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Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - CAT MCQ


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24 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2024 - Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7

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Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 1

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

At times, we understand and feel others' pain so acutely it might as well be our own. We wince at another person's injuries and cry when we see people suffering, even strangers. This empathy is a vital social tool: when we recognise and feel someone's distress, we're driven to help. Yet despite its prevalence and importance, empathy is not the only way we might respond to others' pain. There exists a twin process, the dark mirror of empathy, called sadism. This capacity, to instead feel pleasure from other people's pain and suffering, is not as rare as you might think.
People who exhibit everyday sadism experience pleasure from others' physical or psychological pain as they go about daily life. For example, they might enjoy seeing a fight outside the pub, or someone messing up an important presentation at work. But more than that, they also enjoy doing things to elicit suffering.
People who score higher on questionnaire measures of everyday sadism are also more likely to carry out acts of vandalism and sexual aggression, and to cyberbully and troll other people online. Such findings show that people's subjective feelings of everyday sadistic pleasure have real-life consequences, increasing the likelihood that they will choose to behave in ways that bring about suffering.
Like all aspects of personality, everyday sadism is not a binary phenomenon. It's not that you're either an everyday sadist or you're not; rather, it's a trait that exists as a spectrum in the general population. The people who score highly on the trait are more likely to behave in obviously antisocial ways, such as bullying and harming others. Those with more modest sadism scores are likely to express their tendency to enjoy others' suffering in more subtle fashion, for example via an enjoyment of violent films and games (it's worth noting though that the enjoyment of such content can be driven by other factors such as curiosity or suspense, and just because a person has such tastes doesn't mean that they're more likely to hurt a person in real life).
In our ancestral past, hurting others – particularly those who posed a threat – might have led to more food or protection, or served as a warning to enemies and competitors. If witnessing others' pain was linked to an increased chance of survival in this way, it's logical that the experience evolved to become rewarding to some extent. The advantages of a sadistic impulse are still apparent today – in many settings, including prisons and schools, aggression and violence can confer social status.
Whatever its advantages, sadism causes untold suffering. It's associated with bullying, for example, which can have a serious negative impact on victims' mental health for years after the bullying has ended. By recognising and better understanding sadism, we can counteract its harmful consequences. But first we must shake the notion that it exists in only a tiny proportion of people. The capacity to experience pleasure at others' distress exists, to some degree, in many of us.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author of the passage most likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 1

Option 1 gets negated from, "people who score higher on questionnaire measures of everyday sadism are also more likely to carry out acts of vandalism and sexual aggression, and to cyberbully and troll other people online."
Option 2 gets support from, "This empathy is a vital social tool: when we recognise and feel someone's distress, we're driven to help. Yet despite its prevalence and importance, empathy is not the only way we might respond to others' pain. There exists a twin process, the dark mirror of empathy, called sadism."
Option 3 is only a distractor; the passage mentions that curiosity and suspense may not lead to sadism. Refer the line - "...it's worth noting though that the enjoyment of such content can be driven by other factors such as curiosity or suspense, and just because a person has such tastes doesn't mean that they're more likely to hurt a person in real life."
Option 4 is nowhere supported in the passage; the passage conveys that there is a popular notion that everyday sadism exists in only a tiny proportion of people.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 2

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

At times, we understand and feel others' pain so acutely it might as well be our own. We wince at another person's injuries and cry when we see people suffering, even strangers. This empathy is a vital social tool: when we recognise and feel someone's distress, we're driven to help. Yet despite its prevalence and importance, empathy is not the only way we might respond to others' pain. There exists a twin process, the dark mirror of empathy, called sadism. This capacity, to instead feel pleasure from other people's pain and suffering, is not as rare as you might think.
People who exhibit everyday sadism experience pleasure from others' physical or psychological pain as they go about daily life. For example, they might enjoy seeing a fight outside the pub, or someone messing up an important presentation at work. But more than that, they also enjoy doing things to elicit suffering.
People who score higher on questionnaire measures of everyday sadism are also more likely to carry out acts of vandalism and sexual aggression, and to cyberbully and troll other people online. Such findings show that people's subjective feelings of everyday sadistic pleasure have real-life consequences, increasing the likelihood that they will choose to behave in ways that bring about suffering.
Like all aspects of personality, everyday sadism is not a binary phenomenon. It's not that you're either an everyday sadist or you're not; rather, it's a trait that exists as a spectrum in the general population. The people who score highly on the trait are more likely to behave in obviously antisocial ways, such as bullying and harming others. Those with more modest sadism scores are likely to express their tendency to enjoy others' suffering in more subtle fashion, for example via an enjoyment of violent films and games (it's worth noting though that the enjoyment of such content can be driven by other factors such as curiosity or suspense, and just because a person has such tastes doesn't mean that they're more likely to hurt a person in real life).
In our ancestral past, hurting others – particularly those who posed a threat – might have led to more food or protection, or served as a warning to enemies and competitors. If witnessing others' pain was linked to an increased chance of survival in this way, it's logical that the experience evolved to become rewarding to some extent. The advantages of a sadistic impulse are still apparent today – in many settings, including prisons and schools, aggression and violence can confer social status.
Whatever its advantages, sadism causes untold suffering. It's associated with bullying, for example, which can have a serious negative impact on victims' mental health for years after the bullying has ended. By recognising and better understanding sadism, we can counteract its harmful consequences. But first we must shake the notion that it exists in only a tiny proportion of people. The capacity to experience pleasure at others' distress exists, to some degree, in many of us.

Q. Which of the following most corresponds to the author's view that everyday sadism is not a binary phenomenon?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 2

1. Incorrect. This presents a different version than the one stated in the passage. The author doesn't state such a comparison to be 'a binary phenomenon'.
2. Incorrect. This is contrary to what is stated in the passage - "...everyday sadism is not a binary phenomenon. It's not that you're either an everyday sadist or you're not; rather, it's a trait that exists as a spectrum in the general population." 'Binary' in the context relates to yes or no - whether people have this trait or not.
3. Incorrect. This does not answer the question. Whether it is not a binary phenomenon because it concerns more with high level of sadism is not what the author's reference is for.
4. Correct. Option 4 gets support from the passage, "This capacity, to instead feel pleasure from other people's pain and suffering, is not as rare as you might think … But first we must shake the notion that it exists in only a tiny proportion of people. The capacity to experience pleasure at others' distress exists, to some degree, in many of us."

