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CAT Mock Test- 9 - CAT MCQ


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66 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2024 - CAT Mock Test- 9

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CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 1

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The brave new economy being rebuilt in the wake of the financial meltdown is being built on low-wage service work, as manufacturing’s decline has accelerated and construction ground to a halt. At the beginning of the Great Recession, economist Heather Boushey noted at Slate, manufacturing and construction made up fully half the jobs lost, along with financial services and other business fields, and writers declared the “Mancession” or “He-cession” or even, as Hanna Rosin’s popular book has it, The End of Men. But as others have pointed out, as the recession drags on, it’s women who’ve faced the largest losses, not only in direct attacks on public sector jobs that are dominated by women, but in increased competition from the men pushed out of their previous professions. Some 60 percent of the jobs lost in the public sector were held by women, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. And women have regained only 12 percent of the jobs lost during the recession, while men have regained 63 percent of the jobs they lost.

Women may be overrepresented in the growing sectors of the economy, but those sectors pay poverty wages. The public sector job cuts that have been largely responsible for unemployment remaining at or near 8 percent have fallen disproportionately on women (and women of color are hit the hardest). Those good union jobs disappear, and are replaced with a minimum-wage gig at Walmart—and even in retail, women make only 90 percent of what men make.

“All work is gendered. And the economy that we have assigns different levels of value based off of that,” says Ai-Jen Poo, executive director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance. Poo came to labor organizing through feminism. As a volunteer in a domestic violence shelter for Asian immigrant women, she explains, she realized that it was women who had economic opportunities who were able to break the cycle of violence. She brings a sharp gender analysis to the struggle for respect and better treatment for the workers, mostly women, who “make all other work possible.”

“Society has devalued that work over time,” she notes of the cleaning, caring, cooking, and other work domestic workers perform, largely hidden from public view, “and we think that that has a lot to do with who’s done the work.”

This argument was at the root of the fight for access to employment outside of the “pink-collar” fields. To be trapped in women’s jobs was to be forever trapped in a certain vision of femininity. Breaking out of “women’s work” was a form of breaking through the “feminine mystique” that Betty Friedan decried. But that work still needs to be done, and, Poo notes, the conditions that have long defined domestic work and service work—instability, lack of training, lack of career pathways, low pay—are now increasingly the reality for all American workers, not just women. When we focus on equal access at the top, we miss out the real story, which historian Bethany Moreton points out, “is not ‘Oh wow, women get to be lawyers,’ but that men get to be casualized clerks.”

Q. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 1

The passage only talks about the job losses that happened in the manufacturing and construction industry. This cannot be extrapolated to decipher the performance of these industries in general. Option A can be eliminated.

Option B, similar to option A, makes a claim that cannot be validated based on the information presented in the passage.

Although men regained more jobs lost during the recession than women, this cannot be the basis to conclude that jobs held by men were more immune during the recession. Option C can be eliminated.

"The public sector job cuts that have been largely responsible for unemployment remaining at or near 8 per cent have fallen disproportionately on women". Option D can be inferred from this line. Also, in the first paragraph, the author states that 60 per cent of the public sector jobs lost were held by women. Hence, option D is the answer. 

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 2

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The brave new economy being rebuilt in the wake of the financial meltdown is being built on low-wage service work, as manufacturing’s decline has accelerated and construction ground to a halt. At the beginning of the Great Recession, economist Heather Boushey noted at Slate, manufacturing and construction made up fully half the jobs lost, along with financial services and other business fields, and writers declared the “Mancession” or “He-cession” or even, as Hanna Rosin’s popular book has it, The End of Men. But as others have pointed out, as the recession drags on, it’s women who’ve faced the largest losses, not only in direct attacks on public sector jobs that are dominated by women, but in increased competition from the men pushed out of their previous professions. Some 60 percent of the jobs lost in the public sector were held by women, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. And women have regained only 12 percent of the jobs lost during the recession, while men have regained 63 percent of the jobs they lost.

Women may be overrepresented in the growing sectors of the economy, but those sectors pay poverty wages. The public sector job cuts that have been largely responsible for unemployment remaining at or near 8 percent have fallen disproportionately on women (and women of color are hit the hardest). Those good union jobs disappear, and are replaced with a minimum-wage gig at Walmart—and even in retail, women make only 90 percent of what men make.

“All work is gendered. And the economy that we have assigns different levels of value based off of that,” says Ai-Jen Poo, executive director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance. Poo came to labor organizing through feminism. As a volunteer in a domestic violence shelter for Asian immigrant women, she explains, she realized that it was women who had economic opportunities who were able to break the cycle of violence. She brings a sharp gender analysis to the struggle for respect and better treatment for the workers, mostly women, who “make all other work possible.”

“Society has devalued that work over time,” she notes of the cleaning, caring, cooking, and other work domestic workers perform, largely hidden from public view, “and we think that that has a lot to do with who’s done the work.”

This argument was at the root of the fight for access to employment outside of the “pink-collar” fields. To be trapped in women’s jobs was to be forever trapped in a certain vision of femininity. Breaking out of “women’s work” was a form of breaking through the “feminine mystique” that Betty Friedan decried. But that work still needs to be done, and, Poo notes, the conditions that have long defined domestic work and service work—instability, lack of training, lack of career pathways, low pay—are now increasingly the reality for all American workers, not just women. When we focus on equal access at the top, we miss out the real story, which historian Bethany Moreton points out, “is not ‘Oh wow, women get to be lawyers,’ but that men get to be casualized clerks.”

Q. Women stand to lose the most during the recession and in its immediate aftermath for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 2

The passage states that public sector jobs held by women are more vulnerable during a recession. Option A can be inferred. 
The competition is from unemployed men, who have been displaced from their existing professions, and not from employed men. Option B cannot be inferred. 
Option C can be eliminated as well. The author does not present such a correlation anywhere in the passage. 
Hence, option D is the answer. 

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CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 3

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The brave new economy being rebuilt in the wake of the financial meltdown is being built on low-wage service work, as manufacturing’s decline has accelerated and construction ground to a halt. At the beginning of the Great Recession, economist Heather Boushey noted at Slate, manufacturing and construction made up fully half the jobs lost, along with financial services and other business fields, and writers declared the “Mancession” or “He-cession” or even, as Hanna Rosin’s popular book has it, The End of Men. But as others have pointed out, as the recession drags on, it’s women who’ve faced the largest losses, not only in direct attacks on public sector jobs that are dominated by women, but in increased competition from the men pushed out of their previous professions. Some 60 percent of the jobs lost in the public sector were held by women, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. And women have regained only 12 percent of the jobs lost during the recession, while men have regained 63 percent of the jobs they lost.

Women may be overrepresented in the growing sectors of the economy, but those sectors pay poverty wages. The public sector job cuts that have been largely responsible for unemployment remaining at or near 8 percent have fallen disproportionately on women (and women of color are hit the hardest). Those good union jobs disappear, and are replaced with a minimum-wage gig at Walmart—and even in retail, women make only 90 percent of what men make.

“All work is gendered. And the economy that we have assigns different levels of value based off of that,” says Ai-Jen Poo, executive director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance. Poo came to labor organizing through feminism. As a volunteer in a domestic violence shelter for Asian immigrant women, she explains, she realized that it was women who had economic opportunities who were able to break the cycle of violence. She brings a sharp gender analysis to the struggle for respect and better treatment for the workers, mostly women, who “make all other work possible.”

