E and expense = 0.15E

Revenue > Cost so it is a profit.

Profit = 0.25R − 0.15E = 0.1875E − 0.15E = 0.0375E

QUESTION: 38

DG Pvt Ltd is a multinational conglomerate that has many subsidiaries in various industries. In India, the company has penetration in 5 industries which are Apparel, IT, Telecom, Petroleum and Automobile. Raj is overseeing the overall function. He is supposed to present the annual report for the companies profits and expenses for the previous 3 years which will be reviewed by the Board. He made the following two charts which represent the percentage of revenue and expenses contributed by each of the five industries across the three years.

If the petroleum department did not make any profit/loss for all the 3 years. For which all years, was the company not in profit?

Solution:

It is given that the Petroleum department did not make any profit/loss for all 3 years. It implies Revenue = Expense for petroleum depatment

Case I. Let us look at the year 2018. Let the revenue be R and expense be E.

Thus 0.25R = 0.2 E or R =0.8 E. Since Expense > Revenue, the company was in loss

Case II. For the year 2019. Let the revenue be RR and expense be E.

Thus 0.3 R = 0.25 E or 1.2R = E. Here Expense> Revenue so company was in loss

Case III For the year 2020. Let the revenue be R and expense be E.

0.2R = 0.3E  or R =1.5 E. Expense< Revenue so company was in profit

Thus company was not in profit for 2018 and 2019 but was in profit for 2020

QUESTION: 39

There are 6 students A, B, C, D, E, F who appeared in 6 different subjects, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Computer Science and English such that no two students appeared for the same subject. They got different marks from among 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 89 and their ranks in the particular subjects are among 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, such that no two people got the same rank. Also, the following information is known regarding these 6 students:

1. The numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.
2. 88 was scored in Biology.
3. 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.
4. The score in English was not 86.
5. 82 was not scored in Maths.
6. B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.
7. Neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.
8. C had scored 86, but not in Physics.
9. A did not score 84 or 89.
10. D's score was in Maths.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

Q. In which subject was 80 scored?

Solution:

In these questions, we represent all possible alternatives in a tabular representation. With the help of the hints, we put a tick or a cross in each cell of the table if that particular cell is definitely true or if it is definitely false. After this, we again go over the table and eliminate any choice which has been rendered impossible by the hint. We represent the information in the question as follows:

In the above representation, we have used the following abbreviations:

In subjects: P - Physics

C - Chemistry

M - Maths

B - Biology

CS - Computer Science

E - English

We will start with the hints that give us direct information first.

Using hint 7, neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.

Using hint 8, C had scored 86, but not in Physics.

Using hint 10, D's score was in Maths.

Using hint 5, 82 was not scored in Maths.

C scored 86 from point 8, also, 88 was scored in Biology and 84 was scored in Computer Science, so C did not appear in Biology or Computer Science.

Using hint 4, the score in English was not 86.

Hence, C gave the Chemistry exam.

Since B and F will score in Physics and Biology, A and E will score in Computer Science and English.

Using hint 9, A did not score 84 or 89.

Using hint 3, 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.

Hence, A scored in English.

Using hint 6, B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.

Using hint 2, 88 was scored in Biology.

Filling the remaining places,

Using hint 1, the numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.

Hence, 80 was scored by A in English.

QUESTION: 40

There are 6 students A, B, C, D, E, F who appeared in 6 different subjects, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Computer Science and English such that no two students appeared for the same subject. They got different marks from among 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 89 and their ranks in the particular subjects are among 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, such that no two people got the same rank. Also, the following information is known regarding these 6 students:

1. The numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.
2. 88 was scored in Biology.
3. 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.
4. The score in English was not 86.
5. 82 was not scored in Maths.
6. B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.
7. Neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.
8. C had scored 86, but not in Physics.
9. A did not score 84 or 89.
10. D's score was in Maths.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

Q. Who scored 89?

Solution:

In these questions, we represent all possible alternatives in a tabular representation. With the help of the hints, we put a tick or a cross in each cell of the table if that particular cell is definitely true or if it is definitely false. After this, we again go over the table and eliminate any choice which has been rendered impossible by the hint. We represent the information in the question as follows:

In the above representation, we have used the following abbreviations:

In subjects: P - Physics

C - Chemistry

M - Maths

B - Biology

CS - Computer Science

E - English

We will start with the hints that give us direct information first.