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Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 3

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

At times, we understand and feel others' pain so acutely it might as well be our own. We wince at another person's injuries and cry when we see people suffering, even strangers. This empathy is a vital social tool: when we recognise and feel someone's distress, we're driven to help. Yet despite its prevalence and importance, empathy is not the only way we might respond to others' pain. There exists a twin process, the dark mirror of empathy, called sadism. This capacity, to instead feel pleasure from other people's pain and suffering, is not as rare as you might think.
People who exhibit everyday sadism experience pleasure from others' physical or psychological pain as they go about daily life. For example, they might enjoy seeing a fight outside the pub, or someone messing up an important presentation at work. But more than that, they also enjoy doing things to elicit suffering.
People who score higher on questionnaire measures of everyday sadism are also more likely to carry out acts of vandalism and sexual aggression, and to cyberbully and troll other people online. Such findings show that people's subjective feelings of everyday sadistic pleasure have real-life consequences, increasing the likelihood that they will choose to behave in ways that bring about suffering.
Like all aspects of personality, everyday sadism is not a binary phenomenon. It's not that you're either an everyday sadist or you're not; rather, it's a trait that exists as a spectrum in the general population. The people who score highly on the trait are more likely to behave in obviously antisocial ways, such as bullying and harming others. Those with more modest sadism scores are likely to express their tendency to enjoy others' suffering in more subtle fashion, for example via an enjoyment of violent films and games (it's worth noting though that the enjoyment of such content can be driven by other factors such as curiosity or suspense, and just because a person has such tastes doesn't mean that they're more likely to hurt a person in real life).
In our ancestral past, hurting others – particularly those who posed a threat – might have led to more food or protection, or served as a warning to enemies and competitors. If witnessing others' pain was linked to an increased chance of survival in this way, it's logical that the experience evolved to become rewarding to some extent. The advantages of a sadistic impulse are still apparent today – in many settings, including prisons and schools, aggression and violence can confer social status.
Whatever its advantages, sadism causes untold suffering. It's associated with bullying, for example, which can have a serious negative impact on victims' mental health for years after the bullying has ended. By recognising and better understanding sadism, we can counteract its harmful consequences. But first we must shake the notion that it exists in only a tiny proportion of people. The capacity to experience pleasure at others' distress exists, to some degree, in many of us.

Q. The author discusses all of the following in the passage, EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 3

Option 1 is weak due to words 'not an explicit behaviour'. Refer to the part, "People who score higher on questionnaire measures of everyday sadism are also more likely to carry out acts of vandalism and sexual aggression, and to cyberbully and troll other people online. Such findings show that people's subjective feelings of everyday sadistic pleasure have real-life consequences, increasing the likelihood that they will choose to behave in ways that bring about suffering."
Option 2 gets support from the passage - "It's associated with bullying, for example, which can have a serious negative impact on victims' mental health for years after the bullying has ended."
Option 3 is only a distractor; it is mentioned in the passage that the everyday sadism can be high in some while moderate or low in others.
Option 4 gets support from the second last paragraph - "If witnessing others' pain was linked to an increased chance of survival in this way, it's logical that the experience evolved to become rewarding to some extent."

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 4

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following question.

At times, we understand and feel others' pain so acutely it might as well be our own. We wince at another person's injuries and cry when we see people suffering, even strangers. This empathy is a vital social tool: when we recognise and feel someone's distress, we're driven to help. Yet despite its prevalence and importance, empathy is not the only way we might respond to others' pain. There exists a twin process, the dark mirror of empathy, called sadism. This capacity, to instead feel pleasure from other people's pain and suffering, is not as rare as you might think.
People who exhibit everyday sadism experience pleasure from others' physical or psychological pain as they go about daily life. For example, they might enjoy seeing a fight outside the pub, or someone messing up an important presentation at work. But more than that, they also enjoy doing things to elicit suffering.
People who score higher on questionnaire measures of everyday sadism are also more likely to carry out acts of vandalism and sexual aggression, and to cyberbully and troll other people online. Such findings show that people's subjective feelings of everyday sadistic pleasure have real-life consequences, increasing the likelihood that they will choose to behave in ways that bring about suffering.
Like all aspects of personality, everyday sadism is not a binary phenomenon. It's not that you're either an everyday sadist or you're not; rather, it's a trait that exists as a spectrum in the general population. The people who score highly on the trait are more likely to behave in obviously antisocial ways, such as bullying and harming others. Those with more modest sadism scores are likely to express their tendency to enjoy others' suffering in more subtle fashion, for example via an enjoyment of violent films and games (it's worth noting though that the enjoyment of such content can be driven by other factors such as curiosity or suspense, and just because a person has such tastes doesn't mean that they're more likely to hurt a person in real life).
In our ancestral past, hurting others – particularly those who posed a threat – might have led to more food or protection, or served as a warning to enemies and competitors. If witnessing others' pain was linked to an increased chance of survival in this way, it's logical that the experience evolved to become rewarding to some extent. The advantages of a sadistic impulse are still apparent today – in many settings, including prisons and schools, aggression and violence can confer social status.
Whatever its advantages, sadism causes untold suffering. It's associated with bullying, for example, which can have a serious negative impact on victims' mental health for years after the bullying has ended. By recognising and better understanding sadism, we can counteract its harmful consequences. But first we must shake the notion that it exists in only a tiny proportion of people. The capacity to experience pleasure at others' distress exists, to some degree, in many of us.

Q. The author of the passage would consider each of the following as an example of everyday sadism EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 4

As per the author, people who exhibit everyday sadism experience pleasure from others' physical or psychological pain as they go about daily life. In options 1, 3 and 4, the persons are shown seeking that pleasure. Option 2 does not definitely relate to everyday sadism as it reflects curiosity only; refer to the part, "it's worth noting though that the enjoyment of such content can be driven by other factors such as curiosity or suspense, and just because a person has such tastes doesn't mean that they're more likely to hurt a person in real life."

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 5

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Social media can be a powerful force for positive change, especially when it comes to environmental issues. A seemingly perfect example is the drive to stem the tide of single-use plastic, particularly when it comes to food packaging. But it is possible that these sorts of well-intentioned moves, based on simple, social-media-friendly messages, can have unintended consequences.
Fruit and vegetables are still living plants, constantly interacting with the world around them in complex ways, some of which degrade the product.
Understanding these incredibly sophisticated interactions and how to control them has spurred the creation of a branch of study called post-harvest technology. Over the past half century or so, this has led to a suite of ingenious inventions, including wrapping, that have dramatically extended the shelf life of crops. Waste has been slashed and nutritional quality and flavour improved. Take, for example, a study published in 2011 showing that shrink-wrapped cucumbers lost a lot less water in a typical journey from farm to fork than the unwrapped equivalent, extending shelf life by up to 60 per cent. Ditching this wrapping would therefore have a significant impact on food as, much of the time, the crop would go off before being eaten.
The upsides of plastic packaging don't stop with shelf life, but can retain the nutritional value of the crops too.
It can be easy to assume that biodegradable food waste has nowhere near the same environmental impact as plastic waste that can persist for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. However, assessing this isn't that straightforward. While fruit and vegetable waste does break down fast into compounds, many benign, the environmental cost of producing these foods in the first place can be surprisingly high. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that one-third of all food is wasted, and so many resources are dedicated to its production that, if food waste were a country, it would come third after China and the US in terms of carbon emissions. Based on such stats, growing this wasted food requires almost 13 per cent of the planet's farmland and, if all waste was averted, it would be enough to feed 2 billion people.
Given the clear benefits of using some plastic packaging on some crops, I wonder whether we should move away from the idea of blanket bans and instead review which types are genuinely of benefit for shelf life, and thus the planet, and which are simply there for marketing or presentation. And what about a third approach of swapping to alternative, more recyclable or perhaps even biodegradable packaging, for those instances where plastic does play a useful role, rather than ditching it altogether – even if such an approach doesn't get quite as many shares on social media.