“Society has devalued that work over time,” she notes of the cleaning, caring, cooking, and other work domestic workers perform, largely hidden from public view, “and we think that that has a lot to do with who’s done the work.”

This argument was at the root of the fight for access to employment outside of the “pink-collar” fields. To be trapped in women’s jobs was to be forever trapped in a certain vision of femininity. Breaking out of “women’s work” was a form of breaking through the “feminine mystique” that Betty Friedan decried. But that work still needs to be done, and, Poo notes, the conditions that have long defined domestic work and service work—instability, lack of training, lack of career pathways, low pay—are now increasingly the reality for all American workers, not just women. When we focus on equal access at the top, we miss out the real story, which historian Bethany Moreton points out, “is not ‘Oh wow, women get to be lawyers,’ but that men get to be casualized clerks.”

Q. Ai-Jen Poo would agree with which of the following statements?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 3

Option A - According to the passage, Ai-Jen Poo believed that economic opportunities were imperative for women to break the cycle of violence. But the desire to do so may or may not depend on those opportunities. So, option A is wrong.
Option B - Although Poo opines that society devaluing domestic work has a lot to do with the people doing it, it is not sufficient to conclude that the opinion about these jobs would change if more men were involved. Option B can be eliminated.
Option C- Poo acknowledges the importance of domestic workers in making all other work possible. And also voiced the need for better treatment of domestic workers, as they are crucial to the functioning of other job sectors. Hence, she would agree with the statement in option C.
Option D- Poo would agree that domestic workers influence the functioning of other job sectors, but to generalise this statement to include the relationship between other sectors is beyond the scope of the passage. Option D can be eliminated.
Hence, option C is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 4

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The brave new economy being rebuilt in the wake of the financial meltdown is being built on low-wage service work, as manufacturing’s decline has accelerated and construction ground to a halt. At the beginning of the Great Recession, economist Heather Boushey noted at Slate, manufacturing and construction made up fully half the jobs lost, along with financial services and other business fields, and writers declared the “Mancession” or “He-cession” or even, as Hanna Rosin’s popular book has it, The End of Men. But as others have pointed out, as the recession drags on, it’s women who’ve faced the largest losses, not only in direct attacks on public sector jobs that are dominated by women, but in increased competition from the men pushed out of their previous professions. Some 60 percent of the jobs lost in the public sector were held by women, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. And women have regained only 12 percent of the jobs lost during the recession, while men have regained 63 percent of the jobs they lost.

Women may be overrepresented in the growing sectors of the economy, but those sectors pay poverty wages. The public sector job cuts that have been largely responsible for unemployment remaining at or near 8 percent have fallen disproportionately on women (and women of color are hit the hardest). Those good union jobs disappear, and are replaced with a minimum-wage gig at Walmart—and even in retail, women make only 90 percent of what men make.

“All work is gendered. And the economy that we have assigns different levels of value based off of that,” says Ai-Jen Poo, executive director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance. Poo came to labor organizing through feminism. As a volunteer in a domestic violence shelter for Asian immigrant women, she explains, she realized that it was women who had economic opportunities who were able to break the cycle of violence. She brings a sharp gender analysis to the struggle for respect and better treatment for the workers, mostly women, who “make all other work possible.”

“Society has devalued that work over time,” she notes of the cleaning, caring, cooking, and other work domestic workers perform, largely hidden from public view, “and we think that that has a lot to do with who’s done the work.”

This argument was at the root of the fight for access to employment outside of the “pink-collar” fields. To be trapped in women’s jobs was to be forever trapped in a certain vision of femininity. Breaking out of “women’s work” was a form of breaking through the “feminine mystique” that Betty Friedan decried. But that work still needs to be done, and, Poo notes, the conditions that have long defined domestic work and service work—instability, lack of training, lack of career pathways, low pay—are now increasingly the reality for all American workers, not just women. When we focus on equal access at the top, we miss out the real story, which historian Bethany Moreton points out, “is not ‘Oh wow, women get to be lawyers,’ but that men get to be casualized clerks.”

Q. "Breaking out of women’s work was a form of breaking through the feminine mystique". Which of the following statements best captures the sense of this statement?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 4

In the passage, the author states that "To be trapped in women’s jobs was to be forever trapped in a certain vision of femininity." So, to escape this trap, women had to engage in tasks that fell outside the ambit of acceptable work for women. 
Option A surmises this point correctly.
Options B and D are out of scope, as they discuss achieving parity with men and performing the same jobs as them. It is not necessary for women to be employed in the same jobs as men. Performing tasks that were outside the ambit of acceptable work was sufficient. 
Option C misses out on the larger picture- breaking through the vision of femininity. 
Option A is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 5

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

It’s been two decades since the Human Genome Project first unveiled a rough draft of our genetic instruction book. The promise of that medical moon shot was that doctors would soon be able to look at an individual’s DNA and prescribe the right medicines for that person’s illness or even prevent certain diseases. That promise, known as precision medicine, has yet to be fulfilled in any widespread way. True, researchers are getting clues about some genetic variants linked to certain conditions and some that affect how drugs work in the body. But many of those advances have benefited just one group: people whose ancestral roots stem from Europe. In other words, white people.

Instead of a truly human genome that represents everyone, “what we have is essentially a European genome,” says Constance Hilliard, an evolutionary historian at the University of North Texas in Denton. “That data doesn’t work for anybody apart from people of European ancestry.” She’s talking about more than the Human Genome Project’s reference genome. That database is just one of many that researchers are using to develop precision medicine strategies. Often those genetic databases draw on data mainly from white participants. But race isn’t the issue. The problem is that collectively, those data add up to a catalog of genetic variants that don’t represent the full range of human genetic diversity.

One solution is to make customized reference genomes for populations whose members die from cancer or heart disease at higher rates than other groups, for example, or who face other worse health outcomes, Hilliard suggests. Hilliard’s hypothesis is that precision medicine, which tailors treatments based on a person’s genetic data, lifestyle, environment and physiology, is more likely to succeed when researchers consider the histories of groups that have worse health outcomes.

And the more specific the better. For instance, African Americans who descended from enslaved people have geographic and ecological origins as well as evolutionary and social histories distinct from those of recent African immigrants to the United States. Those histories have left stamps in the DNA that can make a difference in people’s health today. The same goes for Indigenous people from various parts of the world and Latino people from Mexico versus the Caribbean or Central or South America.

Results of a survey conducted by Science News revealed that one big drawback to Hilliard’s proposal may be social rather than scientific. Many respondents expressed concern that even well-intentioned scientists might do research that ultimately increases bias and discrimination toward certain groups. As one respondent put it, “The idea of diversity is being stretched into an arena where racial differences will be emphasized and commonalities minimized. The fear is that any differences that are found would be exploited by those who want to denigrate others. This is truly the entry to a racist philosophy.” Indeed, the Chinese government has come under fire for using DNA to identify members of the Uighur Muslim ethnic group, singling them out for surveillance and sending some to “reeducation camps.”

Hilliard says that the argument that minorities become more vulnerable when they open themselves to genetic research is valid. “Genomics, like nuclear fusion, can be weaponized and dangerous,” she says in response to respondents' concerns. “Minorities can choose to be left out of the genomic revolution or they can make full use of it,” by adding their genetic data to the mix.

