In puri, Orissa, a local deity, was recognized as a form of what?
What are two deities that devotees often tended to project as supreme?
What did the Avars and Nayanars claim as crucial as the Vedas?
What was often described as the Tamil Veda?
Whose compositions were widely sung?
Who did andal see herself as the beloved of?
Who was a devotee of shiva?
The poets’ opposition to Buddhism and Jainism is particularly marked in what of the Nayanars?
What do Lingayats worship?
What idea did the Lingayats challenge?
What theory did the Lingayats question?
What is our understanding of the Vira Shaiva tradition derived from?
Where were Vishnu and shiva worshipped?
In what year did Muhammad Qasim conquer Sind?
Who guided Muslim rulers?
What tax did the zimmi pay to gain the right to be protected by Muslims?
What did rulers such as the Mughals regard themselves as?
What language did Arab Muslim traders adopt?
Who set up a hospice in Ghiyaspur?
The pilgrims’ spirited singing bound for what city-inspired Akbar to visit the tomb?