Using hint 7, neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.

Using hint 8, C had scored 86, but not in Physics.

Using hint 10, D's score was in Maths.

Using hint 5, 82 was not scored in Maths.

C scored 86 from point 8, also, 88 was scored in Biology and 84 was scored in Computer Science, so C did not appear in Biology or Computer Science.

Using hint 4, the score in English was not 86.

Hence, C gave the Chemistry exam.

Since B and F will score in Physics and Biology, A and E will score in Computer Science and English.

Using hint 9, A did not score 84 or 89.

Using hint 3, 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.

Hence, A scored in English.

Using hint 6, B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.

Using hint 2, 88 was scored in Biology.

Filling the remaining places,

Using hint 1, the numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.

D scored 89.

QUESTION: 41

There are 6 students A, B, C, D, E, F who appeared in 6 different subjects, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Computer Science and English such that no two students appeared for the same subject. They got different marks from among 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 89 and their ranks in the particular subjects are among 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, such that no two people got the same rank. Also, the following information is known regarding these 6 students:

1. The numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.
2. 88 was scored in Biology.
3. 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.
4. The score in English was not 86.
5. 82 was not scored in Maths.
6. B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.
7. Neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.
8. C had scored 86, but not in Physics.
9. A did not score 84 or 89.
10. D's score was in Maths.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

Q. Whose rank was 6?

Solution:

In these questions, we represent all possible alternatives in a tabular representation. With the help of the hints, we put a tick or a cross in each cell of the table if that particular cell is definitely true or if it is definitely false. After this, we again go over the table and eliminate any choice which has been rendered impossible by the hint. We represent the information in the question as follows:

In the above representation, we have used the following abbreviations:

In subjects: P - Physics

C - Chemistry

M - Maths

B - Biology

CS - Computer Science

E - English

We will start with the hints that give us direct information first.

Using hint 7, neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.

Using hint 8, C had scored 86, but not in Physics.

Using hint 10, D's score was in Maths.

Using hint 5, 82 was not scored in Maths.

C scored 86 from point 8, also, 88 was scored in Biology and 84 was scored in Computer Science, so C did not appear in Biology or Computer Science.

Using hint 4, the score in English was not 86.

Hence, C gave the Chemistry exam.

Since B and F will score in Physics and Biology, A and E will score in Computer Science and English.

Using hint 9, A did not score 84 or 89.

Using hint 3, 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.

Hence, A scored in English.

Using hint 6, B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.

Using hint 2, 88 was scored in Biology.

Filling the remaining places,

Using hint 1, the numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.

C's rank was 6.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 42

There are 6 students A, B, C, D, E, F who appeared in 6 different subjects, Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Computer Science and English such that no two students appeared for the same subject. They got different marks from among 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 89 and their ranks in the particular subjects are among 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, such that no two people got the same rank. Also, the following information is known regarding these 6 students:

1. The numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.
2. 88 was scored in Biology.
3. 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.
4. The score in English was not 86.
5. 82 was not scored in Maths.
6. B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.
7. Neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.
8. C had scored 86, but not in Physics.
9. A did not score 84 or 89.
10. D's score was in Maths.

Based on the information given above, answer the questions that follow.

Q. For how many people can we uniquely identify both the marks scored and the subject in which they appeared?

Solution:

In these questions, we represent all possible alternatives in a tabular representation. With the help of the hints, we put a tick or a cross in each cell of the table if that particular cell is definitely true or if it is definitely false. After this, we again go over the table and eliminate any choice which has been rendered impossible by the hint. We represent the information in the question as follows:

In the above representation, we have used the following abbreviations:

In subjects: P - Physics

C - Chemistry

M - Maths

B - Biology

CS - Computer Science

E - English

We will start with the hints that give us direct information first.

Using hint 7, neither A nor E had scored 82, nor were their scores scored in Biology or Physics.

Using hint 8, C had scored 86, but not in Physics.

Using hint 10, D's score was in Maths.

Using hint 5, 82 was not scored in Maths.

C scored 86 from point 8, also, 88 was scored in Biology and 84 was scored in Computer Science, so C did not appear in Biology or Computer Science.

Using hint 4, the score in English was not 86.

Hence, C gave the Chemistry exam.