Q. Which of the following best summarises the main argument of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 5

The author expresses his opinion regarding the popular choice to not use plastic packaging. The author wants to convey about the prudent use of plastic packaging, that is based on a careful analysis of the kinds of products where the net gains of using such packaging are more than those of not using such packaging.
Option 1 - This leaves out the essential parts of the argument and just presents a supporting detail.
Option 2 - This is not what the entire passage focuses on. To know the type of plastic that should be allowed for common use is not the focus.
Option 3 - This statement best summarises the passage.
Option 4 - It is stated in the passage as a supporting statement. This is not the passage's main focus.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 6

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Social media can be a powerful force for positive change, especially when it comes to environmental issues. A seemingly perfect example is the drive to stem the tide of single-use plastic, particularly when it comes to food packaging. But it is possible that these sorts of well-intentioned moves, based on simple, social-media-friendly messages, can have unintended consequences.
Fruit and vegetables are still living plants, constantly interacting with the world around them in complex ways, some of which degrade the product.
Understanding these incredibly sophisticated interactions and how to control them has spurred the creation of a branch of study called post-harvest technology. Over the past half century or so, this has led to a suite of ingenious inventions, including wrapping, that have dramatically extended the shelf life of crops. Waste has been slashed and nutritional quality and flavour improved. Take, for example, a study published in 2011 showing that shrink-wrapped cucumbers lost a lot less water in a typical journey from farm to fork than the unwrapped equivalent, extending shelf life by up to 60 per cent. Ditching this wrapping would therefore have a significant impact on food as, much of the time, the crop would go off before being eaten.
The upsides of plastic packaging don't stop with shelf life, but can retain the nutritional value of the crops too.
It can be easy to assume that biodegradable food waste has nowhere near the same environmental impact as plastic waste that can persist for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. However, assessing this isn't that straightforward. While fruit and vegetable waste does break down fast into compounds, many benign, the environmental cost of producing these foods in the first place can be surprisingly high. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that one-third of all food is wasted, and so many resources are dedicated to its production that, if food waste were a country, it would come third after China and the US in terms of carbon emissions. Based on such stats, growing this wasted food requires almost 13 per cent of the planet's farmland and, if all waste was averted, it would be enough to feed 2 billion people.
Given the clear benefits of using some plastic packaging on some crops, I wonder whether we should move away from the idea of blanket bans and instead review which types are genuinely of benefit for shelf life, and thus the planet, and which are simply there for marketing or presentation. And what about a third approach of swapping to alternative, more recyclable or perhaps even biodegradable packaging, for those instances where plastic does play a useful role, rather than ditching it altogether – even if such an approach doesn't get quite as many shares on social media.

Q. Which of the following sets of words most accurately describes the flow of the passage?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 6

The author first criticises the frustration against plastics, refer to the lines, ''it is possible that ... can have unintended consequences'' and ''...some of which degrade the product''. Then he counters by providing facts which support his argument, for example the line, ''a study published in 2011 ... shrink-wrapped cucumbers lost a lot less water...''. Post this, he provides reasons for why plastic usage is important in the lines, ''The environmental cost of producing these foods in the first place can be surprisingly high,'' and ''The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that one-third of all food is wasted.'' In the end, he gives a plan of action regarding the future of plastics in the lines, ''we should move away from the idea of blanket bans and instead review which types are genuinely of benefit for shelf life,'' and ''... third approach of swapping to alternative, more recyclable or perhaps even biodegradable packaging''. Hence, 'Criticise, Counter, Reason, Plan' is the correct sequence.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 7

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Social media can be a powerful force for positive change, especially when it comes to environmental issues. A seemingly perfect example is the drive to stem the tide of single-use plastic, particularly when it comes to food packaging. But it is possible that these sorts of well-intentioned moves, based on simple, social-media-friendly messages, can have unintended consequences.
Fruit and vegetables are still living plants, constantly interacting with the world around them in complex ways, some of which degrade the product.
Understanding these incredibly sophisticated interactions and how to control them has spurred the creation of a branch of study called post-harvest technology. Over the past half century or so, this has led to a suite of ingenious inventions, including wrapping, that have dramatically extended the shelf life of crops. Waste has been slashed and nutritional quality and flavour improved. Take, for example, a study published in 2011 showing that shrink-wrapped cucumbers lost a lot less water in a typical journey from farm to fork than the unwrapped equivalent, extending shelf life by up to 60 per cent. Ditching this wrapping would therefore have a significant impact on food as, much of the time, the crop would go off before being eaten.
The upsides of plastic packaging don't stop with shelf life, but can retain the nutritional value of the crops too.
It can be easy to assume that biodegradable food waste has nowhere near the same environmental impact as plastic waste that can persist for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. However, assessing this isn't that straightforward. While fruit and vegetable waste does break down fast into compounds, many benign, the environmental cost of producing these foods in the first place can be surprisingly high. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that one-third of all food is wasted, and so many resources are dedicated to its production that, if food waste were a country, it would come third after China and the US in terms of carbon emissions. Based on such stats, growing this wasted food requires almost 13 per cent of the planet's farmland and, if all waste was averted, it would be enough to feed 2 billion people.
Given the clear benefits of using some plastic packaging on some crops, I wonder whether we should move away from the idea of blanket bans and instead review which types are genuinely of benefit for shelf life, and thus the planet, and which are simply there for marketing or presentation. And what about a third approach of swapping to alternative, more recyclable or perhaps even biodegradable packaging, for those instances where plastic does play a useful role, rather than ditching it altogether – even if such an approach doesn't get quite as many shares on social media.

Q. Which of the following statements will the author of the passage most likely agree with?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 7

Option 1 - Although positive effects may be communicated to the people, this cannot be inferred that any such consequent change in the attitude of the people will also happen.
Option 2 - This cannot be inferred. Although poor packaging may lead to drastic food losses, it cannot be inferred that plastic packaging is majorly responsible for it.
Option 3 - This statement cannot be inferred at all from the passage. Such a comparison between losses due to two different reasons has not been made by the author in the passage.
Option 4 - The author mentions the positive effects of using plastic packaging and also gives the example of a research highlighting benefits. Such packaging is better than not using plastic or any other kind of packaging because of the benefits mentioned in the passage.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 8

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

Social media can be a powerful force for positive change, especially when it comes to environmental issues. A seemingly perfect example is the drive to stem the tide of single-use plastic, particularly when it comes to food packaging. But it is possible that these sorts of well-intentioned moves, based on simple, social-media-friendly messages, can have unintended consequences.
Fruit and vegetables are still living plants, constantly interacting with the world around them in complex ways, some of which degrade the product.
Understanding these incredibly sophisticated interactions and how to control them has spurred the creation of a branch of study called post-harvest technology. Over the past half century or so, this has led to a suite of ingenious inventions, including wrapping, that have dramatically extended the shelf life of crops. Waste has been slashed and nutritional quality and flavour improved. Take, for example, a study published in 2011 showing that shrink-wrapped cucumbers lost a lot less water in a typical journey from farm to fork than the unwrapped equivalent, extending shelf life by up to 60 per cent. Ditching this wrapping would therefore have a significant impact on food as, much of the time, the crop would go off before being eaten.
The upsides of plastic packaging don't stop with shelf life, but can retain the nutritional value of the crops too.
It can be easy to assume that biodegradable food waste has nowhere near the same environmental impact as plastic waste that can persist for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. However, assessing this isn't that straightforward. While fruit and vegetable waste does break down fast into compounds, many benign, the environmental cost of producing these foods in the first place can be surprisingly high. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that one-third of all food is wasted, and so many resources are dedicated to its production that, if food waste were a country, it would come third after China and the US in terms of carbon emissions. Based on such stats, growing this wasted food requires almost 13 per cent of the planet's farmland and, if all waste was averted, it would be enough to feed 2 billion people.
Given the clear benefits of using some plastic packaging on some crops, I wonder whether we should move away from the idea of blanket bans and instead review which types are genuinely of benefit for shelf life, and thus the planet, and which are simply there for marketing or presentation. And what about a third approach of swapping to alternative, more recyclable or perhaps even biodegradable packaging, for those instances where plastic does play a useful role, rather than ditching it altogether – even if such an approach doesn't get quite as many shares on social media.