Q. Which of the following statements is Constance Hilliard least likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 5

In African American example, Hilliard says, "African Americans who descended from enslaved people have geographic and ecological origins as well as evolutionary and social histories distinct from those of recent African immigrants to the United States. Those histories have left stamps in the DNA that can make a difference in people’s health today." So, according to her, geographical ancestry affects DNA profile and hence would agree with the statement in option A.
Option C , too, follows from the inference drawn based on the African-American example elucidated above. Hilliard believes that other factors like ecological and geographical origins also play a crucial role in determining the genetic makeup.
"That data doesn’t work for anybody apart from people of European ancestry". Hilliards makes this remark on the efficacy of the existing database. Hence, she would agree with the statement in option D.
This leaves us with option B. The author does not discuss Hilliard's views on the health outcomes of minorities in the passage. And moreover, genetic data obtained from few members could potentially benefit the entire group at large. Hence, Hilliard is least likely to agree with the statement in option B.
Option B is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 6

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

It’s been two decades since the Human Genome Project first unveiled a rough draft of our genetic instruction book. The promise of that medical moon shot was that doctors would soon be able to look at an individual’s DNA and prescribe the right medicines for that person’s illness or even prevent certain diseases. That promise, known as precision medicine, has yet to be fulfilled in any widespread way. True, researchers are getting clues about some genetic variants linked to certain conditions and some that affect how drugs work in the body. But many of those advances have benefited just one group: people whose ancestral roots stem from Europe. In other words, white people.

Instead of a truly human genome that represents everyone, “what we have is essentially a European genome,” says Constance Hilliard, an evolutionary historian at the University of North Texas in Denton. “That data doesn’t work for anybody apart from people of European ancestry.” She’s talking about more than the Human Genome Project’s reference genome. That database is just one of many that researchers are using to develop precision medicine strategies. Often those genetic databases draw on data mainly from white participants. But race isn’t the issue. The problem is that collectively, those data add up to a catalog of genetic variants that don’t represent the full range of human genetic diversity.

One solution is to make customized reference genomes for populations whose members die from cancer or heart disease at higher rates than other groups, for example, or who face other worse health outcomes, Hilliard suggests. Hilliard’s hypothesis is that precision medicine, which tailors treatments based on a person’s genetic data, lifestyle, environment and physiology, is more likely to succeed when researchers consider the histories of groups that have worse health outcomes.

And the more specific the better. For instance, African Americans who descended from enslaved people have geographic and ecological origins as well as evolutionary and social histories distinct from those of recent African immigrants to the United States. Those histories have left stamps in the DNA that can make a difference in people’s health today. The same goes for Indigenous people from various parts of the world and Latino people from Mexico versus the Caribbean or Central or South America.

Results of a survey conducted by Science News revealed that one big drawback to Hilliard’s proposal may be social rather than scientific. Many respondents expressed concern that even well-intentioned scientists might do research that ultimately increases bias and discrimination toward certain groups. As one respondent put it, “The idea of diversity is being stretched into an arena where racial differences will be emphasized and commonalities minimized. The fear is that any differences that are found would be exploited by those who want to denigrate others. This is truly the entry to a racist philosophy.” Indeed, the Chinese government has come under fire for using DNA to identify members of the Uighur Muslim ethnic group, singling them out for surveillance and sending some to “reeducation camps.”

Hilliard says that the argument that minorities become more vulnerable when they open themselves to genetic research is valid. “Genomics, like nuclear fusion, can be weaponized and dangerous,” she says in response to respondents' concerns. “Minorities can choose to be left out of the genomic revolution or they can make full use of it,” by adding their genetic data to the mix.

Q. The central point in the fifth paragraph is that

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 6

{As one respondent put it, “The idea of diversity is being stretched into an arena where racial differences will be emphasized, and commonalities minimized. The fear is that any differences that are found would be exploited by those who want to denigrate others. This is truly the entry to a racist philosophy.” Indeed, the Chinese government has come under fire for using DNA to identify members of the Uighur Muslim ethnic group, singling them out for surveillance and sending some to “reeducation camps.”}
In the fifth paragraph, the author discusses one of the consequences of genetic research that many are worried about- the results being used to amplify racial differences and target certain racial/ethnic groups. Option A aptly captures this inference.
Option B is a distortion. The author does not assert that Hilliard's proposal is devoid of scientific flaws.
Options C and D are tangential to the discussion. The author does not present any information regarding discriminatory policies or diverse opinions in the passage. 

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 7

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

It’s been two decades since the Human Genome Project first unveiled a rough draft of our genetic instruction book. The promise of that medical moon shot was that doctors would soon be able to look at an individual’s DNA and prescribe the right medicines for that person’s illness or even prevent certain diseases. That promise, known as precision medicine, has yet to be fulfilled in any widespread way. True, researchers are getting clues about some genetic variants linked to certain conditions and some that affect how drugs work in the body. But many of those advances have benefited just one group: people whose ancestral roots stem from Europe. In other words, white people.

Instead of a truly human genome that represents everyone, “what we have is essentially a European genome,” says Constance Hilliard, an evolutionary historian at the University of North Texas in Denton. “That data doesn’t work for anybody apart from people of European ancestry.” She’s talking about more than the Human Genome Project’s reference genome. That database is just one of many that researchers are using to develop precision medicine strategies. Often those genetic databases draw on data mainly from white participants. But race isn’t the issue. The problem is that collectively, those data add up to a catalog of genetic variants that don’t represent the full range of human genetic diversity.

One solution is to make customized reference genomes for populations whose members die from cancer or heart disease at higher rates than other groups, for example, or who face other worse health outcomes, Hilliard suggests. Hilliard’s hypothesis is that precision medicine, which tailors treatments based on a person’s genetic data, lifestyle, environment and physiology, is more likely to succeed when researchers consider the histories of groups that have worse health outcomes.

And the more specific the better. For instance, African Americans who descended from enslaved people have geographic and ecological origins as well as evolutionary and social histories distinct from those of recent African immigrants to the United States. Those histories have left stamps in the DNA that can make a difference in people’s health today. The same goes for Indigenous people from various parts of the world and Latino people from Mexico versus the Caribbean or Central or South America.

Results of a survey conducted by Science News revealed that one big drawback to Hilliard’s proposal may be social rather than scientific. Many respondents expressed concern that even well-intentioned scientists might do research that ultimately increases bias and discrimination toward certain groups. As one respondent put it, “The idea of diversity is being stretched into an arena where racial differences will be emphasized and commonalities minimized. The fear is that any differences that are found would be exploited by those who want to denigrate others. This is truly the entry to a racist philosophy.” Indeed, the Chinese government has come under fire for using DNA to identify members of the Uighur Muslim ethnic group, singling them out for surveillance and sending some to “reeducation camps.”

Hilliard says that the argument that minorities become more vulnerable when they open themselves to genetic research is valid. “Genomics, like nuclear fusion, can be weaponized and dangerous,” she says in response to respondents' concerns. “Minorities can choose to be left out of the genomic revolution or they can make full use of it,” by adding their genetic data to the mix.