Since B and F will score in Physics and Biology, A and E will score in Computer Science and English.

Using hint 9, A did not score 84 or 89.

Using hint 3, 84 was scored in Computer Science and the one who scored it was the topper.

Hence, A scored in English.

Using hint 6, B was not second, the person who was second scored 82.

Using hint 2, 88 was scored in Biology.

Filling the remaining places,

Using hint 1, the numerical sum of the ranks and the marks of C and D are the same.

Thus we can uniquely identify both the marks scored and the subject in which they appeared fro all 6 students.

QUESTION: 43

Due to the bad conditions of Government schools in Dholakpur, Rani Indumati has tasked Bheem to carry out a survey and make a report of facilities lacking in each of the schools. Bheem has to check whether the schools have a) Proper Sanitisation b) Internet Connectivity c) Mid-day meals and d)  Emergency Evacuation Plan. He went along with Kaaliya to make the observations. Upon the full survey he knew the following things

• 75 schools had all 4 facilities
• Out of surveyed school 375 schools had Internet connectivity
• Number of schools that have none of the 4 facilities is 40% of the number of schools having at least 1 facility.
• Among the schools having mid-day meals and emergency evacuation plan, the number of school having proper sanitisation is equal to the number of schools having internet connectivity
• 50 schools have only an Emergency evacuation plan
• Number of schools having only internet connectivity is1/3rd the number of schools having all 4 facilities. Overall 190 schools have both proper sanitation and internet connectivity out of which 25 schools have no other facilities
• 210 schools have exactly 3 of the facilities which is 10 more than half the number of schools having mid-day meals
• 35 schools have only proper sanitisation and mid-day meal, which is half the number of schools having only mid-day meals
• 215 schools have both mid-day meals and emergency evacuation plan.
• 370 schools have proper sanitisation out of which 30 schools have no other facilities

Q. Total of how many schools were surveyed?

Solution:

The above information can be easily seen by using a venn diagram

It can be represented as

Let us start by filling the known information

> 75 schools had all 4 facilities

> Out of surveyed school 375 schools had Internet connectivity

> 210 schools have exactly 3 of the facilities which is 10 more than half the number of schools having mid-day meals. If we assume number of schools having mid-day meal be x, then x/2 + 10 = 210 or x = 400
> 370 schools have proper sanitisation out of which 30 schools have no other facilities

> 50 schools have only an Emergency evacuation plan

> Number of schools having only internet connectivity is 1/3 ​rd the number of schools having all 4 facilities = 1/3 × 75 = 25.

> 35 schools have only proper sanitisation and mid-day meal. Which is half the number of schools having only mid-day meals. Therefore number of schools having only mid-day meals = 2*35 = 70

>  25 schools have no other facilities other than proper sanitation and internet connectivity

> Among the schools having mid-day meals and emergency evacuation plan, the number of school having proper sanitisation is equal to the number of schools having internet connectivity. Let the number be "a".

Let the number of schools having only Proper Sanitisation, internet connectivity and mid-day meal be "b". and number of schools having only proper sanitation,internet connectiviy and emergency evacuation be "c".

Let the number of schools having only proper santisation and emergency evacuation be "d".

These all can be represented as

> 210 schools has exactly 3 facilities: 2a + b + c = 210 ...(I)

> Overall 190 schools have at least proper sanitation and internet connectivity: 25 + b + c + 75 = 190 or b + c = 90 ...(II)

Putting the value of (II) in (I) we get 2a + 90 = 210 or 2a = 120. Thus a = 60
> 370 schools have proper sanitation, thus 30 + 25 + 35 + b + a + 75 + d + c = 370. Putting values of b + c and a we get 315 + d = 370 or d = 55

Number of schools having mid-day meal and emergency evacuation plan = 215 = 60 + 75 + 60 + number of schools having only mid-day meal and emergency evacuation

number of schools having only mid-day meal and emergency evacuation = 215 -(75+60+60) = 215 - 195  = 20

Let the school having only internet connectivity and mid-day meal be "e" and number of school with only internet connectivity and emergency evacuation plans be "f"

Number of schools with internet connectivity = 375 = 25 + 25 + b + e + 75 + 60 + c + f. Putting b + c = 90 from (I) we get 375 = 275 + e + f or e + f = 100 ..(III)

Number of school having mid-day meal = 400 = 70+20+e+60+b+75+35+60 or b+e = 80

Thus e = 80-b. Putting the value of "e" in eqn (III) we get f = b +20

In eqn (I) we have  b+c =90 or c = 90-b. Putting all the values in the chart we get

Total number of schools having at least 1 facility = 30+25+25+35+b+80-b+70+60+75+60+20+55+90-b+20+b+50 = 695

Number of schools having none of the facility = 40% of 695 = 40/100 × 695 = 278
Number of school surveyed = 278 + 695 = 973

Number of schools having Emergency evacuation plan = 20+50+60+20+b+90-b+75+60+55 = 430

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 44

Directions: Answer the questions on the basis of the information below.
In the recently concluded Indian Premier League, the batsmen who were the top seven run scorers were Adam, Rohit, Gautam, Mahendra, Shaun, Sanath and Virendra not necessarily in that order. Seven groups namely Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, Group 4, Group 5, Group 6 and Group 7 were formed such that each group had six of the above mentioned batsmen and no group of six batsmen was repeated. The following bar - graph provides information about the aggregate number of runs scored by batsmen in each group.

Find the number of runs scored by the batsmen who scored minimum runs out of the given batsmen.

Solution:

Let the number of runs scored by these seven batsmen be R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 and R7
R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R6 = 2203... (i)
R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R7 = 2255... (ii)
R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R7 + R6 = 2275... (iii)
R1 + R2 + R3 + R7 + R5 + R6 = 2211... (iv)
R1 + R2 + R7 + R4 + R5 + R6 = 2302... (v)
R1 + R7 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R6 = 2235... (vi)
R7 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R6 = 2329... (vii)
Adding all the above equation we get that
6(R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R6 + R7) = 15810
R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + R5 + R6 + R7 = 2635
Now, R7 = 2635 - 2203 = 432.
Similarly the value of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6 is 306, 400, 333, 424, 360 and 380 respectively.
The minimum number of runs scored amongst these seven scores is 306.

QUESTION: 45

A dishonest milkman sells milk to three customers- A, B and C. He replaces 20% of pure milk with water before selling to A. After this, he replaces 25% of the mixture with water before selling to B and furthermore 30% of the mixture is replaced before selling to C. What is the percentage of pure milk in the mixture sold by the milkman to C?

Solution:

Since, the milk is getting replaced by water, we will use the formula M' = where M, r1, r2 and r3 are the milk's proportion in the beginning, % of milk replaced before selling to A, % of milk replaced before selling to B and % of milk sold before selling to C, respectively.

Milk % before selling to C = M' =

QUESTION: 46

A cricket camp invited 500 cricket players who were batsmen, bowlers, and all-rounders(who can both bat and bowl). 60% of the players were batsman and 70% of them were bowlers. 50% of the pure batsmen (who can only bat), 60% of the pure bowlers (who can only bowl) and 20% of the all-rounders were left-handed. How many right-handed players were part of the cricket camp?

Solution:

Given, there are 60% batsmen and 70% bowlers

So, (60-x) + x + (70-x) = 100

=> 130 - x = 100

.'. x = 30%

So, the team has 30% of pure batsman, 30% of all rounders and 40% of pure bowlers.

Left handed players = (50% of 30% of the team)+(60% of the 40% of team) + (20% of 30% of the team)

= 75 + 120+30 = 225

The total number of right-handed players = 500 - 225 = 275.

QUESTION: 47

A company was purchasing 30 barrels of oil every month during lockdown from March 2020 till August 2020. The price per barrel paid by the company increased every month by a constant amount of $10. They purchased the barrels at$25 in March 2020. In September 2020, the company then sold half of the barrels at $45 each, half of the remaining at$50 each and all the remaining barrels at $70 each. What is the company's profit in percentage? Solution: The company purchased 30 barrels of oil for 6 months. So, it has 180 barrels of oil in total. Cost of 1 barrel of oil in March =$25 and the cost per barrel increases by $10 every month. So, it follows an A.P. with first term, 'a' =$25 and common difference, 'd' = $10 and 'n', number of terms = 6 (March to August). If someone purchased 1 barrel a month, his total cost = Sum of A.P.= n/2 ​[2a+(n−1)d] = 6/2​[50 + (5×10)] = 3 × 100 = 300 .'. Cost of 30 oil barrels every month =$300 × 30 = $9000 Now, half of the oil barrels, i.e. 90 barrels were sold at$45 each making a sale of $90 × 45 =$4050.