Q. The author of the passage will support all of the following statements EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 8

Option 1 - The author implies that there may be some forms of plastic that are used only as a result of intensive marketing and not because of their benefits.
Option 2 - The author explicitly makes this statement. Refer the lines - "While fruit and vegetable waste does break down fast into compounds, many benign, the environmental cost of producing these foods in the first place can be surprisingly high. ...looked at cucumber production and found that plastic packaging was responsible for only 1 per cent of the total environmental impact of this food, yet each cucumber that had to be thrown away because it spoiled has the net environmental impact of 93 plastic wraps. The study concluded that, in the context of reducing food waste, the plastic was beneficial: by extending shelf life, the net environmental benefit of wrapping cucumbers was 4.9 times higher than not bothering."
Option 3 - The usage of plastic packaging is not dependent on its becoming recyclable. Even non recyclable plastics prove to be beneficial as seen from their beneficial effects they have on shelf life of the products. The author advocates that they will continue to be used, although biodegradable forms may help in their widespread acceptance.
Option 4 - This statement is explicitly and implicitly mentioned in the passage. Refer the lines - "A seemingly perfect example is the drive to stem the tide of single-use plastic, particularly when it comes to food packaging."

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 9

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

Few entrepreneurs start out with both a well-defined strategy and a plan for developing an organisation that can achieve that strategy. In fact, many start-ups, which don't have formal control systems, decision-making processes, or clear roles for employees, can hardly be called organisations. The founders of such ventures improvise. They perform most of the important functions themselves and make decisions as they go along.
Informality is fine as long as entrepreneurs aren't interested in building a large, sustainable business. Once that becomes their goal, however, they must start developing formal systems and processes. Such organisational infrastructure allows a venture to grow, but at the same time, it increases overhead and may slow down decision-making. How much infrastructure is enough and how much is too much? To match investments in infrastructure to the requirements of a venture's strategy, entrepreneurs must consider the degree to which their strategy depends on the following:
As a young venture grows, its founders will probably need to delegate many of the tasks that they used to perform. To get employees to perform those tasks competently and diligently, the founders may need to establish mechanisms to monitor employees and standard operating procedures and policies. Consider an extreme example. Randy and Debbi Fields pass along their skills and knowledge through software that tells employees in every Mrs. Fields Cookies shop exactly how to make cookies and operate the business. The software analyses data such as local weather conditions and the day of the week to generate hourly instructions about such matters as which cookies to bake, when to offer free samples, and when to reorder chocolate chips.
Telling employees how to do their jobs, however, can stifle initiative. Companies that require frontline employees to act quickly and resourcefully might decide to focus more on outcomes than on behaviour, using control systems that set performance targets for employees, compare results against objectives and provide appropriate incentives.
In a small-scale start-up, everyone does a little bit of everything but as a business grows and tries to achieve economies of scale and scope, employees must be assigned clearly defined roles and grouped into appropriate organisational units. An all purpose workshop employee, for example, might become a machine tool operator, who is part of a manufacturing unit. Specialised activities need to be integrated by, for example, creating the position of a general manager, who coordinates the manufacturing and marketing functions, or through systems that are designed to measure and reward employees for cross-functional cooperation. Poor integrative mechanisms are reasons why geographic expansion, vertical integration, broadening of product lines and other strategies to achieve economies of scale and scope often fail.
Cash-strapped businesses that are trying to grow need good systems to forecast and monitor the availability of funds. Outside sources of capital such as banks often refuse to advance funds to companies with weak controls and organisational infrastructure.
If entrepreneurs hope to build a company that they can sell, they must start preparing early. Public markets and potential acquirers like to see an extended history of well-kept financial records and controls to reassure them of the soundness of the business.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author of the passage most likely to agree with?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 9

1. Incorrect. The author makes no such claim that founders are 'only' performance driven. Rather he suggests that performance target determining control systems be put in place.
2. Incorrect. The author specifically states that segregated specialised activities may not be feasible (hence, desirable) at the early stage when the business is small.
3. Correct. This can be derived from "If entrepreneurs hope to build a company that they can sell, they must start preparing early." This means early preparation of long term strategy is important. Hence, the answer is (3).
4. Incorrect. This is not what the author suggests. The author rather implies that improvisation is the antithesis of strategy. This can be derived from "The founders of ... slow down decision-making."

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 10

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

Few entrepreneurs start out with both a well-defined strategy and a plan for developing an organisation that can achieve that strategy. In fact, many start-ups, which don't have formal control systems, decision-making processes, or clear roles for employees, can hardly be called organisations. The founders of such ventures improvise. They perform most of the important functions themselves and make decisions as they go along.
Informality is fine as long as entrepreneurs aren't interested in building a large, sustainable business. Once that becomes their goal, however, they must start developing formal systems and processes. Such organisational infrastructure allows a venture to grow, but at the same time, it increases overhead and may slow down decision-making. How much infrastructure is enough and how much is too much? To match investments in infrastructure to the requirements of a venture's strategy, entrepreneurs must consider the degree to which their strategy depends on the following:
As a young venture grows, its founders will probably need to delegate many of the tasks that they used to perform. To get employees to perform those tasks competently and diligently, the founders may need to establish mechanisms to monitor employees and standard operating procedures and policies. Consider an extreme example. Randy and Debbi Fields pass along their skills and knowledge through software that tells employees in every Mrs. Fields Cookies shop exactly how to make cookies and operate the business. The software analyses data such as local weather conditions and the day of the week to generate hourly instructions about such matters as which cookies to bake, when to offer free samples, and when to reorder chocolate chips.
Telling employees how to do their jobs, however, can stifle initiative. Companies that require frontline employees to act quickly and resourcefully might decide to focus more on outcomes than on behaviour, using control systems that set performance targets for employees, compare results against objectives and provide appropriate incentives.
In a small-scale start-up, everyone does a little bit of everything but as a business grows and tries to achieve economies of scale and scope, employees must be assigned clearly defined roles and grouped into appropriate organisational units. An all purpose workshop employee, for example, might become a machine tool operator, who is part of a manufacturing unit. Specialised activities need to be integrated by, for example, creating the position of a general manager, who coordinates the manufacturing and marketing functions, or through systems that are designed to measure and reward employees for cross-functional cooperation. Poor integrative mechanisms are reasons why geographic expansion, vertical integration, broadening of product lines and other strategies to achieve economies of scale and scope often fail.
Cash-strapped businesses that are trying to grow need good systems to forecast and monitor the availability of funds. Outside sources of capital such as banks often refuse to advance funds to companies with weak controls and organisational infrastructure.
If entrepreneurs hope to build a company that they can sell, they must start preparing early. Public markets and potential acquirers like to see an extended history of well-kept financial records and controls to reassure them of the soundness of the business.

