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QUESTION: 1

A circle of radius 7 m has a standard error of 0.02 m on the radius. The standard error of its area is

Solution:

Area of circle

A = πr^{2}

∴ dA/dr = 2πr

Let standard error in radius be e_{r},

∴ Standard error in area,

QUESTION: 2

Geodetic surveying is different from plane surveying because of

Solution:

QUESTION: 3

The difference between the most probable value of a quantity and its observer value is

Solution:

True Error = Actual Value-Observed Value

Weighted Observations = Observations taken with proportion to any quantity like an area

Conditional Error = Error occurring due to certain conditions prevailing. Like temperature error.

Residual Error = Most Probable Value- Observed Value

QUESTION: 4

The error due to bad ranging is

Solution:

Cumulative Errors occurring in same direction and thus, they aggregate to make a considerable amount of error.

Positive cumulative errors Non Horizontality, sag, bad ranging.

Positive/ Negative cumulative errors Erroneous length of chain, temperature variation.

QUESTION: 5

For a well-conditional triangle, no angle should be less than

Solution:

For a well-conditioned triangle all the angles must lie in the range of 300-1200.

QUESTION: 6

An invar tape is made of an alloy of

Solution:

QUESTION: 7

Offsets are

Solution:

The distance measured right or left of the chain line to locate details like boundaries, culverts etc. are called offsets.

These are of two types:

(i) Perpendicular offsets at right angles to the chain line

(ii) oblique offsets not at right angles to the chain line

QUESTION: 8

‘Ranging' is the process of

Solution:

QUESTION: 9

Theory of probability is applied to

Solution:

QUESTION: 10

Systematic errors are those errors

Solution:

### Fundamental Concepts

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### Fundamental Concepts

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### Fundamental Concepts

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