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Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - UPSC MCQ


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11 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2

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Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 1

Which of the following act, passed under British India, has led to the establishment of Supreme Court of Calcutta ?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 1

The Regulating Act, 1773, passed by the British Parliament, was the first step towards the centralization of the administration of India. The Act introduced several changes in the administration of British India, and one of its key provisions was the establishment of the Supreme Court of Calcutta in 1774. The Supreme Court of Calcutta was the first high court in India and had jurisdiction over the presidency of Fort William, which included Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.

Therefore, the correct answer is option B, Regulating Act, 1773.

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 2

Consider the following:​
1. Dyarchy at Provinces
2. Dyarchy at the center
3. Establishment of RBI
4. Bicameralism in Bengal, Bombay and Madras Provinces
5. Establishment of a Federal Court of India

Which of the above is a feature of Government of India Act, 1935?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 2

Important provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935:

  • Established All India Federation consisting of provinces and princely states as units.

  • Divided powers into three lists: Federal list (for Centre, with 59 items), Provincial list (for Provinces, with 54 items) and the Concurrent list (for both, with 36 items). The Viceroy was empowered with all the residuary powers.

  • Abolished dyarchy in the provinces and introduced provincial autonomy. It introduced responsible Governments in provinces where the Governor needed to work on advice of ministers responsible to the provincial legislature.

  • Provided for adoption of dyarchy at the Centre. Federal subjects were divided into transferred subjects and reserved subjects.

  • Introduced bicameralism in 6 out of 11 provinces (Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Bihar, Assam and the United Provinces).

  • Provisioned for separate electorates for Scheduled Castes, women and labour.

  • Abolished the Council of India.

  • Established Reserve Bank of India to control currency and credit of the country.

  • Established Federal Public Service Commission, Provincial Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission.

  • Provided for setting up a Federal Court.

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 3

Which of the following are the features of Regulating Act of 1773?
1. Governor of Bengal was designated as the Governor General.
2. A Supreme Court was established in Calcutta.
3. East India Company got constitutional status.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 3

The British Parliament passed the Regulating Act in 1773 by which changes were introduced in the administrative structure of the company both in England and in India. The number of the Directors of the Company was taken to 24. In India the Governor of Bengal came to be designated as the Governor General.
As per the provisions of the Act, a Supreme Court was established at Calcutta comprising of a Chief Justice and three other Judges. The special feature of the Act was that apart from granting the status of a trading company, it also conferred the East India Company constitutional status and provided it with political powers.

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 4

“This Act introduced, local representation in the Indian (Central) Legislative Council. It provided for the separation of the executive and legislative functions of the Governor General’s Council.” The above passage best describes which of the following Act?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 4

The Charter Act of 1853 introduced local representation in the Indian (Central) Legislative Council, which meant that a certain number of members were to be elected by the local boards and universities. It also provided for the separation of the executive and legislative functions of the Governor General's Council. This Act increased the number of members in the Legislative Council and established a new Legislative Council for Bengal Presidency.

Therefore, the correct answer is C: Charter Act, 1853.

  • .

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 5

Which of the following institutions was/were introduced by The Government of India Act, 1858?
1. Imperial Legislative Council
2. Board of Control
3. Council of India

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 5
  • Imperial Legislative Council was formed by the Indian Councils Act, 1861.
  • Board of Control was established by the Pitt’s India Act, 1784.
  • Council of India was formed by the Government of India Act, 1858.
Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 6

The Constitution of India was adopted by the

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 6

The Constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The Constituent Assembly was formed in 1946 under the Cabinet Mission Plan to draft a constitution for India. The Constitution was adopted after a two-year-long process of drafting, discussion, and amendments. It came into effect on January 26, 1950, marking the beginning of India as a Republic.

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 7

Consider the following statements about Morley Minto reforms
1. It provided separate electorates for Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, and Anglo-Indians.
2. It introduced direct elections in the country for the first time.
3. One Indian was to be appointed to the viceroy’s executive council
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 7

The correct answer is 3 only.

  • The elective principle was recognized for the nonofficial membership of the councils in India.
  • Indians were allowed to participate in the election of various legislative councils, though on the basis of class and community.
  • For the first time, separate electorates for Muslims for election to the central council was established—a most detrimental step for India.
  • The number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial Legislative Councils was increased.
  • According to Sumit Sarkar, in the Imperial Legislative Council, of the total 69 members, 37 were to be the officials and of the 32 non-officials, 5 were to be nominated.
  • Of the 27 elected non-officials, 8 seats were reserved for the Muslims under separate electorates (only Muslims could vote here for the Muslim candidates), while 4 seats were reserved for the British capitalists, 2 for the landlords and 13 seats came under general electorate.
  • The separate electorates for Sikhs, Indian Christians were provided in the 1919 Government of India Act. Hence, statement 1 is NOT correct.
  • The elected members were to be indirectly elected. Hence, statement 2 is NOT correct.
  • The local bodies were to elect an electoral college, which in turn would elect members of provincial legislatures, who in turn would elect members of the central legislature.
  • Besides separate electorates for the Muslims, representation in excess of the strength of their population was accorded to the Muslims.
  • Also, the income qualification for Muslim voters was kept lower than that for Hindus.
  • One Indian was to be appointed to the viceroy’s executive council (Satyendra Sinha was the first Indian to be appointed in 1909). Hence, Statement 3 is correct.
Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 8

Which of the following statement is not true?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 8

In 1927, the British Government appointed a 7-member statutory commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to report on the condition of India under its new constitution. The commission submitted its report in 1930 and recommended the abolition of diarchy, extension of responsible Government in the provinces, establishment of a federation of British India and princely states, continuation of communal electorates and so on. The recommendations of the commission were incorporated in the Government of India Act, 1935. 

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 9

Which of the following is a provision of the Government of India Act, 1858?
1. Company rule was replaced by Crown rule.
2. Establishment of Board of Control over the Court of Directors.
3. Indians were allowed to take part in Indian Civil Services.
4. Separating the executive and legislative functions of the Governor-General.
5. Creation of a new office of Secretary of State for India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 9

The Correct Option is D: 1 and 5 only
Explanation:
The Government of India Act, 1858, was enacted after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which led to significant changes in the governance of India. The main provisions of the Act were:
1. Company rule was replaced by Crown rule: The rule of the British East India Company was abolished, and the administration of India was transferred to the British Crown. This meant that the British government would directly govern India.
5. Creation of a new office of Secretary of State for India: The Act established the office of the Secretary of State for India, who was a member of the British Cabinet. This person was responsible for overseeing the administration of India and communicating between the British government and the Indian administration.
The other options mentioned are not provisions of the Government of India Act, 1858:
2. Establishment of Board of Control over the Court of Directors: This provision was part of the earlier Pitt's India Act of 1784, which established the Board of Control to oversee the activities of the British East India Company.
3. Indians were allowed to take part in Indian Civil Services: This provision was introduced later, in the Indian Councils Act of 1861.
4. Separating the executive and legislative functions of the Governor-General: Charter act of 1853 separated the Legislative and executive functions of the Governor-general's council.

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 10

Which of the following is/are true regarding the Morley Minto Reforms? 
1) Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. 
2) The reforms introduced separate electorates.

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 10

1909 Act is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). It was to appease the moderates. 
1. It increased the size of Central and provincial legislative councils. 
2. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. 
3. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
4. It retained official majority in the Central Legislative Council (majority of British officials) 
5. However, it allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority. 
6. It enlarged the deliberative functions (right to discuss and ask questions) of the legislative councils at both the levels. 
7. For example, members could move resolutions on the budget, ask supplementary questions, etc. 
8. For the first time, it provided for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and Governors. 
9. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member. 
10. It introduced ‘separate electorate’, a system of communal representation for Muslims. 
11. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. 
12. Thus, the Act ‘legalized communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.
13. It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars.

Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 11

Which of the following act passed during British India, empowered the Viceroy to issue ordinances in the times of emergency?

Detailed Solution for Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2 - Question 11

The Indian Councils Act of 1861 was a significant act passed during British India that introduced significant changes to the Governor-General's Council. One of the key provisions of this act was the empowerment of the Viceroy to issue ordinances in times of emergency without the need for the approval of the Legislative Council. This allowed the British government to maintain control and take immediate action during crises or emergencies.

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