Remaining barrels = 90.

Half of it were, i.e. 45 barrels were sold at $50 each making a sales of$50 × 45 = $2250 All the remaining barrels, 45 barrels were sold at$70 each making further sales of $70 × 45 =$3150

Total Selling Price= $(4050+2250+3150)=$9450.

Profit= $9450-$9000= \$450

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 48

Prasoon purchased a new bike M15, which soon met with an accident. He went to the service centre and the service centre charged him for repairs. The labour cost, tyre replacement cost, accessory replacement cost and the servicing costs were 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% of the total servicing cost respectively. The remaining charges were for oil replacement (brake oil, engine oil, etc.). Luckily Prasoon was the lucky customer that day and got discounts of 10% each for labour, servicing and oil replacement costs and discounts of 20% on the accessory replacement. The insurance company paid him 80% of the cost paid by him in the service centre by giving him Rs. 56,960. What was the original bill amount (before discount) for accessory replacements in Rupees?

Solution:

Let the total cost be Rs. x

Labour cost= 0.05x

Tyre replacement cost= 0.15x

Accessory replacement cost= 0.25x

Servicing cost= 0.35x

Oil replacement cost= x-(0.05x+0.15x+0.25x+0.35x)= 0.2x

After discount, labour cost= 0.9\times×0.05x= 0.045x

Servicing cost= 0.9\times×0.35x= 0.315x

Oil replacement cost= 0.9\times×0.2x= 0.18x

Accessory replacement cost= 0.8\times×0.25x= 0.2x

'.' No discount is given on replacing tyres, its cost remains the same at 0.15x

Total amount payable by Prasoon= 0.045x+0.315x+0.18x+0.2x+0.15x= 0.89x

Total amount reimbursed by the service center= 0.8\times×0.89x=0.712x

Given, 0.712x=56960

.'.x= Rs. 80000

Original accessory replacement cost=0.25x= 0.25\times×80000= Rs. 20000

QUESTION: 49

A compound 'M' is to be created, one unit of which consists of 3 units of 'X', 4 units of 'Y' and 6 units of 'Z'.  1 unit of X is made by A and B in the ratio 5:7 respectively, 1 unit of Y is made by B and C in the ratio 2:3 respectively, and 1 unit of Z is made by A and D in the ratio 1:4 respectively. What is the approximate percentage contribution of A in 1 unit of M?

Solution:

The ratio of A, B, C and D in X, Y and Z is given to be

Since 1 unit of M has 3X, 4Y and 6Z, we can show the contribution of A, B, C and D in 1 unit of M or 3 units of X, 4 units of Y and 6 units of Z.

Therefore 1 unit of M has 147/60​ units of A, 201​/60 units of B, 12/5​ units of C and 24/5​ units of D.

Also, the total quantity of 1 unit of M= (3+4+6) units= 13 units.

.'. Percentage contribution of A in 1 unit of M =

QUESTION: 50

f(x) is a polynomial function of degree 4 such that f(0) = 1, f(1)=3 , f(2) = 9 and f(3) = 19.

What will be f(-1) if the coefficient of x4 is 2 in f(x)

Solution:

f(0) = 1 = 2 × 02 + 1

f(1) = 3 = 2 × 12 + 1

f(2) = 9 = 2 × 22 + 1

f(3) = 19 = 2 × 32 + 1

Since f(x) is a 4 degree polynomial,

f(x) - (2x2 + 1) has 4 roots 0,1,2 and 3

thus f(x) = a(x) (x−1) (x−2) (x−3) + 2x+ 1

Coef of x4 is 2 in f(x) thus a = 2

f(x) = 2(x)(x−1)(x−2)(x−3) + 2x2 + 1

f(-1) = 2(−1)(−2)(−3)(−4)+ 2(−12)+1

f(-1) = 48+2+1 = 51

QUESTION: 51

If x3 + 2x2−Ax has only one of its three real and unequal roots between [-1,3). Then the value of A can lie between?

Solution:

The given equation can be written as (x2 + 2x − A) = 0

=> x = 0 is one such root which lie between 3 and -1.

