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Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - CAT MCQ


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24 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2024 - Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6

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Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 1

Directions: Answer the given question based on the following passage.

Like the geography of the planet, the human body has, until now, represented a fixed point in human experience, a 'given'. Today, we are fast approaching the day when the body can no longer be regarded as fixed. Man will be able, within a reasonably short period, to redesign not merely individual bodies, but the entire human race.
In 1962, Dr. J. D. Watson and Dr. F. H. C. Crick received the Nobel Prize for describing the DNA molecules. Since then, advances in genetics have come tripping over one another at a rapid pace. Molecular biology is now about to explode from the laboratories. New genetic knowledge will permit us to tinker with human heredity and manipulate the genes to create altogether new versions of man.
One of the more fantastic possibilities is that man will be able to make biological carbon copies of himself. Through a process called 'cloning', it will be possible to grow, from the nucleus of an adult cell, a new organism that has the same genetic characteristics of the person contributing the cell nucleus. The resultant human 'copy' would start life with a genetic endowment identical to that of the donor, although cultural differences might thereafter alter the personality or physical development of the clone.
Cloning will make it possible for people to see themselves born anew, to fill the world with twins of themselves. Cloning would, among other things, provide us with solid empirical evidence to help us resolve, once and for all, the ancient controversy over 'nature and nurture' or 'heredity and environment'. The solution of this problem, through the determination of the role played by each, would be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development. Whole libraries of philosophical speculation could, by a single stroke, be rendered irrelevant. An answer to this question would open the way for speedy, qualitative advances in psychology, moral philosophy and a dozen other fields.
But, cloning could also create undreamed of complications for the race. There is a certain charm to the idea of Albert Einstein bequeathing copies of himself to posterity. But, what of Adolf Hitler? Should there be laws to regulate cloning? Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg, a scientist who takes his social responsibility very seriously, believes it conceivable that those most likely to replicate themselves will be those who are the most narcissistic and that the clones they produce will also be narcissists.
Even if narcissism, however, is culturally, rather than biologically transmitted, there are other eerie difficulties. Thus, Lederberg raises a question as to whether human cloning, if permitted, might not 'go critical'. 'I use that phrase,' he said, 'in almost exactly the same sense that is involved in nuclear energy. It will go critical if there is a sufficient positive advantage to doing so....This has to do with whether the efficiency of communication, particularly along educational lines, is increased between identical genotypes or not. The similarity of neurological hardware might make it easier for identical copies to transmit technical and other insights from one generation to the next.'

Q. It can be inferred that when the author states "New genetic knowledge will permit us ... create altogether new versions of man," the author most likely

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 1

Refer to the line preceding the given line, "In 1962, Dr. J. D. Watson and Dr. F. H. C. Crick received the Nobel Prize for describing the DNA molecules. Since then, advances in genetics have come tripping over one another at a rapid pace. Molecular biology is now about to explode from the laboratories." This suggests that the writer is trying to highlight the advances made by human in the field of biology. So, option 3 is the answer.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 2

Directions: Answer the given question based on the following passage.

Like the geography of the planet, the human body has, until now, represented a fixed point in human experience, a 'given'. Today, we are fast approaching the day when the body can no longer be regarded as fixed. Man will be able, within a reasonably short period, to redesign not merely individual bodies, but the entire human race.
In 1962, Dr. J. D. Watson and Dr. F. H. C. Crick received the Nobel Prize for describing the DNA molecules. Since then, advances in genetics have come tripping over one another at a rapid pace. Molecular biology is now about to explode from the laboratories. New genetic knowledge will permit us to tinker with human heredity and manipulate the genes to create altogether new versions of man.
One of the more fantastic possibilities is that man will be able to make biological carbon copies of himself. Through a process called 'cloning', it will be possible to grow, from the nucleus of an adult cell, a new organism that has the same genetic characteristics of the person contributing the cell nucleus. The resultant human 'copy' would start life with a genetic endowment identical to that of the donor, although cultural differences might thereafter alter the personality or physical development of the clone.
Cloning will make it possible for people to see themselves born anew, to fill the world with twins of themselves. Cloning would, among other things, provide us with solid empirical evidence to help us resolve, once and for all, the ancient controversy over 'nature and nurture' or 'heredity and environment'. The solution of this problem, through the determination of the role played by each, would be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development. Whole libraries of philosophical speculation could, by a single stroke, be rendered irrelevant. An answer to this question would open the way for speedy, qualitative advances in psychology, moral philosophy and a dozen other fields.
But, cloning could also create undreamed of complications for the race. There is a certain charm to the idea of Albert Einstein bequeathing copies of himself to posterity. But, what of Adolf Hitler? Should there be laws to regulate cloning? Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg, a scientist who takes his social responsibility very seriously, believes it conceivable that those most likely to replicate themselves will be those who are the most narcissistic and that the clones they produce will also be narcissists.
Even if narcissism, however, is culturally, rather than biologically transmitted, there are other eerie difficulties. Thus, Lederberg raises a question as to whether human cloning, if permitted, might not 'go critical'. 'I use that phrase,' he said, 'in almost exactly the same sense that is involved in nuclear energy. It will go critical if there is a sufficient positive advantage to doing so....This has to do with whether the efficiency of communication, particularly along educational lines, is increased between identical genotypes or not. The similarity of neurological hardware might make it easier for identical copies to transmit technical and other insights from one generation to the next.'

Q. According to the writer, in which of the following ways would the evidence gained from cloning prove to be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 2

The answer can be derived from, "Cloning would, among other things, provide us with solid empirical evidence to help us resolve, once and for all, the ancient controversy over 'nature and nurture' or 'heredity and environment'." The solution of this problem, through the determination of the role played by genetics and environment in shaping humans, would be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development. So the correct option is 3. Option 1 is incorrect because it will just be a way humans will be able to clone themselves. It is not what the author states to be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development. Option 2 is also incorrect as it just restates what is given in the passage and does not state how it will prove to be a milestone. Option 4 is incorrect because it is not stated in the passage.

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Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 3

Directions: Answer the given question based on the following passage.

