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Identify the true statement from those given below. In the health psychology model:
In the health psychology model, the individual is no longer simply seen as a passive victim of some external force, such as a virus. Acknowledging the role of behaviours such as smoking, diet and alcohol, for example, means that the individual may be held responsible for their health and illness. According to health psychology, the whole person should be treated, not just the physical changes that occur due to ill health. Health psychology encompasses behaviour change, encouraging changes in beliefs and coping strategies, and compliance with medical recommendations. Because the whole person is treated, the patient becomes partly responsible for their treatment. For example, she may have a responsibility to take medication, and to change beliefs and behaviour. No longer is the patient seen as a victim.
All of the following factors contribute to individuals’ unrealistic optimism about their chances of getting an illness or other health problems except for _________________.
The belief that parents’ health is the sole determinant of our health problems is not one of the cognitive factors related to unrealistic optimism according to Weinstein whereas the other four factors are associated with unrealistic optimism about health issues.
Based on the stages of change model developed by Prochaska and DiClemente (1982), if a person notices that she has been coughing a lot recently and begins to think about stopping smoking over the next six months, she would be at which stage of making behavioural changes?
Her thinking about coughing and stopping smoking reflects the stage of contemplation based on this stage of change model.
The original protection motivation theory claimed that health-related behaviours are a product of, and therefore predicted by, five components. But which of the following is NOT one of these?
The five components are:• severity – ‘Bowel cancer is a serious illness’;
Using interviews with patients suffering from a variety of illnesses, Leventhal et al. identified several dimensions of illness beliefs:
Leventhal et al.’s five dimensions of illness beliefs are:
Consider the following statements: “If I get medicine from my doctor, my cold will go away.” “My cold was caused by being run-down.” What are these statements examples of?
These statements are examples of illness beliefs; specifically, the former is an example of beliefs about illness curability and controllability and the latter is an example of beliefs about the cause of illness. Self-efficacy and susceptibility refer to two of the five components of the protection motivation theory of health behaviour, and are not represented by both of the statements above. Behavioural intentions refer to how a person plans to act in the future and adherence refers to the extent to which a patient follows recommendations.
Based on the work of James Pennebaker and colleagues, disclosing or expressing oneself through writing and talking has been associated with improvements on which types of health outcomes?
Improved immune function, reduced alcohol use and reduced number of doctor’s visits have been associated with expressive writing and talking. CHD has not been explicitly associated with expressive writing techniques.
According to Lazarus, the degree to which a potential stressor will produce stress depends on the role of which psychological process?
Appraisal of the stressor and how to best cope with it plays a key role in the experience of stress and its link to illness. Coping and sympathetic activation occur subsequent to the primary appraisal of the stressor as stressful or not. Degree of fear experienced and the role of prior experience are not primary components of the stress-illness link.
We now know that health professionals may behave not just according to their education and training, but also according to their own ‘lay beliefs’. But which of the following beliefs has been indicated by research to influence the development of a health professional’s original diagnosis?
Research indicates that the following beliefs influence the development of a health professional’s original diagnosis:
The negative emotional experience resulting from a mismatch between the individual’s appraisal of a stressor and the individual’s ability to cope with the stressor is a common definition for which psychological phenomenon?
The negative emotional experience resulting from a mismatch between the individual’s appraisal of a stressor and the individual’s ability to cope with the stressor is a common definition for stress.