Q. "But many of those advances have benefited just one group: people whose ancestral roots stem from Europe. In other words, white people." Which of the following cannot be inferred from the statement?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 7

The statement establishes an equivalence between having ancestral origins in Europe and being white - it states that both are the same. 
Option A can be inferred. If any other race had their ancestral origins in Europe, the advances in genetic research would have benefitted that group as well.
Options B and C follow from option A. People who do not have their ancestral origins in Europe cannot be white. Alternatively, if a person is white, he must have ancestral origins in Europe. 
Option D cannot be conclusively inferred from the passage. The statement clarifies that advances in genetic research have benefitted only the people of European ancestry, and these are the white people. All white people, hence, definitely have ancestral origins in Europe. But it is not clear from the statement whether a mixed origin, i.e., having other ancestral origins and European origins, is possible and, if possible, whether it affects a person's race. Either way, option D cannot be conclusively inferred and is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 8

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

It’s been two decades since the Human Genome Project first unveiled a rough draft of our genetic instruction book. The promise of that medical moon shot was that doctors would soon be able to look at an individual’s DNA and prescribe the right medicines for that person’s illness or even prevent certain diseases. That promise, known as precision medicine, has yet to be fulfilled in any widespread way. True, researchers are getting clues about some genetic variants linked to certain conditions and some that affect how drugs work in the body. But many of those advances have benefited just one group: people whose ancestral roots stem from Europe. In other words, white people.

Instead of a truly human genome that represents everyone, “what we have is essentially a European genome,” says Constance Hilliard, an evolutionary historian at the University of North Texas in Denton. “That data doesn’t work for anybody apart from people of European ancestry.” She’s talking about more than the Human Genome Project’s reference genome. That database is just one of many that researchers are using to develop precision medicine strategies. Often those genetic databases draw on data mainly from white participants. But race isn’t the issue. The problem is that collectively, those data add up to a catalog of genetic variants that don’t represent the full range of human genetic diversity.

One solution is to make customized reference genomes for populations whose members die from cancer or heart disease at higher rates than other groups, for example, or who face other worse health outcomes, Hilliard suggests. Hilliard’s hypothesis is that precision medicine, which tailors treatments based on a person’s genetic data, lifestyle, environment and physiology, is more likely to succeed when researchers consider the histories of groups that have worse health outcomes.

And the more specific the better. For instance, African Americans who descended from enslaved people have geographic and ecological origins as well as evolutionary and social histories distinct from those of recent African immigrants to the United States. Those histories have left stamps in the DNA that can make a difference in people’s health today. The same goes for Indigenous people from various parts of the world and Latino people from Mexico versus the Caribbean or Central or South America.

Results of a survey conducted by Science News revealed that one big drawback to Hilliard’s proposal may be social rather than scientific. Many respondents expressed concern that even well-intentioned scientists might do research that ultimately increases bias and discrimination toward certain groups. As one respondent put it, “The idea of diversity is being stretched into an arena where racial differences will be emphasized and commonalities minimized. The fear is that any differences that are found would be exploited by those who want to denigrate others. This is truly the entry to a racist philosophy.” Indeed, the Chinese government has come under fire for using DNA to identify members of the Uighur Muslim ethnic group, singling them out for surveillance and sending some to “reeducation camps.”

Hilliard says that the argument that minorities become more vulnerable when they open themselves to genetic research is valid. “Genomics, like nuclear fusion, can be weaponized and dangerous,” she says in response to respondents' concerns. “Minorities can choose to be left out of the genomic revolution or they can make full use of it,” by adding their genetic data to the mix.

Q. Hilliard likens Genomics to nuclear fusion for which one of the following reasons?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 8

Options A, B and D require extraneous information and hence cannot be concluded from the passage. The passage does not discuss the potential effects of nuclear fusion on minorities or its penetration in various countries, or the human capital required. 
The author presents the benefits that genomics could bring about and also discusses Hilliard's response to concerns over the potential misuse of the results obtained. {Hilliard says that the argument that minorities become more vulnerable when they open themselves to genetic research is valid}. Hillard further remarks that, "Genomics, like nuclear fusion, can be weaponized and dangerous". This brings out the other side of the story. 
Hence, option C is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 9

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Cryptocurrencies have long been heralded as the future of finance, but it wasn’t until 2020 that it finally caught on to an old idea: making money with money. In the crypto world, decentralized finance (or DeFi) encompasses a wide array of blockchain-based applications intended to enhance cryptocurrency holders’ returns without relying on intermediaries — to earn the kind of passive returns an investor might get from a savings account, a Treasury bill, or an Apple Inc. bond.

The idea seems to be catching fire: Deposits in DeFi applications grew from about $1 billion in June to just under $40 billion by late January 2021, suggesting that DeFi could be a major element of crypto from here on out. In the tradition of disruptive innovations — as Clayton Christensen envisioned them — DeFi can be the evolution of blockchain technology that might launch it into mainstream.

The premise of DeFi is simple: Fix the longstanding inefficiency in crypto finance of capital being kept idle at a nonzero opportunity cost. Now, most investors buy crypto with the hope that the value of the currency itself will rise, as Bitcoin has. In general, that strategy has worked just fine. The value of cryptocurrencies has appreciated so rapidly that there just wasn’t much incentive to worry about gains of a few percent here and there.

But the recent rise of stablecoins, which are designed keep their value constant, has changed that calculation. The combined market cap of stablecoins such as Terra and USDC has more than quadrupled in 2020. Now, vast passive income opportunities are being awakened by DeFi.

The appeal of a lower-risk approach to crypto is obvious and has the potential to expand the pool of investors. For the first time, it’s possible to be compensated for owning cryptos (even in the absence of price appreciation), which brings real, tangible utilities to digital currencies and changes the narrative of an asset class whose sole purpose used to be about being sold at a higher price. Therefore, many of the DeFi protocols today might have the potential to become big and bold enough to rival their centralized counterparts, while staying true to their decentralized roots. Furthermore, with volatility out of the picture and the promise of more stable returns, institutional investors are now considering crypto as part of their investments in alternatives.

The search for passive returns on crypto assets, called “yield farming,” is already taking shape on a number of new lending platforms. Compound Labs has launched one of the biggest DeFi lending platforms, where users can now borrow and lend any cryptocurrency on a short-term basis at algorithmically determined rates. A prototypical yield farmer moves assets around pools on Compound, constantly chasing the pool offering the highest annual percentage yield (APY). Practically, it echoes a strategy in traditional finance — a foreign currency carry trade — where a trader seeks to borrow the currency charging a lower interest rate and lend the one offering a higher return.

Crypto yield farming, however, offers more incentives. For instance, by depositing stablecoins into a digital account, investors would be rewarded in at least two ways. First, they receive the APY on their deposits. Second, and more importantly, certain protocols offer an additional subsidy, in the form of a new token, on top of the yield that it charges the borrower and pays to the lender.

Q. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?
I. DeFi is a form of finance that does not rely on financial intermediaries.
II. Capital invested in crypto finance would have zero opportunity cost with increased deposits in DeFi applications.
III. Deposits in DeFi applications would make cryptocurrency investments free from volatility.
IV. People follow traditional financial strategies on DeFi lending platforms.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 9

"Decentralized finance (or DeFi) encompasses a wide array of blockchain-based applications intended to enhance cryptocurrency holders’ returns without relying on intermediaries". Statement I can be inferred from this line.
"The premise of DeFi is simple: Fix the longstanding inefficiency in crypto finance of capital being kept idle at a nonzero opportunity cost." However, it is not possible to conclude from this line that the opportunity cost would come down to zero. Statement II cannot be inferred.
Statement III cannot be inferred either. The passage only talks about reduced volatility, in the case of DeFi lending platforms and stablecoins. 
The passage only discusses a one-off example, i.e., about 'yield farming', in the case of Compound, and how investors follow a traditional financial strategy. However, this one example cannot be the basis to conclude that people, in general,  follow traditional financial strategies on DeFi lending platforms.
Hence, statements II, III and IV cannot be inferred. Option C is the answer. 

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 10

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Cryptocurrencies have long been heralded as the future of finance, but it wasn’t until 2020 that it finally caught on to an old idea: making money with money. In the crypto world, decentralized finance (or DeFi) encompasses a wide array of blockchain-based applications intended to enhance cryptocurrency holders’ returns without relying on intermediaries — to earn the kind of passive returns an investor might get from a savings account, a Treasury bill, or an Apple Inc. bond.

The idea seems to be catching fire: Deposits in DeFi applications grew from about $1 billion in June to just under $40 billion by late January 2021, suggesting that DeFi could be a major element of crypto from here on out. In the tradition of disruptive innovations — as Clayton Christensen envisioned them — DeFi can be the evolution of blockchain technology that might launch it into mainstream.

The premise of DeFi is simple: Fix the longstanding inefficiency in crypto finance of capital being kept idle at a nonzero opportunity cost. Now, most investors buy crypto with the hope that the value of the currency itself will rise, as Bitcoin has. In general, that strategy has worked just fine. The value of cryptocurrencies has appreciated so rapidly that there just wasn’t much incentive to worry about gains of a few percent here and there.

But the recent rise of stablecoins, which are designed keep their value constant, has changed that calculation. The combined market cap of stablecoins such as Terra and USDC has more than quadrupled in 2020. Now, vast passive income opportunities are being awakened by DeFi.

The appeal of a lower-risk approach to crypto is obvious and has the potential to expand the pool of investors. For the first time, it’s possible to be compensated for owning cryptos (even in the absence of price appreciation), which brings real, tangible utilities to digital currencies and changes the narrative of an asset class whose sole purpose used to be about being sold at a higher price. Therefore, many of the DeFi protocols today might have the potential to become big and bold enough to rival their centralized counterparts, while staying true to their decentralized roots. Furthermore, with volatility out of the picture and the promise of more stable returns, institutional investors are now considering crypto as part of their investments in alternatives.

The search for passive returns on crypto assets, called “yield farming,” is already taking shape on a number of new lending platforms. Compound Labs has launched one of the biggest DeFi lending platforms, where users can now borrow and lend any cryptocurrency on a short-term basis at algorithmically determined rates. A prototypical yield farmer moves assets around pools on Compound, constantly chasing the pool offering the highest annual percentage yield (APY). Practically, it echoes a strategy in traditional finance — a foreign currency carry trade — where a trader seeks to borrow the currency charging a lower interest rate and lend the one offering a higher return.

Crypto yield farming, however, offers more incentives. For instance, by depositing stablecoins into a digital account, investors would be rewarded in at least two ways. First, they receive the APY on their deposits. Second, and more importantly, certain protocols offer an additional subsidy, in the form of a new token, on top of the yield that it charges the borrower and pays to the lender.

Q. Which of the following would the author cite as a reason for activity in DeFi applications being nascent until recently?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 10

"The value of cryptocurrencies has appreciated so rapidly that there just wasn’t much incentive to worry about gains of a few percent here and there". Option B can be inferred from this line.
Options A,C and D have not been mentioned in the passage and can be eliminated. Option B is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 11

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Cryptocurrencies have long been heralded as the future of finance, but it wasn’t until 2020 that it finally caught on to an old idea: making money with money. In the crypto world, decentralized finance (or DeFi) encompasses a wide array of blockchain-based applications intended to enhance cryptocurrency holders’ returns without relying on intermediaries — to earn the kind of passive returns an investor might get from a savings account, a Treasury bill, or an Apple Inc. bond.

The idea seems to be catching fire: Deposits in DeFi applications grew from about $1 billion in June to just under $40 billion by late January 2021, suggesting that DeFi could be a major element of crypto from here on out. In the tradition of disruptive innovations — as Clayton Christensen envisioned them — DeFi can be the evolution of blockchain technology that might launch it into mainstream.

The premise of DeFi is simple: Fix the longstanding inefficiency in crypto finance of capital being kept idle at a nonzero opportunity cost. Now, most investors buy crypto with the hope that the value of the currency itself will rise, as Bitcoin has. In general, that strategy has worked just fine. The value of cryptocurrencies has appreciated so rapidly that there just wasn’t much incentive to worry about gains of a few percent here and there.

But the recent rise of stablecoins, which are designed keep their value constant, has changed that calculation. The combined market cap of stablecoins such as Terra and USDC has more than quadrupled in 2020. Now, vast passive income opportunities are being awakened by DeFi.

The appeal of a lower-risk approach to crypto is obvious and has the potential to expand the pool of investors. For the first time, it’s possible to be compensated for owning cryptos (even in the absence of price appreciation), which brings real, tangible utilities to digital currencies and changes the narrative of an asset class whose sole purpose used to be about being sold at a higher price. Therefore, many of the DeFi protocols today might have the potential to become big and bold enough to rival their centralized counterparts, while staying true to their decentralized roots. Furthermore, with volatility out of the picture and the promise of more stable returns, institutional investors are now considering crypto as part of their investments in alternatives.

The search for passive returns on crypto assets, called “yield farming,” is already taking shape on a number of new lending platforms. Compound Labs has launched one of the biggest DeFi lending platforms, where users can now borrow and lend any cryptocurrency on a short-term basis at algorithmically determined rates. A prototypical yield farmer moves assets around pools on Compound, constantly chasing the pool offering the highest annual percentage yield (APY). Practically, it echoes a strategy in traditional finance — a foreign currency carry trade — where a trader seeks to borrow the currency charging a lower interest rate and lend the one offering a higher return.

Crypto yield farming, however, offers more incentives. For instance, by depositing stablecoins into a digital account, investors would be rewarded in at least two ways. First, they receive the APY on their deposits. Second, and more importantly, certain protocols offer an additional subsidy, in the form of a new token, on top of the yield that it charges the borrower and pays to the lender.

Q. According to the passage, a 'crypto currency' carry trade would necessarily involve
I. Borrowing from the pool charging a lower algorithmically determined rate.
II. Converting the borrowed cryptocurrency into another cryptocurrency offering a higher algorithmically determined rate and lending it out.
III. Not collecting the return from cryptocurrency lent out until the exchange rate resets to the value at the time of borrowing.
IV. Profit or loss due to difference in borrowed and lent out rates. 

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 11

According to the passage, in carry trade, a "trader seeks to borrow the currency charging a lower interest rate and lend the one offering a higher return." So, statement I is true.
Statement II cannot be inferred. The author does not mention  a changing form of cryptocurrency. A person may borrow from a pool with lower rate and lend in a pool with higher rate, while both pools use the same cryptocurrency. 
Statement III cannot be inferred from the passage. The example of Compound Labs mentions that trade happens on a short-term basis. The exchange rate and its significance have not been mentioned. 
Statement IV is true. The difference in rates would be the return for the investor. 

So, option C is the answer.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 12

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

Cryptocurrencies have long been heralded as the future of finance, but it wasn’t until 2020 that it finally caught on to an old idea: making money with money. In the crypto world, decentralized finance (or DeFi) encompasses a wide array of blockchain-based applications intended to enhance cryptocurrency holders’ returns without relying on intermediaries — to earn the kind of passive returns an investor might get from a savings account, a Treasury bill, or an Apple Inc. bond.

The idea seems to be catching fire: Deposits in DeFi applications grew from about $1 billion in June to just under $40 billion by late January 2021, suggesting that DeFi could be a major element of crypto from here on out. In the tradition of disruptive innovations — as Clayton Christensen envisioned them — DeFi can be the evolution of blockchain technology that might launch it into mainstream.

The premise of DeFi is simple: Fix the longstanding inefficiency in crypto finance of capital being kept idle at a nonzero opportunity cost. Now, most investors buy crypto with the hope that the value of the currency itself will rise, as Bitcoin has. In general, that strategy has worked just fine. The value of cryptocurrencies has appreciated so rapidly that there just wasn’t much incentive to worry about gains of a few percent here and there.

But the recent rise of stablecoins, which are designed keep their value constant, has changed that calculation. The combined market cap of stablecoins such as Terra and USDC has more than quadrupled in 2020. Now, vast passive income opportunities are being awakened by DeFi.

The appeal of a lower-risk approach to crypto is obvious and has the potential to expand the pool of investors. For the first time, it’s possible to be compensated for owning cryptos (even in the absence of price appreciation), which brings real, tangible utilities to digital currencies and changes the narrative of an asset class whose sole purpose used to be about being sold at a higher price. Therefore, many of the DeFi protocols today might have the potential to become big and bold enough to rival their centralized counterparts, while staying true to their decentralized roots. Furthermore, with volatility out of the picture and the promise of more stable returns, institutional investors are now considering crypto as part of their investments in alternatives.

The search for passive returns on crypto assets, called “yield farming,” is already taking shape on a number of new lending platforms. Compound Labs has launched one of the biggest DeFi lending platforms, where users can now borrow and lend any cryptocurrency on a short-term basis at algorithmically determined rates. A prototypical yield farmer moves assets around pools on Compound, constantly chasing the pool offering the highest annual percentage yield (APY). Practically, it echoes a strategy in traditional finance — a foreign currency carry trade — where a trader seeks to borrow the currency charging a lower interest rate and lend the one offering a higher return.

Crypto yield farming, however, offers more incentives. For instance, by depositing stablecoins into a digital account, investors would be rewarded in at least two ways. First, they receive the APY on their deposits. Second, and more importantly, certain protocols offer an additional subsidy, in the form of a new token, on top of the yield that it charges the borrower and pays to the lender.

Q. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 12

Option A talks about a 'crisis', which is out of scope. Option A can be eliminated.
Option B can be eliminated. The author does not talk about the shortcomings of blockchain technology in the passage. Also, rather than highlighting anything unconventional about cryptocurrencies, the author attempts to bring about a development in the area that mirrors conventional investment logic. 
Option D is close but goes beyond the scope of the passage. The focus is only on DeFi and not other income opportunities. Also, earning income through interests is not a novel concept.
Option C is the answer. The passage talks about a longstanding inefficiency  in crypto finance of capital being kept idle at a nonzero opportunity cost and how DeFi could help overcome this issue. The passage further highlights the future potential of DeFi. 

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 13

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

When investigating witchcraft, one needs to differentiate between real and imaginary magic in the early modern period. If we want to understand the connection between the imaginary magic of the witches and economic behaviour, we need to deal with the connection between the economy and the real magic practised by ‘common’ people. In pre-industrial Europe, magic was a part of everyday life, very much like religion. People didn’t just believe in the efficacy of magic, they actively tried to use magic themselves. Simple forms of divination and healing magic were common, as was magic related to agriculture. The peasant household used divination to find out if the time was right for certain agricultural activities. Charms were supposed to keep the livestock in good health. Urban artisans and merchants also used economic magic to increase their wealth.

Of all the forms of magic, magical treasure-hunting had the greatest economic significance. Treasure hunters drew on a vast magical arsenal. They had spell books of any description, divining rods available in any kind of wood, amulets to protect them against evil spirits, and lead tablets etched with magical signs.  To the utter horror of the ecclesiastical authorities, they invoked angels and saints. Treasure hunters talked to ghosts. Some of them even tried to conjure up demons. However,  common people simply didn’t see treasure magic as witchcraft, and most of the judges agreed. 

Separate from these real forms of magic, there was the imaginary magic of the witches. Nobody was ever (or could ever be) guilty of witchcraft in the full sense of the word, which was defined by the late Middle Ages as a crime that consisted of five elements: a pact with the devil; sexual intercourse with demons; the magical flight (on a broomstick or a similar device); the witches’ dance (often referred to by the antisemitic term ‘witches’ sabbath’); and malevolent magic. Early modern Europe and Britain treated witchcraft as a capital crime.

At first glance, the relation between the economy and the imaginary magic of the witches seems to be entirely negative. Witches were often accused of attacking livestock. They magically made frost, storm and hail, and thereby caused crop failure. Indeed, their weather magic was said to endanger the economy of entire regions. Still, at least in the majority of the witch trials on the European continent, the witches didn’t profit from their magic. Weather magic especially looked like a strange form of auto-aggression because the hailstorms the witches supposedly conjured up damaged their own fields as well. As a rule, the pact with the devil as it appears in trial records was not a contract like that of Goethe’s Faust, which was mostly about the wishes of the magician. Rather, it stated simply that the witch submitted to the will of the demon. She did what a demon told her and became the instrument of the demon’s abyssal hatred of all creation. Witchcraft was mostly about destruction for destruction’s sake, not about the personal interests and wishes of the witches, let alone their economic advantage.

Q. Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 13

In the passage, the author mentions that 'common people' did not see treasure magic as witchcraft. However, the author does not validate this opinion. Furthermore, the author points out how treasure hunters too tried to summon demons. Hence, it is not possible to conclude that treasure hunters were not involved in witchcraft or vice-versa. Option A is incorrect.
Option B is correct. Real magic manifested in different forms, including healing magic, agricultural magic and merchants used economic magic to increase their wealth. So, it clearly had an economic significance. Similarly, the imaginary magic, majorly weather magic, was held responsible for destroying farms and livestock.
Option C is wrong. The author does not make any such attempt.
Option D is a distortion. The different forms of magic had an economic significance or impact. But it is not possible to conclude from the passage that these mentalities shaped the evolution of various forms of magic. Option D can be eliminated. 

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 14

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

When investigating witchcraft, one needs to differentiate between real and imaginary magic in the early modern period. If we want to understand the connection between the imaginary magic of the witches and economic behaviour, we need to deal with the connection between the economy and the real magic practised by ‘common’ people. In pre-industrial Europe, magic was a part of everyday life, very much like religion. People didn’t just believe in the efficacy of magic, they actively tried to use magic themselves. Simple forms of divination and healing magic were common, as was magic related to agriculture. The peasant household used divination to find out if the time was right for certain agricultural activities. Charms were supposed to keep the livestock in good health. Urban artisans and merchants also used economic magic to increase their wealth.

Of all the forms of magic, magical treasure-hunting had the greatest economic significance. Treasure hunters drew on a vast magical arsenal. They had spell books of any description, divining rods available in any kind of wood, amulets to protect them against evil spirits, and lead tablets etched with magical signs.  To the utter horror of the ecclesiastical authorities, they invoked angels and saints. Treasure hunters talked to ghosts. Some of them even tried to conjure up demons. However,  common people simply didn’t see treasure magic as witchcraft, and most of the judges agreed. 