Like the geography of the planet, the human body has, until now, represented a fixed point in human experience, a 'given'. Today, we are fast approaching the day when the body can no longer be regarded as fixed. Man will be able, within a reasonably short period, to redesign not merely individual bodies, but the entire human race.
In 1962, Dr. J. D. Watson and Dr. F. H. C. Crick received the Nobel Prize for describing the DNA molecules. Since then, advances in genetics have come tripping over one another at a rapid pace. Molecular biology is now about to explode from the laboratories. New genetic knowledge will permit us to tinker with human heredity and manipulate the genes to create altogether new versions of man.
One of the more fantastic possibilities is that man will be able to make biological carbon copies of himself. Through a process called 'cloning', it will be possible to grow, from the nucleus of an adult cell, a new organism that has the same genetic characteristics of the person contributing the cell nucleus. The resultant human 'copy' would start life with a genetic endowment identical to that of the donor, although cultural differences might thereafter alter the personality or physical development of the clone.
Cloning will make it possible for people to see themselves born anew, to fill the world with twins of themselves. Cloning would, among other things, provide us with solid empirical evidence to help us resolve, once and for all, the ancient controversy over 'nature and nurture' or 'heredity and environment'. The solution of this problem, through the determination of the role played by each, would be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development. Whole libraries of philosophical speculation could, by a single stroke, be rendered irrelevant. An answer to this question would open the way for speedy, qualitative advances in psychology, moral philosophy and a dozen other fields.
But, cloning could also create undreamed of complications for the race. There is a certain charm to the idea of Albert Einstein bequeathing copies of himself to posterity. But, what of Adolf Hitler? Should there be laws to regulate cloning? Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg, a scientist who takes his social responsibility very seriously, believes it conceivable that those most likely to replicate themselves will be those who are the most narcissistic and that the clones they produce will also be narcissists.
Even if narcissism, however, is culturally, rather than biologically transmitted, there are other eerie difficulties. Thus, Lederberg raises a question as to whether human cloning, if permitted, might not 'go critical'. 'I use that phrase,' he said, 'in almost exactly the same sense that is involved in nuclear energy. It will go critical if there is a sufficient positive advantage to doing so....This has to do with whether the efficiency of communication, particularly along educational lines, is increased between identical genotypes or not. The similarity of neurological hardware might make it easier for identical copies to transmit technical and other insights from one generation to the next.'

Q. One of the conclusions that can be drawn from the passage is that the writer is firm in his conviction that

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 3

In the very opening paragraph, the writer states that the human body can no longer be regarded as fixed and this is what cloning has done. Option 4 is the answer. Other options can be negated:
The writer refers to an ancient controversy of 'nature vs nurture' and 'heredity vs environment' and states cloning will provide a solid empirical evidence to resolve this controversy. Nothing beyond this.
For narcissism, the writer only mentions that even if narcissism is culturally, rather than biologically transmitted, there are other eerie difficulties.
There is a clear warning about the likely pitfalls and dangers of cloning, so not a great idea.
Moreover, the writer refers to solving a controversy through cloning as milestone of human intellectual development. From all that is alluded to in the passage, it cannot be seen as one of the positives. At least, that does not seem to be the thrust area of the writer.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 4

Directions: Answer the given question based on the following passage.

Like the geography of the planet, the human body has, until now, represented a fixed point in human experience, a 'given'. Today, we are fast approaching the day when the body can no longer be regarded as fixed. Man will be able, within a reasonably short period, to redesign not merely individual bodies, but the entire human race.
In 1962, Dr. J. D. Watson and Dr. F. H. C. Crick received the Nobel Prize for describing the DNA molecules. Since then, advances in genetics have come tripping over one another at a rapid pace. Molecular biology is now about to explode from the laboratories. New genetic knowledge will permit us to tinker with human heredity and manipulate the genes to create altogether new versions of man.
One of the more fantastic possibilities is that man will be able to make biological carbon copies of himself. Through a process called 'cloning', it will be possible to grow, from the nucleus of an adult cell, a new organism that has the same genetic characteristics of the person contributing the cell nucleus. The resultant human 'copy' would start life with a genetic endowment identical to that of the donor, although cultural differences might thereafter alter the personality or physical development of the clone.
Cloning will make it possible for people to see themselves born anew, to fill the world with twins of themselves. Cloning would, among other things, provide us with solid empirical evidence to help us resolve, once and for all, the ancient controversy over 'nature and nurture' or 'heredity and environment'. The solution of this problem, through the determination of the role played by each, would be one of the greatest milestones of human intellectual development. Whole libraries of philosophical speculation could, by a single stroke, be rendered irrelevant. An answer to this question would open the way for speedy, qualitative advances in psychology, moral philosophy and a dozen other fields.
But, cloning could also create undreamed of complications for the race. There is a certain charm to the idea of Albert Einstein bequeathing copies of himself to posterity. But, what of Adolf Hitler? Should there be laws to regulate cloning? Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg, a scientist who takes his social responsibility very seriously, believes it conceivable that those most likely to replicate themselves will be those who are the most narcissistic and that the clones they produce will also be narcissists.
Even if narcissism, however, is culturally, rather than biologically transmitted, there are other eerie difficulties. Thus, Lederberg raises a question as to whether human cloning, if permitted, might not 'go critical'. 'I use that phrase,' he said, 'in almost exactly the same sense that is involved in nuclear energy. It will go critical if there is a sufficient positive advantage to doing so....This has to do with whether the efficiency of communication, particularly along educational lines, is increased between identical genotypes or not. The similarity of neurological hardware might make it easier for identical copies to transmit technical and other insights from one generation to the next.'

Q. Besides the problems occasioned by narcissism, the writer talks of other "eerie difficulties". One of them stated by Lederberg could unmistakably be

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 4

The author states "Lederberg raises a question as to whether human cloning, if permitted, might not 'go critical'. 'I use that phrase,' he said, 'in almost exactly the same sense that is involved in nuclear energy. It will go critical if there is a sufficient positive advantage to doing so..." This is clearly mentioned in option 1. Option 2 is incorrect because even though the author says there are sufficient positive advantages, but he does not state that advantages are more than the disadvantages. Option 3 is incorrect because the author does not state this as one of the 'difficulties'. Option 4 is incorrect because he mentions nuclear energy to describe in layman terms the meaning of the phrase 'go critical'.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The fundamental objectives of sociology are the same as those of science: general discovery and explanation. To discover the essential data of social behaviour and the connections among the data is the first objective of sociology. To explain the data and the connections is the second larger objective. Science makes its advances in terms of both of these objectives. Sometimes it is the discovery of a new element or set of elements that marks a major breakthrough in the history of a scientific discipline. Closely related to such discovery is the discovery of relationships of data that had never been noted before. All of this is, as we know, of immense importance in science. But the drama of discovery, in this sense, can sometimes lead us to overlook the greater importance of explanation of what is revealed by the data. Sometimes decades, even centuries, pass before known connections and relationships are actually explained. Discovery and explanation are the two great interpenetrating, interacting realms of science.
The order or reality that interests the scientists is the empirical order, that is, the order of data and phenomena revealed to us through observation or experience. To be precise or explicit about what is, and is not, revealed by observation is not always easy, to be sure. And often it is necessary for our natural powers of observation to be supplemented by the most intricate of mechanical aids for given object to become empirical in the sense just used. What is empirical and observable today may have been non-existent in scientific consciousness a decade ago. Nevertheless, the first point to make about any science, physical or social, is that its world of data is the empirical world. A very large amount of scientific energy goes merely into the work of expanding the frontiers, through discovery, of the known, observable, empirical world.
From observation or discovery we move to explanation. The explanation sought by the scientist is, of course, not at all like the explanation sought by the theologian or metaphysician. The scientist is not interested not, that is, in his role of scientist in ultimate, transcendental, or divine causes of what he sets himself to explain. He is interested in explanations that are as empirical as the data themselves. If it is the high incidence of crime in a certain part of a large city that requires explanation, the scientist is obliged to offer his explanation in terms of factors which are empirically real as the phenomenon of crime itself. He does not explain the problem, for example, in terms of references to the will of God, demons, or original sin. A satisfactory explanation is not only one that is empirical, however, but one that can be stated in terms of a causal preposition. Description is an indispensable point of beginning, but description is not explanation. It is well to stress this point, for there are all too many scientists, or would be scientists, who are primarily concerned with data gathering, data counting and data describing, and who seem to forget that such operations, however useful, are but the first step. Until we have accounted for the problem at hand, explained it causally by referring the data to some principle or generalisation already established, or to some new principle or generalisation, we have not explained anything.

Q. According to the passage, scientists are not interested in theological explanations because

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 5

The answer to this can be inferred from the last paragraph. The passage states that the scientist is not interested in a theological explanation rather he is interested in explanations that are empirical and involve some data. Thus, we can successfully infer that theological explanations are not empirical. Option 1 is incorrect because this is not stated in the passage that scientists cater to the atheists or those who don't believe in the divine. Option 3 is incorrect because the passage does not state it in definite terms as given in option 3. Scientists want explanations which are 'empirically real' and they don't want to explain it in terms of 'will of God, demons, or original sin'. Option 4 is incorrect because this does not answer the question and just states what scientists do. The text also does not state what scientists 'primarily' do.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The fundamental objectives of sociology are the same as those of science: general discovery and explanation. To discover the essential data of social behaviour and the connections among the data is the first objective of sociology. To explain the data and the connections is the second larger objective. Science makes its advances in terms of both of these objectives. Sometimes it is the discovery of a new element or set of elements that marks a major breakthrough in the history of a scientific discipline. Closely related to such discovery is the discovery of relationships of data that had never been noted before. All of this is, as we know, of immense importance in science. But the drama of discovery, in this sense, can sometimes lead us to overlook the greater importance of explanation of what is revealed by the data. Sometimes decades, even centuries, pass before known connections and relationships are actually explained. Discovery and explanation are the two great interpenetrating, interacting realms of science.
The order or reality that interests the scientists is the empirical order, that is, the order of data and phenomena revealed to us through observation or experience. To be precise or explicit about what is, and is not, revealed by observation is not always easy, to be sure. And often it is necessary for our natural powers of observation to be supplemented by the most intricate of mechanical aids for given object to become empirical in the sense just used. What is empirical and observable today may have been non-existent in scientific consciousness a decade ago. Nevertheless, the first point to make about any science, physical or social, is that its world of data is the empirical world. A very large amount of scientific energy goes merely into the work of expanding the frontiers, through discovery, of the known, observable, empirical world.
From observation or discovery we move to explanation. The explanation sought by the scientist is, of course, not at all like the explanation sought by the theologian or metaphysician. The scientist is not interested not, that is, in his role of scientist in ultimate, transcendental, or divine causes of what he sets himself to explain. He is interested in explanations that are as empirical as the data themselves. If it is the high incidence of crime in a certain part of a large city that requires explanation, the scientist is obliged to offer his explanation in terms of factors which are empirically real as the phenomenon of crime itself. He does not explain the problem, for example, in terms of references to the will of God, demons, or original sin. A satisfactory explanation is not only one that is empirical, however, but one that can be stated in terms of a causal preposition. Description is an indispensable point of beginning, but description is not explanation. It is well to stress this point, for there are all too many scientists, or would be scientists, who are primarily concerned with data gathering, data counting and data describing, and who seem to forget that such operations, however useful, are but the first step. Until we have accounted for the problem at hand, explained it causally by referring the data to some principle or generalisation already established, or to some new principle or generalisation, we have not explained anything.

Q. Which of the following statements best agrees with the author's position?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 6

Refer to the last line of the passage, "Until we have accounted for the problem at hand, explained it causally by referring the data to some principle or generalisation already established, or to some new principle or generalisation, we have not explained anything." From this, we can successfully infer that the author believes that a causal connection is a basis for explanation. Other options are incorrect because they cannot be derived from the passage. The author does not state that science means to come up with 'unverified hypotheses' (option 1), nor does he state generalisation to be the 'prerequisite' to come up with an explanation (option 3). Option 4 is irrelevant and does not state the author's position.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The fundamental objectives of sociology are the same as those of science: general discovery and explanation. To discover the essential data of social behaviour and the connections among the data is the first objective of sociology. To explain the data and the connections is the second larger objective. Science makes its advances in terms of both of these objectives. Sometimes it is the discovery of a new element or set of elements that marks a major breakthrough in the history of a scientific discipline. Closely related to such discovery is the discovery of relationships of data that had never been noted before. All of this is, as we know, of immense importance in science. But the drama of discovery, in this sense, can sometimes lead us to overlook the greater importance of explanation of what is revealed by the data. Sometimes decades, even centuries, pass before known connections and relationships are actually explained. Discovery and explanation are the two great interpenetrating, interacting realms of science.
The order or reality that interests the scientists is the empirical order, that is, the order of data and phenomena revealed to us through observation or experience. To be precise or explicit about what is, and is not, revealed by observation is not always easy, to be sure. And often it is necessary for our natural powers of observation to be supplemented by the most intricate of mechanical aids for given object to become empirical in the sense just used. What is empirical and observable today may have been non-existent in scientific consciousness a decade ago. Nevertheless, the first point to make about any science, physical or social, is that its world of data is the empirical world. A very large amount of scientific energy goes merely into the work of expanding the frontiers, through discovery, of the known, observable, empirical world.
From observation or discovery we move to explanation. The explanation sought by the scientist is, of course, not at all like the explanation sought by the theologian or metaphysician. The scientist is not interested not, that is, in his role of scientist in ultimate, transcendental, or divine causes of what he sets himself to explain. He is interested in explanations that are as empirical as the data themselves. If it is the high incidence of crime in a certain part of a large city that requires explanation, the scientist is obliged to offer his explanation in terms of factors which are empirically real as the phenomenon of crime itself. He does not explain the problem, for example, in terms of references to the will of God, demons, or original sin. A satisfactory explanation is not only one that is empirical, however, but one that can be stated in terms of a causal preposition. Description is an indispensable point of beginning, but description is not explanation. It is well to stress this point, for there are all too many scientists, or would be scientists, who are primarily concerned with data gathering, data counting and data describing, and who seem to forget that such operations, however useful, are but the first step. Until we have accounted for the problem at hand, explained it causally by referring the data to some principle or generalisation already established, or to some new principle or generalisation, we have not explained anything.