Q. The author of the passage will most likely agree with each of the following statements, EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 10

1. Correct. Paragraph 4, line 1: 'Telling employees how to do their jobs, however, can stifle initiative'. This is clearly in disagreement with option (1). So, (1) is the correct answer.
2. Incorrect. This is supported by 'Companies that require frontline employees to act quickly and resourcefully might decide to focus more on outcomes than on behaviour, using control systems that set performance targets for employees, compare results against objectives and provide appropriate incentives'. Since this can be derived from the text, the author will agree with this. Hence, this cannot be the correct answer.
3. Incorrect. This can be derived from 'Telling employees how to do their jobs, however, can stifle initiative'. Hence, this is not correct.
4. Incorrect. This can be derive dfrom '...compare results against objectives and provide appropriate incentives' Hence, this cannot be the answer.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 11

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

Few entrepreneurs start out with both a well-defined strategy and a plan for developing an organisation that can achieve that strategy. In fact, many start-ups, which don't have formal control systems, decision-making processes, or clear roles for employees, can hardly be called organisations. The founders of such ventures improvise. They perform most of the important functions themselves and make decisions as they go along.
Informality is fine as long as entrepreneurs aren't interested in building a large, sustainable business. Once that becomes their goal, however, they must start developing formal systems and processes. Such organisational infrastructure allows a venture to grow, but at the same time, it increases overhead and may slow down decision-making. How much infrastructure is enough and how much is too much? To match investments in infrastructure to the requirements of a venture's strategy, entrepreneurs must consider the degree to which their strategy depends on the following:
As a young venture grows, its founders will probably need to delegate many of the tasks that they used to perform. To get employees to perform those tasks competently and diligently, the founders may need to establish mechanisms to monitor employees and standard operating procedures and policies. Consider an extreme example. Randy and Debbi Fields pass along their skills and knowledge through software that tells employees in every Mrs. Fields Cookies shop exactly how to make cookies and operate the business. The software analyses data such as local weather conditions and the day of the week to generate hourly instructions about such matters as which cookies to bake, when to offer free samples, and when to reorder chocolate chips.
Telling employees how to do their jobs, however, can stifle initiative. Companies that require frontline employees to act quickly and resourcefully might decide to focus more on outcomes than on behaviour, using control systems that set performance targets for employees, compare results against objectives and provide appropriate incentives.
In a small-scale start-up, everyone does a little bit of everything but as a business grows and tries to achieve economies of scale and scope, employees must be assigned clearly defined roles and grouped into appropriate organisational units. An all purpose workshop employee, for example, might become a machine tool operator, who is part of a manufacturing unit. Specialised activities need to be integrated by, for example, creating the position of a general manager, who coordinates the manufacturing and marketing functions, or through systems that are designed to measure and reward employees for cross-functional cooperation. Poor integrative mechanisms are reasons why geographic expansion, vertical integration, broadening of product lines and other strategies to achieve economies of scale and scope often fail.
Cash-strapped businesses that are trying to grow need good systems to forecast and monitor the availability of funds. Outside sources of capital such as banks often refuse to advance funds to companies with weak controls and organisational infrastructure.
If entrepreneurs hope to build a company that they can sell, they must start preparing early. Public markets and potential acquirers like to see an extended history of well-kept financial records and controls to reassure them of the soundness of the business.

Q. None of the following statements can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT that:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 11

1. Incorrect. The author has advocated 'clear cut positions' and 'establishing work procedures' for big businesses (not small businesses). So, (1) cannot be the answer.
2. Incorrect. The author has advocated 'clear cut positions' and 'establishing work procedures' for big businesses (not small businesses). So, (2) cannot be the answer.
3. Incorrect. Prediction of results being beneficial is nowhere discussed in the passage. So, (3) cannot be the answer.
4. Correct. From paragraph 5, the line 'Poor integrative mechanisms are reasons why geographic expansion, vertical integration, broadening of product lines and other strategies to achieve economies of scale and scope often fail.' justifies the answer. Through the passage the author brings to the fore the fact that as small organisations grow into bigger organisations, they need a proper system. This is clearly implied in option 4, hence the answer.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 12

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question that follows.

Few entrepreneurs start out with both a well-defined strategy and a plan for developing an organisation that can achieve that strategy. In fact, many start-ups, which don't have formal control systems, decision-making processes, or clear roles for employees, can hardly be called organisations. The founders of such ventures improvise. They perform most of the important functions themselves and make decisions as they go along.
Informality is fine as long as entrepreneurs aren't interested in building a large, sustainable business. Once that becomes their goal, however, they must start developing formal systems and processes. Such organisational infrastructure allows a venture to grow, but at the same time, it increases overhead and may slow down decision-making. How much infrastructure is enough and how much is too much? To match investments in infrastructure to the requirements of a venture's strategy, entrepreneurs must consider the degree to which their strategy depends on the following:
As a young venture grows, its founders will probably need to delegate many of the tasks that they used to perform. To get employees to perform those tasks competently and diligently, the founders may need to establish mechanisms to monitor employees and standard operating procedures and policies. Consider an extreme example. Randy and Debbi Fields pass along their skills and knowledge through software that tells employees in every Mrs. Fields Cookies shop exactly how to make cookies and operate the business. The software analyses data such as local weather conditions and the day of the week to generate hourly instructions about such matters as which cookies to bake, when to offer free samples, and when to reorder chocolate chips.
Telling employees how to do their jobs, however, can stifle initiative. Companies that require frontline employees to act quickly and resourcefully might decide to focus more on outcomes than on behaviour, using control systems that set performance targets for employees, compare results against objectives and provide appropriate incentives.
In a small-scale start-up, everyone does a little bit of everything but as a business grows and tries to achieve economies of scale and scope, employees must be assigned clearly defined roles and grouped into appropriate organisational units. An all purpose workshop employee, for example, might become a machine tool operator, who is part of a manufacturing unit. Specialised activities need to be integrated by, for example, creating the position of a general manager, who coordinates the manufacturing and marketing functions, or through systems that are designed to measure and reward employees for cross-functional cooperation. Poor integrative mechanisms are reasons why geographic expansion, vertical integration, broadening of product lines and other strategies to achieve economies of scale and scope often fail.
Cash-strapped businesses that are trying to grow need good systems to forecast and monitor the availability of funds. Outside sources of capital such as banks often refuse to advance funds to companies with weak controls and organisational infrastructure.
If entrepreneurs hope to build a company that they can sell, they must start preparing early. Public markets and potential acquirers like to see an extended history of well-kept financial records and controls to reassure them of the soundness of the business.