Separate from these real forms of magic, there was the imaginary magic of the witches. Nobody was ever (or could ever be) guilty of witchcraft in the full sense of the word, which was defined by the late Middle Ages as a crime that consisted of five elements: a pact with the devil; sexual intercourse with demons; the magical flight (on a broomstick or a similar device); the witches’ dance (often referred to by the antisemitic term ‘witches’ sabbath’); and malevolent magic. Early modern Europe and Britain treated witchcraft as a capital crime.

At first glance, the relation between the economy and the imaginary magic of the witches seems to be entirely negative. Witches were often accused of attacking livestock. They magically made frost, storm and hail, and thereby caused crop failure. Indeed, their weather magic was said to endanger the economy of entire regions. Still, at least in the majority of the witch trials on the European continent, the witches didn’t profit from their magic. Weather magic especially looked like a strange form of auto-aggression because the hailstorms the witches supposedly conjured up damaged their own fields as well. As a rule, the pact with the devil as it appears in trial records was not a contract like that of Goethe’s Faust, which was mostly about the wishes of the magician. Rather, it stated simply that the witch submitted to the will of the demon. She did what a demon told her and became the instrument of the demon’s abyssal hatred of all creation. Witchcraft was mostly about destruction for destruction’s sake, not about the personal interests and wishes of the witches, let alone their economic advantage.

Q. Which of the following statements about magical treasure hunting and/or treasure hunters cannot be inferred? 

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 14

The passage states that most judges agreed with the common people's view that treasure magic was not related to witchcraft. However, this is not sufficient ground to posit that the other judges disagreed with the prevalent notion. They might not have had an opinion at all. Option A cannot be inferred. 
"To the utter horror of the ecclesiastical authorities, they invoked angels and saints." Option B can be inferred from this line. 'Ecclesiastical' means associated with the church.
From the first few lines of the second paragraph, it is clear that treasure hunters used spell books, divining rods, lead tablets etc., for magical purposes. So, option C can be inferred as well. 

Option B is the answer. 

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 15

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

When investigating witchcraft, one needs to differentiate between real and imaginary magic in the early modern period. If we want to understand the connection between the imaginary magic of the witches and economic behaviour, we need to deal with the connection between the economy and the real magic practised by ‘common’ people. In pre-industrial Europe, magic was a part of everyday life, very much like religion. People didn’t just believe in the efficacy of magic, they actively tried to use magic themselves. Simple forms of divination and healing magic were common, as was magic related to agriculture. The peasant household used divination to find out if the time was right for certain agricultural activities. Charms were supposed to keep the livestock in good health. Urban artisans and merchants also used economic magic to increase their wealth.

Of all the forms of magic, magical treasure-hunting had the greatest economic significance. Treasure hunters drew on a vast magical arsenal. They had spell books of any description, divining rods available in any kind of wood, amulets to protect them against evil spirits, and lead tablets etched with magical signs.  To the utter horror of the ecclesiastical authorities, they invoked angels and saints. Treasure hunters talked to ghosts. Some of them even tried to conjure up demons. However,  common people simply didn’t see treasure magic as witchcraft, and most of the judges agreed. 

Separate from these real forms of magic, there was the imaginary magic of the witches. Nobody was ever (or could ever be) guilty of witchcraft in the full sense of the word, which was defined by the late Middle Ages as a crime that consisted of five elements: a pact with the devil; sexual intercourse with demons; the magical flight (on a broomstick or a similar device); the witches’ dance (often referred to by the antisemitic term ‘witches’ sabbath’); and malevolent magic. Early modern Europe and Britain treated witchcraft as a capital crime.

At first glance, the relation between the economy and the imaginary magic of the witches seems to be entirely negative. Witches were often accused of attacking livestock. They magically made frost, storm and hail, and thereby caused crop failure. Indeed, their weather magic was said to endanger the economy of entire regions. Still, at least in the majority of the witch trials on the European continent, the witches didn’t profit from their magic. Weather magic especially looked like a strange form of auto-aggression because the hailstorms the witches supposedly conjured up damaged their own fields as well. As a rule, the pact with the devil as it appears in trial records was not a contract like that of Goethe’s Faust, which was mostly about the wishes of the magician. Rather, it stated simply that the witch submitted to the will of the demon. She did what a demon told her and became the instrument of the demon’s abyssal hatred of all creation. Witchcraft was mostly about destruction for destruction’s sake, not about the personal interests and wishes of the witches, let alone their economic advantage.

Q. "Nobody was ever (or could ever be) guilty of witchcraft in the full sense of the word." Which of the following is the most likely reason for the author making this claim?

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 15

In the late middle ages, witchcraft was defined as a crime that consisted of five elements-a pact with the devil; sexual intercourse with demons; the magical flight (on a broomstick or a similar device); the witches’ dance (often referred to by the antisemitic term ‘witches’ sabbath’); and malevolent magic. A person's involvement in all five of these activities was necessary to be convicted of practising witchcraft. It is quite obvious that involvement in at least 3 of the 5 activities is impossible to prove when taken in its literal sense. . Option C aptly conveys this inference and is the answer.
Options B and D are close but beyond the scope of the passage. It could be quite possible to prove involvement in witches' sabbath. We cannot make a conclusion regarding this based on the information from the passage, but option C holds regardless. Option A is wrong. The passage clearly explains how witchcraft was defined as a crime in the late middle ages and the activities that amounted to it.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 16

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:

When investigating witchcraft, one needs to differentiate between real and imaginary magic in the early modern period. If we want to understand the connection between the imaginary magic of the witches and economic behaviour, we need to deal with the connection between the economy and the real magic practised by ‘common’ people. In pre-industrial Europe, magic was a part of everyday life, very much like religion. People didn’t just believe in the efficacy of magic, they actively tried to use magic themselves. Simple forms of divination and healing magic were common, as was magic related to agriculture. The peasant household used divination to find out if the time was right for certain agricultural activities. Charms were supposed to keep the livestock in good health. Urban artisans and merchants also used economic magic to increase their wealth.

Of all the forms of magic, magical treasure-hunting had the greatest economic significance. Treasure hunters drew on a vast magical arsenal. They had spell books of any description, divining rods available in any kind of wood, amulets to protect them against evil spirits, and lead tablets etched with magical signs.  To the utter horror of the ecclesiastical authorities, they invoked angels and saints. Treasure hunters talked to ghosts. Some of them even tried to conjure up demons. However,  common people simply didn’t see treasure magic as witchcraft, and most of the judges agreed. 

Separate from these real forms of magic, there was the imaginary magic of the witches. Nobody was ever (or could ever be) guilty of witchcraft in the full sense of the word, which was defined by the late Middle Ages as a crime that consisted of five elements: a pact with the devil; sexual intercourse with demons; the magical flight (on a broomstick or a similar device); the witches’ dance (often referred to by the antisemitic term ‘witches’ sabbath’); and malevolent magic. Early modern Europe and Britain treated witchcraft as a capital crime.

At first glance, the relation between the economy and the imaginary magic of the witches seems to be entirely negative. Witches were often accused of attacking livestock. They magically made frost, storm and hail, and thereby caused crop failure. Indeed, their weather magic was said to endanger the economy of entire regions. Still, at least in the majority of the witch trials on the European continent, the witches didn’t profit from their magic. Weather magic especially looked like a strange form of auto-aggression because the hailstorms the witches supposedly conjured up damaged their own fields as well. As a rule, the pact with the devil as it appears in trial records was not a contract like that of Goethe’s Faust, which was mostly about the wishes of the magician. Rather, it stated simply that the witch submitted to the will of the demon. She did what a demon told her and became the instrument of the demon’s abyssal hatred of all creation. Witchcraft was mostly about destruction for destruction’s sake, not about the personal interests and wishes of the witches, let alone their economic advantage.

Q. In pre-industrial Europe, magic was practised for all of the following purposes, EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 16

"Urban artisans and merchants also used economic magic to increase their wealth." Option A can be inferred from this line.
"Charms were supposed to keep the livestock in good health". Option B can be inferred from this line.
Peasant households used divination to ascertain the right time for certain agricultural practices. The passage makes no mention of remedies to improve crop health. Option C cannot be inferred.
Simple divination was practised. Divination refers to the practice of seeking knowledge of the future by supernatural means; in this case, magic.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 17

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. Some infections are noisy.
  2. Other microbes are silent houseguests, so unobtrusive that we don’t even notice them.
  3. They come with signs and symptoms of illness, either because the pathogen is causing a ruckus or because the body has grown cantankerous in its effort to evict an unwelcome tenant.
  4. Coronavirus infections seem capable of running the gamut.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 17

1 will immediately precede 3 because "they" in 3 refers to "some infections" in 1, and the word "ruckus" in 3 is also related to "some infections" being "noisy" in 1. 2 will come immediately after 3 because 1 and 3 talk about some infections. And 2 talks about the "other microbes". 4 will clearly be the concluding sentences stating the coronavirus has both the features discussed in the previous lines. Hence, the order will be 1324.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 18

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

  1. The stated aim was to prevent foreign workers from cornering jobs in the context of the economic distress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
  2. By some estimates, H-1B visa applications of up to 219,000 workers were likely blocked as a result of Mr. Trump’s proclamation last June, halting the processing and issuance of non-immigrant work visas of several types.
  3. Mr. Biden’s action will have a significant and favourable impact for Indian nationals seeking employment with U.S. tech firms, given that they were the largest demographic to benefit from this visa annually.
  4. President Joe Biden allowed a ban on issuance of H-1B visas for skilled workers to lapse at the end of March 2021, a move signalling his intent to pull the U.S. back from harsh immigration rules imposed by his predecessor, Donald Trump.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 18

Sentence 4 would be the starting sentence because it sets the context of the paragraph. "Mr. Biden’s action" in 3 refers to him permitting a ban on issuance of H-1B visas for skilled workers to lapse as stated in 4. So, 3 will follow 4. Sentence 1 will follow 2 because the aim stated in 1 is of Mr. Trump halting the processing and issuance of non-immigrant work visas as stated in 2. Hence, we get the sequence 4321.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 19

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

  1. It was found that he had discreetly made a trip to Dhanbad.
  2. Both the agencies are concurrently probing the scam.
  3. Investigation agencies CBI and Enforcement Directorate conducted joint raids at various places in West Bengal in connection with the multi-crore coal pilferage scam.
  4. CBI has already examined a Trinamool Congress MP's wife for her alleged involvement in the coal scam.
  5. While CBI is looking after the criminal aspect of it, ED is delving into the money laundering angle of the scam.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 19

"he' in 1 refers to the Trinamool Congress MP. 1 is clearly the odd one out because if the Trinamool Congress MP's wife was allegedly involved in the scam, him making a trip to Dhanbad, discreetly or otherwise, is of no relevance here. Also, sequence 3245 make a coherent paragraph.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 20

Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

  1. A young American journalist, born into immense privilege, began publishing articles from South Vietnam in leading magazines, including The Atlantic.
  2. Rather than competing with her male colleagues, she spent time in hospitals, villages, and slums, and she became engrossed in the politics of Buddhist students, the tragedies of refugees, the strategy of the Viet Cong, the history and culture of Vietnam.
  3. All focused their reporting on the fighting, and on the lies and failures of American officialdom.
  4. The Vietnam War had produced some of the greatest journalism of the century and made the reputations of young reporters such as David Halberstam, Neil Sheehan (who died earlier this year) and Malcolm Browne, and all of them were men.
  5. But FitzGerald pursued a different story as she was profoundly shocked by the suffering of the Vietnamese—not just the death, injury, and displacement, but the loss of identity under the crushing weight of the Americans.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 20

Sentence 1 is the odd one out as the American journalist mentioned in the sentence does not necessarily refer to Fitzgerald and it does not fit in the coherent para formed by the rest of the sentences when arranged in sequence 4352.
Sentence 4 will be the starting sentence because it does not depend on any other sentence and sets the context for the rest of the sentences to follow. 3 will follow 4 since 'all' in 3 refers to the male journalists mentioned in 4. 5 will follow 3 as it tells us that Fitzgerald did not take the usual path as mentioned in 3, and 2 will follow 5 as it further elaborates on the path taken by Fitzgerald.

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 21

Modern history abounds with violence fueled by apocalyptic myths, not always explicitly religious in nature. The aim of the Jacobin terror in revolutionary France was the creation of a modern state. If the violent suppression of the peasant revolt in the Vendée is included, the casualties ran into the hundreds of thousands. The myths that possessed these anarchists in their campaigns of assassination were secular myths of social transformation. Lenin avowedly followed the Jacobin example when he used the Cheka to create a modern state in Russia. One of the factors that distinguished Nazism and fascism from conventional tyrannies was the belief that a new society could be fashioned by the systematic use of terror. Violent jihadism has more in common with these modern totalitarian movements than is commonly supposed.

Detailed Solution for CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 21

Option A: Violent jihadism is justified on the secular myth of social transformation, rather than idea of religious apocalypse.

The paragraph we have argues that violent jihadism has a lot in common with the totalitarian movements in history which were powered by the promise of social transformation. But the paragraph does not say that violent jihadism is not based on the idea of religious apocalypse. Also, this option does not sum up the paragraph we have. So this is definitely ruled out.

Option B: The myth of social transformation has underpinned many totalitarian movements in modern history, and violent jihadism too exploits this.

This, clearly, is the main idea of the paragraph. Many totalitarian movements in modern history have been fueled by the myth of social transformation. Violent jihadism also draws on this idea. Option B summarizes the paragraph well.

Option C: Although it is believed that violence is fueled by religion, the reality is that it is unleashed on the premise of the creation of a modern state.

This option categorially rules out the idea that violence is fueled by religion. It claims that it is only unleashed on the premise of the creation of a modern state. This is not what the paragraph given states. It states that violence is fueled by apocalyptic myths which are "not always"? explicitly religious. So we rule this option out.

Option D: Modern history illustrates that it is a myth that societies can be transformed by the systematic use of terror.

This option says that societies cannot be transformed by the systematic use of terror and that modern history confirms this. Clearly, this is not what the paragraph conveys and so this is not the right option to sum up the paragraph.

Hence, the answer is B

CAT Mock Test- 9 - Question 22

When a language seems especially telegraphic (that is, requiring less to be actually said to put a sentence together), it is usually because enough adults learnt it at a certain stage in its history that, given the difficulty of learning a new language after childhood, it became a kind of stripped-down 'schoolroom"? version of itself. Because all languages, are, to some extent, busier than they need to be, this streamlining leaves the language thoroughly complex and nuanced, just lighter on the bric-a-brac that so many languages pant under. For example, Indonesian, one of the most economical languages in the world, is a first language to only one in four of its speakers; the language has been used for many centuries as a lingua franca in a vast region, imposed on speakers of several hundred languages. This means that while other languages can be like overgrown lawns, Indonesian’s grammar has been regularly mowed, such that especially the colloquial forms are tidier.