Q. Judging from the contents of the passage, the final step in a study of social behaviour would be to

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 7

The answer can be inferred from the last line of the passage. The author believes that nothing in a study is established until it is explained causally by referring the data to some principle already established. Therefore, option 3 is correct. Option 1 is incorrect because the text does not state that the principles are formed on the basis of some prior principles. Option 2 is incorrect because collecting data is not referred to in the passage as the final step. Option 4 is incorrect because the final step is formation of an explanation by refering to a generalisation, not establishment of a generalisation to derive a common explanation.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.

The fundamental objectives of sociology are the same as those of science: general discovery and explanation. To discover the essential data of social behaviour and the connections among the data is the first objective of sociology. To explain the data and the connections is the second larger objective. Science makes its advances in terms of both of these objectives. Sometimes it is the discovery of a new element or set of elements that marks a major breakthrough in the history of a scientific discipline. Closely related to such discovery is the discovery of relationships of data that had never been noted before. All of this is, as we know, of immense importance in science. But the drama of discovery, in this sense, can sometimes lead us to overlook the greater importance of explanation of what is revealed by the data. Sometimes decades, even centuries, pass before known connections and relationships are actually explained. Discovery and explanation are the two great interpenetrating, interacting realms of science.
The order or reality that interests the scientists is the empirical order, that is, the order of data and phenomena revealed to us through observation or experience. To be precise or explicit about what is, and is not, revealed by observation is not always easy, to be sure. And often it is necessary for our natural powers of observation to be supplemented by the most intricate of mechanical aids for given object to become empirical in the sense just used. What is empirical and observable today may have been non-existent in scientific consciousness a decade ago. Nevertheless, the first point to make about any science, physical or social, is that its world of data is the empirical world. A very large amount of scientific energy goes merely into the work of expanding the frontiers, through discovery, of the known, observable, empirical world.
From observation or discovery we move to explanation. The explanation sought by the scientist is, of course, not at all like the explanation sought by the theologian or metaphysician. The scientist is not interested not, that is, in his role of scientist in ultimate, transcendental, or divine causes of what he sets himself to explain. He is interested in explanations that are as empirical as the data themselves. If it is the high incidence of crime in a certain part of a large city that requires explanation, the scientist is obliged to offer his explanation in terms of factors which are empirically real as the phenomenon of crime itself. He does not explain the problem, for example, in terms of references to the will of God, demons, or original sin. A satisfactory explanation is not only one that is empirical, however, but one that can be stated in terms of a causal preposition. Description is an indispensable point of beginning, but description is not explanation. It is well to stress this point, for there are all too many scientists, or would be scientists, who are primarily concerned with data gathering, data counting and data describing, and who seem to forget that such operations, however useful, are but the first step. Until we have accounted for the problem at hand, explained it causally by referring the data to some principle or generalisation already established, or to some new principle or generalisation, we have not explained anything.

Q. The author's main point in the first paragraph may best be described by which of the following statements?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 8

In the first line itself, the author talks about the importance of both general discovery and explanation and then mentions, "Science makes its advances in terms of both of these objectives." Thus, the main point of author is "both discovery and explanation are fundamental to building a science". Option 1 is incorrect because the author does not point towards to inseparability of both the fields. Option 2 is incorrect because it just states a minor point mentioned in the passage. The whole passage is not about it. Option 3 is incorrect because it is not mentioned in the passage.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 9

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Your memory isn't a video camera, recording a constant stream of every sight and sound you're exposed to — you can only capture and retain what you pay attention to. And since you can't pay attention to everything, you'll be able to remember some aspects of what is happening before you but not others.
Think about the vast amount of information that your senses are exposed to in any given day. If you're awake for 16 hours today, your senses are open for business for 57,600 seconds. That's a lot of data. But you simply can't — and won't — remember most of what was available to your eyes, ears, nose and brain today.
The number-one reason for forgetting what you just heard, a person's name, where you put your phone, or whether you locked the front door or not is lack of attention. You can't later remember what is right in front of you if you don't pay attention to it. So if we want to remember something, we just have to pay attention to it.
Unfortunately, this isn't so simple. Even if we didn't live in such a highly distractible time, paying attention isn't easy for our brains. We tend to pay attention to — and therefore remember — what we find interesting, meaningful, new, surprising, significant, emotional and consequential. Our brains capture those details. We ignore, and fail to remember, the rest.
Paying attention requires conscious effort. Your default brain activity is not attentive. Your inattentive brain is zoned out, daydreaming, on autopilot, and full of constant background, repetitive thinking. You can't create a new memory in this state. If you want to remember something, you have to turn your brain on, wake up, become consciously aware and pay attention.
Because we remember what we pay attention to, we might want to be mindful about what we focus on. Optimists pay attention to positive experiences, so these events are consolidated into their memories. If you look for magic every day, if you pay attention to the moments of joy and awe, you can then capture these moments and consolidate them into memory. Over time, your life's narrative will be populated with memories that make you smile.
If you want to improve your memory, try minimising or removing things that distract you. Getting enough sleep, meditating and a little caffeine (not too much and none 12 hours before bed) are other powerful distraction fighters and can enhance your ability to pay attention and establish long-term memories.
So the next time you can't find your car, pause. And before you accuse your memory of failing, before you panic and worry that you have Alzheimer's, think: Did I pay attention to where I parked my car to begin with?

Q. Which of the following statements is the author of the passage most likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 9

The author points out that every individual pays attention to those objects that he considers to be of interest to him. Attention as a trait is already present, it's just the relative nature of individuals that they choose to pay attention to different objects around them.
Option 1 - It is neither stated nor can it be inferred from the passage.
Option 2 - The issue is not of how hard an individual tries to remember what he saw, rather how attentive he was at the time of perceiving things through various senses, not just sight.
Option 3 - Attention is an inherent trait. No inference can be drawn otherwise.
Option 4 - The author believes that different people remember different things because each has a different notion of what should be paid attention to and what not.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 10

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Your memory isn't a video camera, recording a constant stream of every sight and sound you're exposed to — you can only capture and retain what you pay attention to. And since you can't pay attention to everything, you'll be able to remember some aspects of what is happening before you but not others.
Think about the vast amount of information that your senses are exposed to in any given day. If you're awake for 16 hours today, your senses are open for business for 57,600 seconds. That's a lot of data. But you simply can't — and won't — remember most of what was available to your eyes, ears, nose and brain today.
The number-one reason for forgetting what you just heard, a person's name, where you put your phone, or whether you locked the front door or not is lack of attention. You can't later remember what is right in front of you if you don't pay attention to it. So if we want to remember something, we just have to pay attention to it.
Unfortunately, this isn't so simple. Even if we didn't live in such a highly distractible time, paying attention isn't easy for our brains. We tend to pay attention to — and therefore remember — what we find interesting, meaningful, new, surprising, significant, emotional and consequential. Our brains capture those details. We ignore, and fail to remember, the rest.
Paying attention requires conscious effort. Your default brain activity is not attentive. Your inattentive brain is zoned out, daydreaming, on autopilot, and full of constant background, repetitive thinking. You can't create a new memory in this state. If you want to remember something, you have to turn your brain on, wake up, become consciously aware and pay attention.
Because we remember what we pay attention to, we might want to be mindful about what we focus on. Optimists pay attention to positive experiences, so these events are consolidated into their memories. If you look for magic every day, if you pay attention to the moments of joy and awe, you can then capture these moments and consolidate them into memory. Over time, your life's narrative will be populated with memories that make you smile.
If you want to improve your memory, try minimising or removing things that distract you. Getting enough sleep, meditating and a little caffeine (not too much and none 12 hours before bed) are other powerful distraction fighters and can enhance your ability to pay attention and establish long-term memories.
So the next time you can't find your car, pause. And before you accuse your memory of failing, before you panic and worry that you have Alzheimer's, think: Did I pay attention to where I parked my car to begin with?