Q. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the passage as a whole?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 12

1. Incorrect. Work is delegated and not performance.
2. Incorrect. Focus of the passage is on strategies which help a business to grow from small to large. 'Sharing' per se is extraneous to the passage.
3. Incorrect. This option can only be a small idea, not the conclusion of the passage.
4. Correct. The author in the entire passage has tried to convey that when an organisation starts growing, restructuring has to be done. This helps the organisation to grow and become sound. So, (4) is the correct option.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 13

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

What do we remember from the vast quantity of events happening to us, involving us, and relevant to our life-story? People's memories for their experiences are not a veridical recording of such experiences, however, and can be influenced by many factors. An important and influential theory focusing on the emergence and content of autobiographical memory is the social cultural developmental theory, which emphasises the role of society and culture in shaping people's memories of their autobiographical past.
In essence, autobiographical memory is about defining the self in time and in relation to others, so that individuals gain a sense of who they are by relating to others within a culture and creating a shared past. Autobiographical memory emerges gradually and is influenced by cognitive developments of an individual and his/her social interactions, thus becoming a social-cultural-cognitive system.
One important dimension of culture is the extent of individualism or collectivism exhibited. Collectivism puts an emphasis on distinguishing between in-groups and out-groups, engaging in cooperative tasks, and focusing on what people have in common. Conversely, individualism is characterised by engagement in competitive tasks, by public situations, and by an emphasis on what makes the individual distinct. In general, in societies in which agreeing on social norms is important and jobs are interdependent, collectivism is preponderant, whereas in complex, stratified societies, where affluence, independence, and differences are emphasised, individualism is preponderant. However, both collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritise and manage their relationships and goals.
The emphasis on one or another starts in the family, even with the very structure of the family: a large, multigenerational one emphasises collectivism, whereas a smaller, nuclear family emphasises individualism.
Socio-cultural influences can be seen both in the formation and content of autobiographical memories. An analysis of conversations about reminiscing about one's experiences in Caucasian mother-child dyads and Korean mother-child dyads revealed that Caucasian dyads talked on average as much as three times more than the Koreans dyads. In addition, Caucasian mothers talked more during their turns and were more likely to portray the child as the protagonist in the talk, and to emphasise the child's and others' feelings and thoughts, whereas Korean mothers focused on norms, social roles, and emphasised behaviourial expectations.
Cultural influences on memory continue into adulthood. In one study, American college students' earliest childhood memories were from around the age of 3.5 years, whereas the Chinese college students' earliest childhood memories were dating from approximately 4.1 years of age. Furthermore, when considering the influence of culture on autobiographical memory, it is important to realise that people can internalise more than one culture, in equal measure, so as to form a bicultural identity.
In autobiographical memories, connections between self and the past are made. But how do people differentiate between events that really happened and events that they only thought about, inferred, or imagined? Memories of experienced events generally have more sensory and perceptual details than memories for events that did not really occur but were products of the imagination. Such qualitative details allow people to differentiate between memories of real and imagined.
Nonetheless, imagining events that never happened can have consequences, as the phenomenon of imagination inflation shows. Imagination inflation refers to an increase in confidence that a fictional event that was imagined actually happened, leading to false memories of the event.

Q. According to the social cultural developmental theory, all of the following factors would impact the autobiographical memory of an individual, EXCEPT:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 13

Option 4: Nothing about the relation between an individual's primal instincts and his/her autobiographical memories can be inferred from the social cultural developmental theory.
Options 1 and 2: Refer to the lines, 'In essence, autobiographical memory is about defining the self in time and in relation to others, so that individuals gain a sense of who they are by relating to others within a culture and creating a shared past.'
This suggests that autobiographical memories depend upon how an individual views himself/herself, and on the kind of interactions he/she has with the people around him/her.
Furthermore, the text states, 'Autobiographical memory emerges gradually and is influenced by cognitive developments of an individual ...'. So, option 3 is also true.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 14

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

What do we remember from the vast quantity of events happening to us, involving us, and relevant to our life-story? People's memories for their experiences are not a veridical recording of such experiences, however, and can be influenced by many factors. An important and influential theory focusing on the emergence and content of autobiographical memory is the social cultural developmental theory, which emphasises the role of society and culture in shaping people's memories of their autobiographical past.
In essence, autobiographical memory is about defining the self in time and in relation to others, so that individuals gain a sense of who they are by relating to others within a culture and creating a shared past. Autobiographical memory emerges gradually and is influenced by cognitive developments of an individual and his/her social interactions, thus becoming a social-cultural-cognitive system.
One important dimension of culture is the extent of individualism or collectivism exhibited. Collectivism puts an emphasis on distinguishing between in-groups and out-groups, engaging in cooperative tasks, and focusing on what people have in common. Conversely, individualism is characterised by engagement in competitive tasks, by public situations, and by an emphasis on what makes the individual distinct. In general, in societies in which agreeing on social norms is important and jobs are interdependent, collectivism is preponderant, whereas in complex, stratified societies, where affluence, independence, and differences are emphasised, individualism is preponderant. However, both collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritise and manage their relationships and goals.
The emphasis on one or another starts in the family, even with the very structure of the family: a large, multigenerational one emphasises collectivism, whereas a smaller, nuclear family emphasises individualism.
Socio-cultural influences can be seen both in the formation and content of autobiographical memories. An analysis of conversations about reminiscing about one's experiences in Caucasian mother-child dyads and Korean mother-child dyads revealed that Caucasian dyads talked on average as much as three times more than the Koreans dyads. In addition, Caucasian mothers talked more during their turns and were more likely to portray the child as the protagonist in the talk, and to emphasise the child's and others' feelings and thoughts, whereas Korean mothers focused on norms, social roles, and emphasised behaviourial expectations.
Cultural influences on memory continue into adulthood. In one study, American college students' earliest childhood memories were from around the age of 3.5 years, whereas the Chinese college students' earliest childhood memories were dating from approximately 4.1 years of age. Furthermore, when considering the influence of culture on autobiographical memory, it is important to realise that people can internalise more than one culture, in equal measure, so as to form a bicultural identity.
In autobiographical memories, connections between self and the past are made. But how do people differentiate between events that really happened and events that they only thought about, inferred, or imagined? Memories of experienced events generally have more sensory and perceptual details than memories for events that did not really occur but were products of the imagination. Such qualitative details allow people to differentiate between memories of real and imagined.
Nonetheless, imagining events that never happened can have consequences, as the phenomenon of imagination inflation shows. Imagination inflation refers to an increase in confidence that a fictional event that was imagined actually happened, leading to false memories of the event.

Q. Which of the following is an aspect that collectivism and individualism do not influence?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 14

1. Not correct. The nature of engagement is influenced by collectivism or individualism. Refer to the extracts "Collectivism puts an emphasis on distinguishing between in-groups and out-groups, engaging in cooperative tasks ..." and "Conversely, individualism is characterised by engagement in competitive tasks".
2. Not correct. Different abilities of the people get emphasised corresponding to the approach that exists in the society. Refer to the extracts "Collectivism puts an emphasis on ... and focusing on what people have in common" and "Conversely, individualism is characterised by engagement in ... by an emphasis on what makes the individual distinct."
3. Not correct. Refer to the extract "However, both collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritise and manage their relationships and goals."
4. Correct. It is the profile of society that determines the dominant approach and not the other way round. Refer to the extract "In general, in societies in which agreeing on social norms is important and jobs are interdependent, collectivism is preponderant, whereas in complex, stratified societies, where affluence, independence, and differences are emphasised, individualism is preponderant."

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 15

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

What do we remember from the vast quantity of events happening to us, involving us, and relevant to our life-story? People's memories for their experiences are not a veridical recording of such experiences, however, and can be influenced by many factors. An important and influential theory focusing on the emergence and content of autobiographical memory is the social cultural developmental theory, which emphasises the role of society and culture in shaping people's memories of their autobiographical past.
In essence, autobiographical memory is about defining the self in time and in relation to others, so that individuals gain a sense of who they are by relating to others within a culture and creating a shared past. Autobiographical memory emerges gradually and is influenced by cognitive developments of an individual and his/her social interactions, thus becoming a social-cultural-cognitive system.
One important dimension of culture is the extent of individualism or collectivism exhibited. Collectivism puts an emphasis on distinguishing between in-groups and out-groups, engaging in cooperative tasks, and focusing on what people have in common. Conversely, individualism is characterised by engagement in competitive tasks, by public situations, and by an emphasis on what makes the individual distinct. In general, in societies in which agreeing on social norms is important and jobs are interdependent, collectivism is preponderant, whereas in complex, stratified societies, where affluence, independence, and differences are emphasised, individualism is preponderant. However, both collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritise and manage their relationships and goals.
The emphasis on one or another starts in the family, even with the very structure of the family: a large, multigenerational one emphasises collectivism, whereas a smaller, nuclear family emphasises individualism.
Socio-cultural influences can be seen both in the formation and content of autobiographical memories. An analysis of conversations about reminiscing about one's experiences in Caucasian mother-child dyads and Korean mother-child dyads revealed that Caucasian dyads talked on average as much as three times more than the Koreans dyads. In addition, Caucasian mothers talked more during their turns and were more likely to portray the child as the protagonist in the talk, and to emphasise the child's and others' feelings and thoughts, whereas Korean mothers focused on norms, social roles, and emphasised behaviourial expectations.
Cultural influences on memory continue into adulthood. In one study, American college students' earliest childhood memories were from around the age of 3.5 years, whereas the Chinese college students' earliest childhood memories were dating from approximately 4.1 years of age. Furthermore, when considering the influence of culture on autobiographical memory, it is important to realise that people can internalise more than one culture, in equal measure, so as to form a bicultural identity.
In autobiographical memories, connections between self and the past are made. But how do people differentiate between events that really happened and events that they only thought about, inferred, or imagined? Memories of experienced events generally have more sensory and perceptual details than memories for events that did not really occur but were products of the imagination. Such qualitative details allow people to differentiate between memories of real and imagined.
Nonetheless, imagining events that never happened can have consequences, as the phenomenon of imagination inflation shows. Imagination inflation refers to an increase in confidence that a fictional event that was imagined actually happened, leading to false memories of the event.

Q. By using the example of American and Chinese College students, the writer demonstrates that:

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 15

Option 4: Refer to the line, 'Cultural influences on memory continue into adulthood. In one study, American college students' earliest childhood memories were from around the age of 3.5 years, whereas the Chinese college students' earliest childhood memories were dating from approximately 4.1 years of age.' So, option 4 is correct.
Option 1: While this is true, this is not what the example refers to.
Option 2: The example is not about the extent of misinterpretation of past depending upon a person's ethnic background.
Option 3: There is no such comparison being made in the text.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 16

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given question.

What do we remember from the vast quantity of events happening to us, involving us, and relevant to our life-story? People's memories for their experiences are not a veridical recording of such experiences, however, and can be influenced by many factors. An important and influential theory focusing on the emergence and content of autobiographical memory is the social cultural developmental theory, which emphasises the role of society and culture in shaping people's memories of their autobiographical past.
In essence, autobiographical memory is about defining the self in time and in relation to others, so that individuals gain a sense of who they are by relating to others within a culture and creating a shared past. Autobiographical memory emerges gradually and is influenced by cognitive developments of an individual and his/her social interactions, thus becoming a social-cultural-cognitive system.
One important dimension of culture is the extent of individualism or collectivism exhibited. Collectivism puts an emphasis on distinguishing between in-groups and out-groups, engaging in cooperative tasks, and focusing on what people have in common. Conversely, individualism is characterised by engagement in competitive tasks, by public situations, and by an emphasis on what makes the individual distinct. In general, in societies in which agreeing on social norms is important and jobs are interdependent, collectivism is preponderant, whereas in complex, stratified societies, where affluence, independence, and differences are emphasised, individualism is preponderant. However, both collectivist and individualistic cultures are concerned with how individuals in a society prioritise and manage their relationships and goals.
The emphasis on one or another starts in the family, even with the very structure of the family: a large, multigenerational one emphasises collectivism, whereas a smaller, nuclear family emphasises individualism.
Socio-cultural influences can be seen both in the formation and content of autobiographical memories. An analysis of conversations about reminiscing about one's experiences in Caucasian mother-child dyads and Korean mother-child dyads revealed that Caucasian dyads talked on average as much as three times more than the Koreans dyads. In addition, Caucasian mothers talked more during their turns and were more likely to portray the child as the protagonist in the talk, and to emphasise the child's and others' feelings and thoughts, whereas Korean mothers focused on norms, social roles, and emphasised behaviourial expectations.
Cultural influences on memory continue into adulthood. In one study, American college students' earliest childhood memories were from around the age of 3.5 years, whereas the Chinese college students' earliest childhood memories were dating from approximately 4.1 years of age. Furthermore, when considering the influence of culture on autobiographical memory, it is important to realise that people can internalise more than one culture, in equal measure, so as to form a bicultural identity.
In autobiographical memories, connections between self and the past are made. But how do people differentiate between events that really happened and events that they only thought about, inferred, or imagined? Memories of experienced events generally have more sensory and perceptual details than memories for events that did not really occur but were products of the imagination. Such qualitative details allow people to differentiate between memories of real and imagined.
Nonetheless, imagining events that never happened can have consequences, as the phenomenon of imagination inflation shows. Imagination inflation refers to an increase in confidence that a fictional event that was imagined actually happened, leading to false memories of the event.

Q. 'Memories of experienced events generally have more sensory and perceptual details than memories for events that did not really occur but were products of the imagination.' In light of this quoted extract, which of the following statements is true?

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 16

From the given quote, we can infer that imagined memories are not as detailed as experienced ones. So, option 2 is the correct answer. The other options do not find any support from the given text.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 17

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: Knowing why you procrastinate and learning how to combat it are the only ways to change your behaviour.

Paragraph: (1) _________. Procrastination can have practical consequences, such as falling behind at work or failing to achieve personal goals or to cross off errands from a to-do list. But there are also emotional or mental impacts. If you're stuck in what seems like an endless cycle of procrastination, guilt and chaos, you might be wondering, Why am I so lazy? (2) _________. Despite that common perception, laziness usually isn't the reason behind procrastination. Laziness is like, 'I have absolutely no desire to even think about this.' Procrastination is, 'It troubles me to think about this. And therefore, it's hard for me to get the job done.' That's a big difference. (3) _________. You could be the perfectionist, the dreamer, the worrier or the defier — these are all procrastination styles. (4) _________. These procrastination types aren't specific diagnoses and aren't backed by research, but they are psychological types or reasons why someone might procrastinate.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 17

The given sentence highlights the importance of differentiating between the causes of procrastination to deal with it.
Option 1: The sentence does not act as an opening sentence, as the following sentence is about the consequences of procrastination.
Option 2: The sentence will break the flow here, as the preceding and the following sentences are about laziness.
Option 3 is correct. The preceding context makes it clear that laziness is not the only culprit; the question sentence conveys that we need to understand the actual reason of procrastination and then act. The following sentence also aligns with the idea and elaborates various possible reasons as procrastination styles.
Option 4: The sentence will be a misfit here. 'These procrastination types' in the following sentence are already connected to 'all procrastination styles' in the preceding sentence.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 18

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Punishment in society is typically seen as a method to correct the fracture of societal harmony. This fracture occurs when there is a threat to the shared values, morals, norms and the identity of the group and/or society. The state has regulated society's shared norms and values, and those who commit these infractions are subjected to degrees of punishment: whether it be fines, community service, prison time, and sometimes death at the hands of the state. Other than punishment being a method of correcting threats to societal harmony, punishment can reveal the relationship between how actors, institutions, administrative tactics, and social mechanisms create society, more specifically, how it establishes and perpetuates inequality amongst the people.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 18

The passage talks about how punishment has a dual role, of correcting the fractures or inconsistencies experienced in the social realm along with its use for understanding the relationships between different members of the society and what leads to inequality among them. So option 1 is correct. The passage does not convey that states are "deliberately establishing and perpetuating inequality" (option 2), or the role of punishment being unrealised (option 3), or whether punishment is 'effective' (option 4).

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 19

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. The study suggests that the disease did not spread with such intensity, but that it may have driven human migrations across Europe and Asia.

2. The oldest sample came from an individual who lived in southeast Russia about 5,000 years ago.

3. In the analysis of fragments of DNA from 101 Bronze Age skeletons for sequences from Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes the disease, seven tested positive.

4. DNA from Bronze Age human skeletons indicate that the black plague could have emerged as early as 3,000 BCE, long before the epidemic that swept through Europe in the mid-1300s.


Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 19

The opener in this case will be 4 as it introduces the topic of the discussion i.e. when black plague emerged and it even compares black plague that happened in the 3000 BCE with the one that happened in Europe in the mid-1300s. The words 'spread with such intensity' and 'Europe' in 1 refer to 'epidemic that swept through Europe in the mid-1300s' in 4. It explains that the black plague observed in 3000 BCE 'did not spread with such intensity' as it happened in the mid-1300s. So, statement 1 follows 4. Following 4 and 1, the third sentence refers to the DNA from Bronze Age that was first discussed in 4, so 3 will come after 1 as 4 and 1 are already linked. Next in sentence 2 we have 'the oldest sample' which should connect with the samples mentioned before and we find the reference in 3 seven tested positive. So the correct order is 4132.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 20

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is at its highest level in 4 million years. This does not cause storms like Harvey - there have always been storms and hurricanes along the Gulf of Mexico - but it makes them wetter and more powerful. As the seas warm, they evaporate more easily and provide energy to storm fronts. As the air above them warms, it holds more water vapour. For every half a degree Celsius in warming, there is about a 3% increase in atmospheric moisture content. Scientists call this the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This means the skies fill more quickly and have more to dump. The storm surge was greater because sea levels have risen 20 cm as a result of more than 100 years of human-related global warming which has melted glaciers and thermally expanded the volume of sea water.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 20

The paragraph argues that global warming causes sea levels to rise and fill the skies with water vapour, thus leading to wetter and more damaging storms and hurricanes. (1) contradicts received wisdom by stating that global warming and rampaging storms are unrelated. (2) focuses on the downsides of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, which are not mentioned in the paragraph at all. (4) is verbose, refer to 'but this may not be true of all storms', an uncertain statement anyway from the paragraph point of view. (3) faithfully captures the essence of the paragraph.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 21

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. With these benefits, the Roman Empire flourished and sparked a golden age of technological advancement and architectural development.

2. The Romans were impressive builders and some of the structures built by the Romans that still stand up to this day exhibit this.

3. Large infrastructure was one of the fundamental aspects that allowed the Roman Empire to maintain its expansive territory.

4. Roads allowed the free movement of goods, information and troops and the sewers and freshwater systems enabled the growth of large populations.


Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 21

The text should begin with 2 as it is the most general statement out of the four provided. That Romans were impressive builders is emphasized further in 3 by stating that they built large infrastructure. Examples of such large infrastructure are provided in 4. So we have a 2-3-4 link. The final sentence in the sequence should be 1 as these in 1 refers to the benefits referred to in sentence 4. So the correct order is 2341.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 22

Directions: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.

Sentence: For today's aspirational class, inconspicuous consumption choices secure and preserve social status, even if they do not necessarily display it.

Paragraph: (1) __________. Given that everyone can now buy designer handbags and new cars, the rich have taken to using much more tacit signifiers of their social position. But the dramatic changes in elite spending are driven by a well-to-do, educated elite, or what I call the 'aspirational class'. (2) __________. This new class cements its status through prizing knowledge and building cultural capital, not to mention the spending habits that go with it. It prefers spending on services, education and human-capital investments over purely material goods. These new status behaviours are what I call 'inconspicuous consumption'. (3) __________. Inconspicuous consumption is a far more pernicious form of status spending than the conspicuous consumption of Veblen's time. Inconspicuous consumption – whether breastfeeding or education – is a means to a better quality of life and improved social mobility for one's own children, whereas conspicuous consumption is merely an end in itself – simply ostentation. (4) __________.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 22

The weakest option in this question in option 1, as the following sentence does not directly link with the question sentence. The important terms such as 'aspirational class' and 'inconspicuous consumption' are explained later in the text.
Option 2 refers to the aspirational class, and option 3 refers to the inconspicuous consumption, but these are not the best choices. The keywords 'they do not necessarily display it' in the question sentence help reach the answer. They find connection with the sentence preceding blank 4 only ('ostentation').

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 23

Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1. For decades, physicists have hoped dark matter would prove to be heavy—consisting of so-called weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) that could be straightforwardly detected in the lab.

2. Even after decades of searching, scientists have never seen a particle of dark matter.

3. With no definitive sign of WIMPs emerging from years of careful searching, however, physicists have been broadening the scope of their quest.

4. Evidence for the substance's existence is close to incontrovertible, but no one yet knows what it is made of.


Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 23

Since 1 introduces "weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)", a term which 3 again uses in an abbreviated form, which means that 3 can only succeed 1. On carefully reading 1, it becomes clear that dark matter was expected by physicists to be consisting of WIMPs. This means that 1 is about a particular idea of constitution of black matter.
Thus, statements that are introductory about black matter ought to precede 1.
The best opening statement is thus 2.
The part "what it is made of" in 4 connects well to the idea of constitution of black matter (refer to "to be heavy—consisting of so-called weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)") in 1.
Hence, 2413 is the correct answer.

Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 24

Directions: The passage given below is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

In its most basic form, longtermism claims that the best option is that which is best for the far future. The thesis is typically justified by four premises - two empirical and two evaluative. The first premise states that there are, in expectation, an extremely large number of future people. The second premise states that we ought to adopt a zero rate of pure time preference (or impatience) such that we do not discount the well-being of these future people. The third premise claims that there are ways we can alter our established practices that will predictably influence the well-being of these future people. The final premise states that the best option is that which maximises well-being. Thus if we can expect a vast number of future generations, and if the well-being of a future person is weighted equally to that of a present-day person, then the value of an option that is best for the far future is likely to swamp the value of an option that is best for the short-term.

Detailed Solution for Test: CAT Verbal & Reading Comprehension- 7 - Question 24

The passage talks about longtermism, its basis for its importance and its relevance over short-term views in promoting the well-being of future generations. It gives a detailed description of the four premises of longtermism.
(1) - This does not mention anything about the premises or the basis why such longtermism is favoured over short-term views.
(2) - This fully explains both empirical and evaluative basis for longtermism, and the goal of increasing well-being and its importance over future generations.
(3) - Again, this does not give us any idea about the evaluative or empirical basis for favouring long-term views.
(4) - The statement is vague. It is not the well-being that promotes long-term view, rather long-term view which promotes well-being of future generations.

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