=> x2 + 2x − A = 0 must not have a single root between 3 and -1 => f(3)*f(-1) > 0

=> (15-A) (-1-A) > 0

=> (A-15)(A+1) > 0

=> A ∈ (−∞ ,−1) U (15, ∞ )

But the given equation x(x+ 2x−A) = 0 has unequal roots => x2 + 2x−A = 0 must have real and unequal roots => 4 + 4A > 0 => A > -1.

=> A ∈ [15,∞ )

QUESTION: 52

Shruti was wrapping gifts for her brothers and found that the amount of gift paper used to wrap 6 similar spherical gift boxes of radius 7 cm each is exactly same as the amount of gift papers used to wrap 14 similar cube gift boxes. What was the length of the body diagonal of the cube gift boxes?

Assume that π = 22/7

Solution:

Amount of paper used to wrap spherical gift boxes= Total surface area of 6 spheres with radius = 7cm = 6 x 4πr2 = 24 × 22/7 ​× 7 × 7  ....(1)

The gift paper used to wrap 14 cube boxes is also same. Let the length of each side of the cube be 'l'

Then, total surface area of 14 cubes = 14 × 6l2 = 84l2    .....(2)

Equating (1) and (2), we get:

24 × 22 × 7 = 84l2

.'. l= 44 or l = 2√11

We know that in a cube, body diagonal = l√3 = 2√33 cm.

QUESTION: 53

A pizza store sold pizzas in 3 sizes- Small, medium and large with diameters of pizza equal to 8 inches, 11 inches and 14 inches. If the cost of the pizza depends on the volume of the pizza and the prices of the pizza are in the ratio 2:3:4, then the ratio of thickness of the small, medium and large pizza is in the ratio-

Solution:

Let the thickness of the small, medium and large pizzas be t1​, t2​, t3​ respectively.

The diameter of small, medium and large pizzas = 8, 11 and 14 inches.

Volume of any pizza = Area × thickness = π r2 × t

Volume of small pizza = π(8​)2 × t1​ = 16πt1​

Volume of the medium pizza =

Volume of the large pizza =

P1​:P2​:P3​ = V1​:V2​:V3​

=> 2:3:4 = 16πt​: 121​πt2​ : 49πt3 ​= 2:3:4

64t1 = 2x
121t2 = 3x
196t3 = 4x
t1 : t2 : t3 = 1/32​ : 3/121 ​: 1​/49

QUESTION: 54

A laptop had 40 medium-sized keys of size 1 cm\times×1 cm, 20 small keys and 10 large keys, such that the area covered by one small key and one large key are 60% and 150% of that covered by one medium key respectively. If the touchpad covers the same area as 8 large keys, what is the approximate percentage of area in the keyboard panel that is not in use? Consider the keyboard panel to have an area of 300 square cm and that nothing else other than the keys and touch pad to be present in the panel.

Solution:

The available area in the keyboard= 300 sq. cm

Area covered by 1 medium-sized key= 1 sq. cm

Area covered by 1 small sized key= 60% of medium sized key= 0.6 sq. cm

Area covered by 1 large key= 150% of the medium sized key= 1.5 sq. cm

Area covered by the touch pad= 8\times×1.5 sq. cm= 12 sq. cm

Total area occupied by the keys= 40 medium+ 20 small + 10 large + touchpad = (40×1) +(20×0.6) + (10×1.5) + 12 = 40 + 12 + 15 + 12 = 79sq. cm

% area covered by the keys and the touch pad= 79​/300 ×100 = 26.33%

.'. % area not in used in the keyboard panel= (100-26.33)% = 73.67%

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 55

There is a dumbbell which consists of a solid long cylinder of radius r and height 10r with a solid hemisphere of radius 3r attached at either end as follows:

If this is molten and restructured into a maximum of N solid spheres of radius r/10, what is the value of N?

Solution:

Total volume of the dumbbell = 2 x Volume of hemispheres + Volume of cylinder

Volume of one small sphere =

Hence, the number of spheres =

QUESTION: 56

The values for which |(x-2)-|x+2||-5\ge\≥ 0 holds are:

Solution:

First, we will deal with the inner modulus. The critical point of the inner modulus is -2.

Case 1: x ≥ -2

|(x-2)-|x+2||-5 becomes |(x-2)-x-2|-5=|-4|-5=-1 which is always <0

Therefore for x ≥ -2, the inequality does not holds.

Case 2: x<-2

|(x-2)-|x+2||-5 becomes |(x-2)+x+2|-5=|2x|-5.

So, |2x ≥ 5 is satisfied under 2 conditions:

(i) 2x ≤-5 => x ≤ −5/2​. We have already asumed that x<-2 and upon solving, we get x ≤ −5/2​.

.'. x ≤ −5/2​ holds true.

(ii) 2x>5 => x>5/2​. We have already assumed that x<-2 and upon solving, we get x>5/2​ which contradicts our main assumption. So, we reject this.

So, the range of x is (−∞ , −5/2​]

QUESTION: 57

What is the value of x for which 2(1+3+5+...x) = (0.0625)−25

Solution:

Given, 2(1+3+5+...x) = (0.0625)−25

Taking log on both sides, we will get,

(1+3+5+...x)log2 = −25log0.0625

=>(1+3+5+...x)log2 = −25log(1/16​)

=> (1+3+5+...x)log2 = −25log(2−4

=>(1 + 3 + 5 +...x)log2 = 100log2

=> Sum of odd numbers upto x= 100.

Let the total odd numbers be n, then sum of n odd numbers starting from 1= n2

So, n2 = 100 or n, Number of odd terms= 10.

.'. x is the 10th odd number from the beginning = 19.

QUESTION: 58

If log125​ 40= a and log5​ 98 = b. Then how can log14​ 5 be represented in terms of a and b?

Solution:

QUESTION: 59

If the number of factors of N is 8 and that of 5N is 16, then the number of factors of 2*N can be

Solution:

Let p1, p2, p3 be distinct prime numbers which are not equal to 5.

From the given information, we can conclude that N can be

Case 1: N = p1*p2*p3

Case 2: N = p13∗p2

Case 3: N = p17

Now, 2 can or cannot be one of p1,p2,p3

In case 1:

If 2 ≠ ​p1/p2/p3 then number of factors of 2*p1*p2*p3 = 16.

If 2 is equal to p1 or p2 or p3 then the number of factors of 2*N will be 12.

In case 2:

If 2 ≠  p1 or p2, then number of factors of 2*N=16.

If 2=p1, the number of factors of 2*N will be 10

If 2=p2, the number of factors of 2*N will be 12.

Case 3:

If 2 ≠  p, the number of factors of 2*N = 16.

If 2=p1, the number of factors of 2*N = 9

.'. The number of factors of 2N can be 9,10,12,16.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 60

The number of even factors of S, where S = 13 + 23 + 33 +... 10003 is

Solution:

S = 13 + 23 + 33 +... 10003 is

We know that the sum of cubes of natural number starting from 1 upto n is given by:

So, for even factors, we need at least one 2 among the four 2s available with S. We can select either one, two, three or four 2s. For the other prime factors, we also have the option to choose 0 out of the available number of 5s, 11s, 7s and 13s.

So, total even factors= 4×7×3×3×3 = 756.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 61

In how many ways can we select a square of side length at most 4 units from a chess board if one square of the chess board is considered to have a side length of 1 unit?

Solution:

Selecting squares of side 1 unit each:

We can do so by selecting 1 unit from the 8 squares along the length and 1 unit from 8 squares along the breadth. So, total ways of selecting a square of length 1 unit= 8C1​×8C1​= 8×8= 64

Selecting squares of side 2 units each:

We can do so by selecting 2 continuous units from the 8 squares along the length and 2 continuous units from 8 squares along the breadth. So, total ways of selecting a square of length 1 unit= 7×7=49

Selecting squares of side 3 units each:

We can do so by selecting 3 continuous units from the 8 squares along the length and 3 continuous units from 8 squares along the breadth. So, total ways of selecting a square of length 1 unit= 6×6=36

Selecting squares of side 4 units each:

We can do so by selecting 4 continuous units from the 8 squares along the length and 4 continuous units from 8 squares along the breadth. So, total ways of selecting a square of length 1 unit= 5×5=25

.'. Total ways of selecting a square of side length at most 4 units from a chess board= 64+49+36+25= 174

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 62

Raghav went to an orphanage of 5 kids with 22 similar notebooks to gift the children. Kids in the orphanage demanded at least 1, at least 2, at least 3, at least 4 and at least 5 notebooks with no two kids demanding the same minimum number of books. In how many ways can Raghav distribute the notebooks to them?