Q. Which of the following primarily explains why we are not able to remember something?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 10

The passage states that the main reason why one is not able to remember things is lack of attention. We can infer this from 'The number-one reason for ... not is lack of attention.' Option 2 accurately highlights the main reason why we are not able to remember something.
Option 1 - This is incorrect. Although we are exposed to a huge amount of data, our brain does not process everything. Our brain only processes that information which we find worth paying attention to. Since the huge data is not processed in the first place, it cannot be the cause of wiping out the memories.
Option 3 - This is a secondary effect of us not paying attention to certain activities. It does not directly explain why we are not able to remember something.
Option 4 - This explains why are able to remember something instead of answering why we are not able to remember something.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 11

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Your memory isn't a video camera, recording a constant stream of every sight and sound you're exposed to — you can only capture and retain what you pay attention to. And since you can't pay attention to everything, you'll be able to remember some aspects of what is happening before you but not others.
Think about the vast amount of information that your senses are exposed to in any given day. If you're awake for 16 hours today, your senses are open for business for 57,600 seconds. That's a lot of data. But you simply can't — and won't — remember most of what was available to your eyes, ears, nose and brain today.
The number-one reason for forgetting what you just heard, a person's name, where you put your phone, or whether you locked the front door or not is lack of attention. You can't later remember what is right in front of you if you don't pay attention to it. So if we want to remember something, we just have to pay attention to it.
Unfortunately, this isn't so simple. Even if we didn't live in such a highly distractible time, paying attention isn't easy for our brains. We tend to pay attention to — and therefore remember — what we find interesting, meaningful, new, surprising, significant, emotional and consequential. Our brains capture those details. We ignore, and fail to remember, the rest.
Paying attention requires conscious effort. Your default brain activity is not attentive. Your inattentive brain is zoned out, daydreaming, on autopilot, and full of constant background, repetitive thinking. You can't create a new memory in this state. If you want to remember something, you have to turn your brain on, wake up, become consciously aware and pay attention.
Because we remember what we pay attention to, we might want to be mindful about what we focus on. Optimists pay attention to positive experiences, so these events are consolidated into their memories. If you look for magic every day, if you pay attention to the moments of joy and awe, you can then capture these moments and consolidate them into memory. Over time, your life's narrative will be populated with memories that make you smile.
If you want to improve your memory, try minimising or removing things that distract you. Getting enough sleep, meditating and a little caffeine (not too much and none 12 hours before bed) are other powerful distraction fighters and can enhance your ability to pay attention and establish long-term memories.
So the next time you can't find your car, pause. And before you accuse your memory of failing, before you panic and worry that you have Alzheimer's, think: Did I pay attention to where I parked my car to begin with?

Q. Which of the following sets of topics is conceptually closest to the topics discussed in the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 11

The author follows a pattern, whereby he details the importance of paying attention. He goes on to say that an individual selectively perceives the things happening around him and pays attention to only those events he considers to be of importance to him. After paying attention to such events, such person is actually able to experience them.
Option 1 - Data and analysis are not the main and recurrent themes of the passage.
Option 2 - Nothing with respect to 'personality' can be inferred from the passage.
Option 3 - This option correctly lists the theme and topics of the passage.
Option 4 - This option does not list the main topics of the passage.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 12

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Your memory isn't a video camera, recording a constant stream of every sight and sound you're exposed to — you can only capture and retain what you pay attention to. And since you can't pay attention to everything, you'll be able to remember some aspects of what is happening before you but not others.
Think about the vast amount of information that your senses are exposed to in any given day. If you're awake for 16 hours today, your senses are open for business for 57,600 seconds. That's a lot of data. But you simply can't — and won't — remember most of what was available to your eyes, ears, nose and brain today.
The number-one reason for forgetting what you just heard, a person's name, where you put your phone, or whether you locked the front door or not is lack of attention. You can't later remember what is right in front of you if you don't pay attention to it. So if we want to remember something, we just have to pay attention to it.
Unfortunately, this isn't so simple. Even if we didn't live in such a highly distractible time, paying attention isn't easy for our brains. We tend to pay attention to — and therefore remember — what we find interesting, meaningful, new, surprising, significant, emotional and consequential. Our brains capture those details. We ignore, and fail to remember, the rest.
Paying attention requires conscious effort. Your default brain activity is not attentive. Your inattentive brain is zoned out, daydreaming, on autopilot, and full of constant background, repetitive thinking. You can't create a new memory in this state. If you want to remember something, you have to turn your brain on, wake up, become consciously aware and pay attention.
Because we remember what we pay attention to, we might want to be mindful about what we focus on. Optimists pay attention to positive experiences, so these events are consolidated into their memories. If you look for magic every day, if you pay attention to the moments of joy and awe, you can then capture these moments and consolidate them into memory. Over time, your life's narrative will be populated with memories that make you smile.
If you want to improve your memory, try minimising or removing things that distract you. Getting enough sleep, meditating and a little caffeine (not too much and none 12 hours before bed) are other powerful distraction fighters and can enhance your ability to pay attention and establish long-term memories.
So the next time you can't find your car, pause. And before you accuse your memory of failing, before you panic and worry that you have Alzheimer's, think: Did I pay attention to where I parked my car to begin with?

