Initial setting time of concrete ceases at
The function of fine aggregate is
Bulking of sand is the
The increase in the volume of a given mass of fine aggregate caused by the presence of water is known as bulking. The bulking of fine aggregate is caused by the films of water which push the particles apart. The extent of bulking depends upon the percentage of moisture present in the sand and its fineness.
Gap grading is one
gap-grading is defined as a grading in which one or more intermediate-size fractions are absent. The term continuously graded is used to distinguish the contentional grading from gap-grading. On a grading curve, gap-grading is represented by a horizontal line over the range of the size omitted.
Which of the following impurities in the mixing water is destructive?
Admixtures could be used to
Admixtures are the chemical compounds in concrete other than hydraulic cement (OPC), water, aggregates and mineral additives that are added to the concrete mix immediately before or during mixing, to modify one or more of the specific properties of concrete in the fresh or hardened state. In normal used, admixture dosages are less than five percent by mass of cement. Some of the important admixtures and purposes for which they could be used are: Accelerators: They-speed up the initial set of concrete, i.e., rate of development of strength at early ages. Typical materials used are CaCl2 and Retarders: The slow down the initial set of concrete, i.e., keep the concrete workable for a longer time for placement. These are generally used in large or difficult placement conditions where partial setting before the placement is complete is undesirable.
Adding an accelerator to concrete increases all of the following except
Following compounds can be used as accelerators except
CaSO4 is known as gypsum and is commonly used as retarder. Rest other compounds like Calcium Chloride, Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulphate are used as accelerators.
Addition of pozzolana admixtures results in
Mineral additives also called supplementary cementing material or pozzolana are fine grained siliceous inorganic material which, as such, do not process cementing properties in themselves, but react chemically with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 released from the hydration of Portland cement at normal temperature to form compounds of low solubility having cementing properties. The action is termed pozzolanic action.
Some of the advantages obtained through use mineral additives are:
1. Improved workability with lesser amount of water.
2. Lower heat of hydration and thermal shrinkage.
3. Improved resistance to attack from salts and sulphates from soils and sea water.
4. Reduced susceptibility to dissolution and leaching of calcium hydroxide.
5. Reduced permeability.
6. Lower costs.
Superplasticizers or super water-reducers
They increase the workability of green or fresh concrete to have higher flowability without increasing the water content which results in faster rate of concrete placement, easy of placement in relatively poorly accessible locations without vibration, good shutter finish for highly reinforcement concrete members, and reduction in cement content. Superplasticisers, high-range water-reducing admixtures, are a class of plasticisers which have fewer deleterious effects. Advantages of water reduction in hardened state of concrete are increased strength, density, durability, volume stability, abrasion resistance, reduced permeability and cracking.