Solution:

Let the five kids be given A, B, C, D and E notebooks.

As per the demands, A= 1+a; where a≥0

B = 2+b; where b≥0

C = 3+c; where c≥0

D = 4+d; where d≥0 and

E = 5+e; where e≥0

Now, A+B+C+D+E = 22

=> (1+a)+(2+b)+(3+c)+(4+d)+(5+e)= 22

=> 15+a+b+c+d+e= 22

=> a+b+c+d+e= 7

This is similar to distributing n similar objects to r different people. This can be done in (n+r−1)C(r−1)​

In our case, n= 7, r=5.

Total ways of distribution =

QUESTION: 63

What is the sum of the first 10 terms of an increasing A.P. where the first, second and fourth terms are in G.P. and the fifth term of the A.P. is 13?

Solution:

Let the first term of the A.P. be 'a', and common difference be 'd'.

Then, the first, second and fourth terms of the A.P. are 'a', 'a+d' and 'a+3d' respectively.

Since, they are in G.P., (a+d)2 = a(a+3d)

=> d(d-a) = 0

.'. d=0 or d=a.

Since, it is mentioned that the A.P is increasing, we will take the value of d= a.

Hence, a+4d= 13 reduces to 5a= 13 or a= 13/5=d.

Sum of first 10 terms of the A.P.= 10​/2 [2a+9d] = 5[11a] = 55a = 55 × 513​ = 143

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 64

If a quadratic equation x2−ax+b has roots in the ratio 1:4, then the minimum value of b-4a+3 can be written in the form −p/q​, where p and q are co-prime natural numbers. Then the value of p-q=?

Solution:

Let the roots of the given equation be k and 4k.

Then sum of roots= 5k = - (-α−1)​ = α

And product of roots= 4k2 =  b/1​ or b.

So, a = 5k and b = 4k2.

So, b-4a+3= 4k2−4(5k)+3 = 4k2−20k+3.

So, the given expression reduces to the form of a quadratic expression, which opens upward (Co-efficient of k2 is 1, which is positive)

For any quadratic equation of the form αx2+bx+c, the minima occurs at -b/α​ and the minima= - D/4α​, where D is the discriminant of the quadratic equation.

In our case, 4k2−20k+3 has a= 4, b = -20 and c=3.

D= b2−4ac = (-20)2 −4×4 ×3 = 400−48 = 352

4a  = 16.

.'. Minima= - D/4α ​= − 352/16 = −22 or −22/1​.

So, p = 22, q = 1. .'. p-q= 22-1 = 21.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 65

On the market of Covent Garden, Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Jones sell apples. Mrs. Jones sells her apples for two per rupee. The apples of Mrs. Smith are a bit smaller; she sells hers for three per rupee. At a certain moment, when both ladies have the same number of apples left, Mrs. Smith is being called away. She asks her neighbor to take care of her goods. To make everything not too complicated, Mrs. Jones simply puts all apples to one big pile, and starts selling them for two rupee per five apples. When Mrs. Smith returns the next day, all apples have been sold out. But when they start dividing the money, there appears to be a shortage of seven rupees. Supposing they divide the amount equally, how much in Rupees does Mrs. Jones lose in this deal?

Solution:

The big pile of apples contains the same amount of large apples of half a rupee each (from Mrs. Jones), as smaller apples of one-third rupee each (from Mrs. Smith). The average price is therefore (1/2 + 1/3)/2 = 5/12 rupee.
But the apples were sold for 2/5 rupees each (5 apples for 2 rupees). Or: 25/60 and 24/60 rupee respectively. This means that per sold apple, there is a shortage of 1/60 rupee. The total shortage is Rs.7. so the ladies together started out with 420 apples. These are worth 2/5x 420 = 168 rupees, or with equal division, 84 rupees for each. If Mrs. Jones would have sold her apples herself, she would have received 105 rupees. Conclusion: Mrs. Jones loses 21 rupees in this deal.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 66

If all the diagonals of a regular hexagon are drawn, the number of points intersection, not counting the corners of the hexagon is

Solution:

let ABCDEF be the regular hexagon.
Diagonals AD, BE, CF will intersect in a regular hexagon
Number of diagonals = n(n-3)/2
Hence, there will be 9 diagonsl.

From the figure it is easily seen that the number of points of intersection is 13.

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