Q. "The number-one reason for forgetting what you just heard, a person's name, where you put your phone, or whether you locked the front door or not is lack of attention." Which of the following statements best states the reason for the author mentioning such examples to prove his point?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 12

The main purpose of the author to give such examples is to emphasise how even trivial tasks, that should be remembered because of their routine nature, are not remembered because of lack of attention. Since we do not pay enough attention to such tasks, we are not able to remember these regular tasks.
Option 1 - This is what the author wants to primarily highlight.
Option 2 - The main purpose of this sentence is not to highlight the monotonous nature of such tasks, but to emphasise why we forget even such regular tasks.
Option 3 - The main purpose of this sentence is not to describe inattentive nature of the brain, rather it is to describe how such inattentive nature causes us to forget routine activities.
Option 4 - Although this sentence rightly conveys the essence of the sentence, but the positive connotation, instead of negative, makes this statement incorrect.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 13

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Other worlds and their inhabitants have remained remarkably popular subjects of speculation in the past hundred years or more. We have been hearing people asking one another whether and when we shall be able to communicate with some of the far-off globes. The principles of present day communications may be extended to transmit messages across space. The existence of intelligent inhabitants in some of the other planets remained, for much of the 20th century, a matter of conviction, and for everybody it presented a question of fascinating interest, which deeply stirred the popular imagination.
Poets feel the inspiration of this subject, and novelists and romancers freely select other worlds as the scenes of their stories. Sometimes it is a trip from world to world, a kind of celestial pleasure yachting, with depictions of creatures more wonderful than that is presented to our imagination; and sometimes we are informed of the visions beheld by the temporarily disembodied spirits of trance mediums, or other modern thaumaturgists, flitting about among the unknown worlds.
Then, to vary the theme, we find charming inhabitants of other worlds represented as coming down to the earth and sojourning for a time on our dull planet, to the delight of susceptible successors of father Adam, who become, henceforth, ready to follow their captivating visitors to the ends of the universe.
In short, writers of fiction have vastly and indefinitely enlarged the bounds of romance, and made us so familiar with the peculiarities of our remarkable brothers and sisters of other worlds, that we can not help feeling, notwithstanding the many divergences in the descriptions, that we should certainly recognise them on sight wherever we might meet them. But the subject is by no means abandoned to the tellers of tales and the dreamers of dreams. Men of science, also, eagerly enter into the discussion of the possibilities of other worlds, and become warm over it.
Now, because of this widespread and continually increasing interest in the subject of other worlds, and on account of the many curious revelations that we owe to modern and improved means of investigation, it is certainly to be desired that the most important and interesting discoveries that have lately been made concerning the various globes, should be assembled in a convenient and popular form. Fact is admittedly often stranger and more wonderful than fiction, and there are no facts that appeal more powerfully to the imagination than do those of astronomy. Technical books on astronomy usually either ignore the subject of the habitability of the worlds, or dismiss it with scarcely any recognition of the overpowering human interest that it possesses. Many most important and significant discoveries, in several notable instances, have completely altered the aspect in which the other worlds present themselves for our judgment as to their conditions of habitability. The technical books on astronomy should now come up with inputs on the subject.

Q. ''Technical books on astronomy usually either ignore the subject of the habitability of the worlds, or dismiss it with scarcely any recognition of the overpowering human interest that it possesses.'' Which of the following best reflects what the author wants to convey through this line?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 13

1. Incorrect. The line does not convey "human imagination". It basically conveys that space exploration has so far evoked more fanciful imagination than scientific research.
2. Correct. The technical books on astronomy should now come up with inputs on the subject. Moreover, the last sentence of the passage also refers to this subject - "The technical books on astronomy should now come up with inputs on the subject." The author wants to convey that if the technical books on astronomy ignore this subject, then these should consider it and should relate with the probable life elsewhere. So, option 2 is correct.
3. Incorrect. The focus of the given sentence is on "subject of the habitability of the worlds". This runs contrary to what the author implies.
4. Incorrect. The line conveys the urge not to develop "space tourism", but to find out scientifically whether aliens indeed exist.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 14

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Other worlds and their inhabitants have remained remarkably popular subjects of speculation in the past hundred years or more. We have been hearing people asking one another whether and when we shall be able to communicate with some of the far-off globes. The principles of present day communications may be extended to transmit messages across space. The existence of intelligent inhabitants in some of the other planets remained, for much of the 20th century, a matter of conviction, and for everybody it presented a question of fascinating interest, which deeply stirred the popular imagination.
Poets feel the inspiration of this subject, and novelists and romancers freely select other worlds as the scenes of their stories. Sometimes it is a trip from world to world, a kind of celestial pleasure yachting, with depictions of creatures more wonderful than that is presented to our imagination; and sometimes we are informed of the visions beheld by the temporarily disembodied spirits of trance mediums, or other modern thaumaturgists, flitting about among the unknown worlds.
Then, to vary the theme, we find charming inhabitants of other worlds represented as coming down to the earth and sojourning for a time on our dull planet, to the delight of susceptible successors of father Adam, who become, henceforth, ready to follow their captivating visitors to the ends of the universe.
In short, writers of fiction have vastly and indefinitely enlarged the bounds of romance, and made us so familiar with the peculiarities of our remarkable brothers and sisters of other worlds, that we can not help feeling, notwithstanding the many divergences in the descriptions, that we should certainly recognise them on sight wherever we might meet them. But the subject is by no means abandoned to the tellers of tales and the dreamers of dreams. Men of science, also, eagerly enter into the discussion of the possibilities of other worlds, and become warm over it.
Now, because of this widespread and continually increasing interest in the subject of other worlds, and on account of the many curious revelations that we owe to modern and improved means of investigation, it is certainly to be desired that the most important and interesting discoveries that have lately been made concerning the various globes, should be assembled in a convenient and popular form. Fact is admittedly often stranger and more wonderful than fiction, and there are no facts that appeal more powerfully to the imagination than do those of astronomy. Technical books on astronomy usually either ignore the subject of the habitability of the worlds, or dismiss it with scarcely any recognition of the overpowering human interest that it possesses. Many most important and significant discoveries, in several notable instances, have completely altered the aspect in which the other worlds present themselves for our judgment as to their conditions of habitability. The technical books on astronomy should now come up with inputs on the subject.

Q. Which of the following best states the chief motivation for studying various globes?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 14

1. Incorrect. "Communication techniques" provide methodology, not the purpose or the motivation.
2. Incorrect. "Mystery factor" is stated to be the symptom, not the motivating factor.
3. Incorrect. "Adventurous spirit" could be true of other adventures as well. It is not specific and the chief motivation for studying the other worlds.
4. Correct. The line "Fact is admittedly often stranger and more wonderful than fiction, and there are no facts that appeal more powerfully to the imagination than do those of astronomy." Hence, (4) is the correct answer.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 15

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question:

Other worlds and their inhabitants have remained remarkably popular subjects of speculation in the past hundred years or more. We have been hearing people asking one another whether and when we shall be able to communicate with some of the far-off globes. The principles of present day communications may be extended to transmit messages across space. The existence of intelligent inhabitants in some of the other planets remained, for much of the 20th century, a matter of conviction, and for everybody it presented a question of fascinating interest, which deeply stirred the popular imagination.
Poets feel the inspiration of this subject, and novelists and romancers freely select other worlds as the scenes of their stories. Sometimes it is a trip from world to world, a kind of celestial pleasure yachting, with depictions of creatures more wonderful than that is presented to our imagination; and sometimes we are informed of the visions beheld by the temporarily disembodied spirits of trance mediums, or other modern thaumaturgists, flitting about among the unknown worlds.
Then, to vary the theme, we find charming inhabitants of other worlds represented as coming down to the earth and sojourning for a time on our dull planet, to the delight of susceptible successors of father Adam, who become, henceforth, ready to follow their captivating visitors to the ends of the universe.
In short, writers of fiction have vastly and indefinitely enlarged the bounds of romance, and made us so familiar with the peculiarities of our remarkable brothers and sisters of other worlds, that we can not help feeling, notwithstanding the many divergences in the descriptions, that we should certainly recognise them on sight wherever we might meet them.
But the subject is by no means abandoned to the tellers of tales and the dreamers of dreams. Men of science, also, eagerly enter into the discussion of the possibilities of other worlds, and become warm over it.
Now, because of this widespread and continually increasing interest in the subject of other worlds, and on account of the many curious revelations that we owe to modern and improved means of investigation, it is certainly to be desired that the most important and interesting discoveries that have lately been made concerning the various globes, should be assembled in a convenient and popular form. Fact is admittedly often stranger and more wonderful than fiction, and there are no facts that appeal more powerfully to the imagination than do those of astronomy. Technical books on astronomy usually either ignore the subject of the habitability of the worlds, or dismiss it with scarcely any recognition of the overpowering human interest that it possesses. Many most important and significant discoveries, in several notable instances, have completely altered the aspect in which the other worlds present themselves for our judgment as to their conditions of habitability. The technical books on astronomy should now come up with inputs on the subject.

Q. The fictional perspective held by most people is likely to be much different from the factual because

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 15

1. Incorrect. This can't be the reason because the 'imaginations of most poets and writers' would not reflect the reality or what is factual.
2. Incorrect. The text in fact opposes this. It states "Many most important and significant discoveries, in several notable instances, have completely altered the aspect in which the other worlds ..."
3. Incorrect. This option is rather extreme. 'Summarily dismissing' something just because it is not backed by observation or experiment is not suggested by the text.
4. Correct. The last paragraph makes this very clear. Refer to the sentences - "Technical books on astronomy usually either ignore the subject of the habitability of the worlds, or dismiss it with scarcely any recognition of the overpowering human interest that it possesses. Many most important and significant discoveries, in several notable instances, have completely altered the aspect in which the other worlds present themselves for our judgment as to their conditions of habitability."

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 16

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

Other worlds and their inhabitants have remained remarkably popular subjects of speculation in the past hundred years or more. We have been hearing people asking one another whether and when we shall be able to communicate with some of the far-off globes. The principles of present day communications may be extended to transmit messages across space. The existence of intelligent inhabitants in some of the other planets remained, for much of the 20th century, a matter of conviction, and for everybody it presented a question of fascinating interest, which deeply stirred the popular imagination.
Poets feel the inspiration of this subject, and novelists and romancers freely select other worlds as the scenes of their stories. Sometimes it is a trip from world to world, a kind of celestial pleasure yachting, with depictions of creatures more wonderful than that is presented to our imagination; and sometimes we are informed of the visions beheld by the temporarily disembodied spirits of trance mediums, or other modern thaumaturgists, flitting about among the unknown worlds.
Then, to vary the theme, we find charming inhabitants of other worlds represented as coming down to the earth and sojourning for a time on our dull planet, to the delight of susceptible successors of father Adam, who become, henceforth, ready to follow their captivating visitors to the ends of the universe.
In short, writers of fiction have vastly and indefinitely enlarged the bounds of romance, and made us so familiar with the peculiarities of our remarkable brothers and sisters of other worlds, that we can not help feeling, notwithstanding the many divergences in the descriptions, that we should certainly recognise them on sight wherever we might meet them. But the subject is by no means abandoned to the tellers of tales and the dreamers of dreams. Men of science, also, eagerly enter into the discussion of the possibilities of other worlds, and become warm over it.
Now, because of this widespread and continually increasing interest in the subject of other worlds, and on account of the many curious revelations that we owe to modern and improved means of investigation, it is certainly to be desired that the most important and interesting discoveries that have lately been made concerning the various globes, should be assembled in a convenient and popular form. Fact is admittedly often stranger and more wonderful than fiction, and there are no facts that appeal more powerfully to the imagination than do those of astronomy. Technical books on astronomy usually either ignore the subject of the habitability of the worlds, or dismiss it with scarcely any recognition of the overpowering human interest that it possesses. Many most important and significant discoveries, in several notable instances, have completely altered the aspect in which the other worlds present themselves for our judgment as to their conditions of habitability. The technical books on astronomy should now come up with inputs on the subject.

Q. Which of the following best portrays the relation between an unexplored world and a person enthusiastic about space study?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 16

1. Incorrect. A new toy is alluring only to the infant, not to the whole world. Also, toy is man-made and cannot be equated to unexplored world.
2. Incorrect. A new design is unexplored only for the astronomer, not for the whole world. Also, it is man-made and cannot be equated to unexplored world.
3. Incorrect. Yield is an output; unexplored world is not. Also, there is satisfaction and elation, not urge to know.
4. Correct. An enthusiast is eager to know about the other worlds, the same as a fascinated explorer is eager to learn about the ocean of knowledge. Therefore, option 4 is correct.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 17

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

There is no escaping this basic truth. Indeed, challenges help us to grow. The normal process is to perceive a problem and then bring our emotional and thinking abilities into play in order to solve the problem. We can draw on our own legacy of experiences, and we can find support from our life partners, friends, the community, society's body of knowledge, and spiritual sources. Faced with a problem, we experience some anxiety - and this uncomfortable feeling motivates us to solve the problem in order to find our balance again. In the process, we become more flexible and more adept at dealing with problems in the future. As we mature, we discover that problems are not insurmountable - and we get better at problem-solving.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 17

1. Incorrect. Man's vast resource is drawn on as problems become daunting; however, this is not the message that the author wants to convey. It is the conditioning of man that problems/challenges do to make that man ready to face more challenges in a better manner.
2. Incorrect. The author does not talk about escaping the problems.
3. Correct. True. It is the conditioning of man that problems/challenges do to make that man ready to face more challenges in a better manner.
4. Incorrect. Problem solving is a process that is learnt. However, the way man learns this is the message or essence of the passage captured in option 3.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 18

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. Hydrothermal hot springs form in areas of geothermal activity, where water is heated under the Earth, either by shallow bodies of magma or by moving through fault systems deep in the Earth's crust before rising to the surface.

2. As the water moves away from direct contact with the vent, it begins to cool and precipitate the ions dissolved within, forming mineral deposits.

3. These volcanic hot springs are all very rich in minerals, such as native sulphur and jarosite, because heated water can hold far more dissolved cations and anions compared to cold water.

4. Here, it might form a hot lake or stream, or a slow-boiling mud pool, or it could form a geyser that erupts hot water and steam at regular intervals.


Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 18

Sentence 1 serves as an introductory statement as it can stand on its own. It is followed by 4 as 'here' refers to the 'fault systems' mentioned in 1. 4 specifies that the hot springs can take on various forms while travelling through these fault lines. 3 follows 4 as 'volcanic hot springs' are referring to 'geyser that erupts' mentioned in 4. 2 concludes the passage by stating that this hot water, which is rich in minerals, finally moves away from the vents and form mineral deposits. So, 1432 is the correct order.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 19

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

In the notion of consequences, the Utilitarian includes all of the good and bad produced by the act, whether arising after the act has been performed or during its performance. If the difference in the consequences of alternative acts is not great, some Utilitarians do not regard the choice between them as a moral issue. According to Mill, acts should be classified as morally right or wrong only if the consequences are of such significance that a person would wish to see the agent compelled, not merely persuaded and exhorted, to act in the preferred manner.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 19

1. Incorrect. If two acts are identical in terms of their consequences, it cannot be said that they have no moral repercussions. The topic, here, is whether the act is morally right or wrong.
2. Incorrect. Although this is what Mill did, the essence is not captured ('why' and 'how' are not captured by the option).
3. Correct. This captures the main point of the paragraph. Whenever an agent is forced to act in a particular manner, the act needs to be evaluated from a moral standpoint.
4. Incorrect. If the consequences are identical, then the moral basis need not be determined.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 20

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. This pileup of fascinating findings may be at least partly responsible for an increase in people's interest in the lives of other animals — a trend that's reflected in an apparent uptick in books and television shows on the topic, as well as in legislation concerning other species.

2. As scientists peer more deeply into the lives of other animals, they're finding that our fellow creatures are far more emotionally, socially, and cognitively complex than we typically give them credit for.

3. Public sentiment in part pushed the National Institutes of Health to stop supporting biomedical research on chimpanzees in 2015.

4. A deluge of innovative research is revealing that behaviour we would call intelligent if humans did it can be found in virtually every corner of the animal kingdom.


Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 20

2 and 4 come together, since both statements relate to research on animals, other than humans.
'A deluge of research' would be available only once scientists start peering more deeply into the lives of other animals. Thus, 4 follows 2.
What gets revealed about these animals in 4 would lead to the 'fascinating findings' in 1.
Thus, 1 follows 4.
The reference to 'legislation' in the latter part of 1 is a clue to 3.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 21

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Advanced recycling complements mechanical recycling, the traditional approach, by expanding the range of plastics that can be recycled.

Paragraph: Consumer-packaged-goods (CPG) companies are making commitments to reduce the environmental impact of their products, particularly in relation to plastic packaging. However, the demand for circular polymers is growing faster than the capacity to meet it. To address this challenge, advanced recycling is emerging as a potential solution. (1) ________. While mechanical recycling is effective for clean, sorted waste, it faces limitations in feedstock availability and material properties. (2) ________. In contrast, advanced recycling can produce plastics with tailored molecular weight distributions and comonomers suitable for high-value uses like flexible food packaging. (3) ________. Despite its potential, advanced recycling is still in development and scaling stages, resulting in limited capacity. The uncertain financial returns and scale of operations hinder its widespread implementation. (4) ________.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 21

Option 1 is correct. The given sentence at position 1 explains how advanced recycling complements mechanical recycling by expanding the range of recyclable plastics and producing plastics with customised properties. This sentence provides a clear and logical continuation of the paragraph's discussion on the emerging solution of advanced recycling.
Options 2 and 3: The sentences before and after blank 2 explain how advanced recycling complements mechanical recycling. So, the given sentence should appear before them.
Option 4: The given sentence is a misfit here; the preceding context depicts the limitation of advanced recycling.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 22

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1. When thinking of social movements, people tend to conjure the image of visibly alienated groups that have become vocal in order to bring attention to and eventually change the systematic neglect they experience.

2. The mental health movement (MHM), which has made notable progress over the past 50 years, only receives minimal attention from the larger society.

3. The modern world has made incredible bounds towards generating social movements to support disenfranchised groups.

4. Lipsky argued that it is essential for a social movement to receive attention from the mass media to be influential, but the mental health movement has never come to the fore as a major public social movement.


Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 22

Sentence 3 is an introductory statement as it provides a general statement about social movements. The whole text describes how them MHM is different from other social movements. 'Visibly alienated groups' in 1 is stated first in 3 as 'disenfranchised groups'. So 1 will come after 3. 2 describes how MHM is different from other social movements. While a social movement is thought of as a group 'becom[ing] vocal in order to bring attention' (in sentence 1), MHM 'receives minimal attention' (in sentence 2). So we have a 3-1-2 link. Sentence 4 then finally talks about a person's views about the mental health movement, which is a movement first introduced in sentence 2. Thus, the correct sequence is 3124.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 23

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Today's satellites can build a picture even when conditions are cloudy or dark.

Paragraph: (1) ________. Technology changes are also evident on the ground. Manufacturers of mobile phones are already modifying everyday smartphones to communicate with satellites; soon those who can afford a mobile phone will be able to access the global internet from anywhere on Earth. (2) ________. Large satellite dishes are giving way to small, compact, and significantly less expensive phased arrays that can retrieve large amounts of data from space for broad terrestrial dissemination. (3) ________. On the ground, advanced data processing and analytics are allowing even better use of the information collected from space—similar to when your smartphone camera stitches together a panoramic shot from several pictures. (4) ________. Sensors can measure moisture in the air and on the ground. Elements can be detected from space.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 23

The given sentence best fits at position 4. It gives an example of how advanced data processing and analytics are allowing the better use of the information collected from space. Moreover, the following sentence also adds on to this example of pictures through satellites, by mentioning the role of sensors.
Option 1 is incorrect, as the given sentence does not fit the flow as an introductory sentence.
Option 2 is incorrect. The given sentence will distort the flow of the passage. The sentence preceding and following blank 2 are well-connected, as the changes in mobiles and dishes convey how technology changes are also evident on the ground.
Option 3 is incorrect. The context 'allowing even better use of the information collected from space' should appear before the given sentence and not after it. The given sentence acts as an example only.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 24

Directions: From the below given alternative summaries, choose the one that best presents the essence of the text.

In India, we need profound systemic changes in our method of education. Currently, the system pigeonholes individuals into a narrow range of disciplines and straitjackets them into rigid career tracks. Given the overwhelming emphasis on grades, creativity and independent thinking end up taking a back seat. So, how can we expect the spirit of curiosity and inquiry to develop in such a pressure cooker? The need of the hour is an education system that fosters exploration, questioning and debate. A system that can help each student to pursue a path that best stimulates individual creativity and challenges him or her. The objective should be to create citizens who have the ability to think laterally: Students who are equipped to step out into the real world and become thought leaders, rather than products of a machine that churns out yet another commodity.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 6 - Question 24

1. Incorrect. The system shouldn't just make him 'market ready' (as in equipped to step out into the real world) but also 'help each student to pursue a path that best stimulates individual creativity and challenges him or her.'
2. Incorrect. This doesn't explain how and therefore fails to provide an effective summary.
3. Incorrect. The passage is silent on what exactly are the challenges of the new economy as stated in this option. This is not therefore an effective summary.
4. Correct. The answer can be derived from the lines: "In India, we need profound systemic changes in our method of education... A system that ... best stimulates individual creativity..., rather than products of a machine..."

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