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Which of the following do we know to be true of health psychology?
As health behaviours seem to be important in predicting mortality and longevity, health psychologists have attempted to increase our understanding of health-related behaviours. In particular, based on the premise that people behave in line with the way they think, health psychologists have turned to the study of health beliefs as potential predictors of behaviour
Which is NOT the case? The stages of change model:
The stages of change model (also known as the trans-theoretical model of behaviour) was originally developed by Prochaska and DiClemente (1982) as a synthesis of 18 therapies describing the processes involved in behavioural change. These researchers suggested a new model of change which has been applied to several health-related behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol use, exercise, and personal screening behaviour such as going for a cervical smear or attending for a mammograph (e.g. DiClemente et al., 1991; Marcus, Rakowski & Rossi, 1992).
The model describes behaviour change as dynamic, rather than being ‘all or nothing’, so the five stages do not always occur in a linear fashion. For example, an individual may move to the preparation stage and then back to the contemplation stage several times before progressing to the action stage. Even when an individual has reached the maintenance stage, they may slip back to the contemplation stage over time. The model also examines how we weigh up the costs and benefits of a particular behaviour. In particular, individuals at different stages of change will differentially focus on either the costs of a behaviour (‘Giving up smoking will make me anxious in company’) or the benefits (‘Giving up smoking will improve my health’).
According to the health belief model, behaviour is a product of a set of core beliefs that have been redefined over the years. But which of the following is NOT one of these original core beliefs?
The original core beliefs are the individual’s perception of:
Based on the theory of planned behaviour, if the important people in your life want you to cut down on the amount of alcohol that you drink, what else needs to be in place in order for actual alcohol consumption to change?
The beliefs of the important people in your life represent the subjective norms related to the behaviour, therefore personal attitude toward the behaviour and perceived control over the behaviour are the two additional factors necessary to evoke behavioural change.
All of the following are behavioural risk factors associated with coronary heart disease except for _____________.
All of these risk factors are associated with coronary heart disease except for hormones.
Which of the following is NOT true of stress?
Contemporary definitions of stress regard the external environment as a potential stressor (e.g. problems at work), the response to the stressor as stress or distress (e.g. the feeling of tension), and the concept of stress as something that involves biochemical, physiological, behavioural and psychological changes.
Researchers have also differentiated between stress that is harmful and damaging (‘distress’) and stress that is positive and beneficial (‘eustress’). The most common definition of stress was developed by Lazarus and Launier (1978), who regarded it as a transaction between people and the environment. Within this definition, stress involves an interaction between the stressor (‘My job is difficult’) and distress (‘I feel stressed by it’). So a stressful response might be the feeling of stress that results from a mismatch between (i) a situation that is appraised as stressful and (ii) the individual’s self-perceived ability to cope and therefore reduce the stress.
Which of the following statements about Lazarus’s theory of appraisal is FALSE?
More recent models of stress allow for active interaction between the individual and external stressors, rather than passive response. This approach provides a role for psychological state. It is epitomized by Lazarus’s transactional model of stress and his theory of appraisal: In the 1970s, Lazarus introduced the psychological dimension into our understanding of the stress response (1975; Lazarus & Cohen, 1973, 1977). He argued that stress involves a transaction between an individual and his or her external world, and that a stress response is elicited if the individual appraises an event as stressful. Lazarus defined two forms of appraisal:
Alarm, resistance and exhaustion describe three stages represented in which model of stress?
Alarm, resistance and exhaustion refer to the three stages of Selye’s model that describes the stress process from onset of the stressor to the effects of chronic stress. Life events theory is another stress model that examines stress and stress-related changes as a response to life change.
The self-regulatory model describes the relationship between people’s illness beliefs and their subsequent coping mechanisms. Protection motivation theory is an extension of the health belief model, and both attempt to explain changes in health-related behaviours.
Research has indicated that the beliefs of health professionals can affect the initial diagnoses that they make. Which beliefs have been identified as affecting the practice of health professionals?
All of the above have been identified as beliefs of health professionals that can bias and/or affect the information used by professionals to make their initial diagnoses.
Psychology has an important role to play at all stages of chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease (CHD). But which one of the following is usually NOT the case in terms of the psychology behind such an illness?
Psychology has a role to play at all stages of illnesses like CHD: