Laxmikanth Test: Parliamentary System - 1


30 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Laxmikanth Test: Parliamentary System - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements.

1. The Parliament can create new all-India services except for an all-India judicial service), if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution declaring that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to do so

2. Such a resolution in the Rajya Sabha should be supported by two-thirds of the members present and voting

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: The Parliament can create new all-India services (including an all-India judicial service) if the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution declaring that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to do so. Such a resolution in the Rajya Sabha should be supported by two-thirds of the members present and voting.

QUESTION: 2

Which of these are correctly matched?

1. Private Member's Resolution: It is one that is moved by a private member

2. Government Resolution: It is one that is moved by a minister

3. Statutory Resolution: It can be moved either by a private member or a minister

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

Private Member's Resolution: It is one moved by a private member (other than a minister). It is discussed only on alternate Fridays and in the afternoon sitting. Government Resolution: It is one that is moved by a minister. It can be taken up any day from Monday to Thursday. Statutory Resolution: It can be moved either by a private member or a minister. It is so-called because it is always tabled in pursuance of a provision in the Constitution or an Act of Parliament.

 

QUESTION: 3

The scheme of youth parliament was started on the Recommendation of

Solution:

The scheme of Youth Parliament was started on the recommendation of the Fourth All India Whips Conference. Its objectives are: 1. to acquaint the younger generations with practices and procedures of Parliament; 2. to imbibe the spirit of discipline and tolerance cultivating character in the minds of youth; Band 3. to inculcate in the student community the basic values of democracy and to enable them to acquire a proper perspective on the functioning of democratic institutions. The ministry of parliamentary affairs provides necessary training and encouragement to the states in introducing the scheme.

QUESTION: 4

Which of the following is introduced in the Parliament to draw the attention of the house to a definite matter of urgent public importance?

Solution:

It is introduced in the Parliament to draw the attention of the House to a definite matter of urgent public importance, and needs the support of 50 members to be admitted. As it interrupts the normal business of the House, it is regarded as an extraordinary device. It involves an element of censure against the government and hence Rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this device. The discussion on an adjournment motion should last for not less than two hours and thirty minutes.

 

 

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements.

1. The governor can also prorogue the House which is in session

2., Unlike an adjournment, a prorogation terminates a session of the House

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

The presiding officer (Speaker or Chairman) declares the House adjourned sine die when the business of the session is completed. Within the next few days, the governor issues notification for the prorogation of the session. However, the governor can also prorogue the House which is in session. Unlike an adjournment, a prorogation terminates a session of the House.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements.

1. A Money Bill cannot be introduced in the legislative council

2. It can be introduced in the legislative assembly only and that too on the recommendation of the governor

3. Every such bill is considered to be a government bill and can be introduced only by a minister

Choose the correct option from the following options.

Solution:

A Money Bill cannot be introduced in the legislative council. It can be introduced in the legislative assembly only and that too on the recommendation of the governor. Every such bill is considered to be a government bill and can be introduced only by a minister. After a Money Bill is passed by the legislative assembly, it is transmitted to the legislative council for its consideration.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements:

1. An amendment to the Constitution of India can be initiated by an introduction of a bill in the Lok Sabha only.

2. If such an amendment seeks to make changes in the federal character of the Constitution, the amendment also requires to be ratified by the legislature of all the States of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Under Article 368(2), Parliament can amend the constitution by passing a Bill in each House by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting. Those provisions of the Constitution which are related to the federal structure of the polity can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament and also with the consent of half of the state legislatures by a simple majority. If one or some or all the remaining states take no action on the bill, it does not matter; the moment half of the states give their consent, the formality is completed. There is no time limit within which the states should give their consent to the bill.

QUESTION: 8

The Parliament can make any law for whole or any part of India for implementing international treaties:

Solution: The constitution empowers parliament to make laws on any matter in-state list under five extraordinary circumstances - Rajya sabha passes the resolution, national emergency, states make a request, to implement international agreements, during president's rule.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements.

1. A Money Bill can be introduced only in Legislative assembly and not in the Legislative council

2. The council can amend but cannot reject a money bill

3. It should return the bill to the assembly within 14 days, either with recommendations or without recommendations

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

A Money Bill can be introduced only in the assembly and not in the council. The council cannot amend or reject a money bill. It should return the bill to the assembly within 14 days, either with recommendations or without recommendations. The assembly can either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of the council. In both cases, the money bill is deemed to have been passed by the two Houses. The final power to decide whether a particular bill is a money bill or not is vested in the Speaker of the assembly.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements.

1. The Legislative Council can remove the Council of Ministers by passing a no-confidence motion.

2. Legislative Council can discuss and criticize the policies and activities of the government because the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Legislative assembly and Legislative Council

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

Council of Ministers is collectively responsible only to the Assembly.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following is Standing Committees?

1) Joint Committee on Offices of Profit.

2) General Purposes Committee.

3) Business Advisory Committee.

4) Railway Convention Committee.

Solution:

The functions of the Parliament are varied, complex and voluminous. It has neither the adequate time nor necessary expertise to make a detailed scrutiny of all legislative measures and other matters. Hence, it is assisted by a number of committees in the discharge of its duties. The Constitution of India mentions these committees, but without any specific provisions regarding their composition, tenure, functions etc. All these matters are dealt with by the rules of two Houses. Accordingly, a parliamentary committee means a committee that - (a) Is appointed or elected by the House or nominated by the Speaker/Chairman

1. (b) Works under the direction of the Speaker/Chairman. (c) Presents its report to the House or to the Speaker/Chairman. (d) Has a secretariat provided by the Lok Sabha/Rajya Sabha? The consultative committees, which also consist of members of Parliament, are not parliamentary committees as they do not fulfil above four conditions. A Minister is not eligible for election or nomination to the Financial Committees, Departmental Standing Committees, Committees on Empowerment of Women, Government Assurances, Petitions, Subordinate Legislation and Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Broadly, Parliamentary Committees are of 2 types - Standing Committees and Ad Hoc Committees. Standing Committees are permanent (constituted every year or periodically) and work on a continuous basis. Ad hoc Committees are temporary and cease to exist on completion of the task assigned to them. Standing Committees - On basis of the nature of functions, standing committees can be classified into six categories - 1. Financial Committees - (a) Public Accounts Committee. (b) Estimates Committee. (c) Committee on Public Undertakings.

2. Departmental Standing Committees (24 in number).

3. Committees to Inquire - (a) Committee on Petitions. (b) Committee of Privileges. (c) Ethics Committee.

4. Committees to Scrutinize and Control- (a) Committee on Government Assurances. (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation. (c) Committee on Papers Laid on the Table. (d) Committee on Welfare of SCs and Sts. (e) Committee on Empowerment of Women. (f) Joint Committee on Offices of Profit.

5. Committees Relating to the Day-to-Day Business of the House - (a) Business Advisory Committee. (b) Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions. (c) Rules Committee. (d) Committee on Absence of Members from Sittings of the House.

6. House-Keeping Committees or Service Committees (i.e., Committees concerned with the Provision of Facilities and Services to Members) - (a) General Purposes Committee. (b) House Committee. (c) Library Committee. (d) Joint Committee on Salaries and Allowances of Members.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following statements are correct about the committee on privileges?

1. The function of the committee is to examine case involving breach of privilege of the House or of the members of any committee referred to it by the House or by the Speaker and to make suitable recommendations in its report

2. The Lok Sabha committee and the Rajya Sabha committee consist of 15 and 10 members respectively

Choose from the following options.

Solution: The function of the committee is to examine cases involving breach of privilege of the House or of the members of any committee referred to it by the House or by the Speaker and to make suitable recommendations in its report. The Lok Sabha committee and the Rajya Sabha committee consist of 15 and 10 members respectively.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following is/are true regarding Consultative Committees?

1) Consultative committees are not attached to ministries/departments.

2) These committees are constituted by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.

Solution:

Consultative committees are attached to various ministries/departments of the Central Government. They consist of members of both the Houses of Parliament. The Minister/Minister of State in charge of the Ministry concerned acts as the chairman of the consultative committee of that ministry. These committees provide a forum for informal discussions between the ministers and the members of Parliament on policies and programmes of the government and the manner of their implementation. These committees are constituted by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs. The guidelines regarding the composition, functions and procedures of these committees are formulated by this Ministry. The Ministry also makes arrangements for holding their meetings both during the session and the intersession period of Parliament. The membership of these committees is voluntary and is left to the choice of the members and the leaders of their parties. The maximum membership of a committee is 30 and the minimum is 10. These committees are normally constituted after the new Lok Sabha is constituted, after General Elections for the Lok Sabha. Thus, these committees shall stand dissolved upon dissolution of every Lok Sabha and shall be reconstituted upon the constitution of each Lok Sabha. Also, separate Informal Consultative Committees of the members of Parliament are also constituted for all the Railway Zones. Members of Parliament belonging to the area falling under a particular Railway Zone are nominated on the Informal Consultative Committee of that Railway Zone. Unlike the Consultative Committees attached to various ministries/departments, the meetings of the Informal Consultative Committees are to be arranged during the session periods only.

 

 

QUESTION: 14

Which of the following is/are true regarding the Committee on Public Undertakings?

1) It was created on the recommendation of the Krishna Menon Committee.

2) Members from Rajya Sabha cannot become chairman of the committee.

Solution: This committee was created in 1964 on the recommendation of the Krishna Menon Committee. Originally, it had 15 members (10 from the Lok Sabha and 5 from the Rajya Sabha). In1974, its membership was raised to 22 (15 from the Lok Sabha and 7 from the Rajya Sabha). The members of this committee are elected by the Parliament every year from amongst its own members according to the principle of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote. Thus,all parties get due representation in it. The term of office of the members is one year. A minister cannot be elected as a member of the committee. The chairman of the committee is appointed by the Speaker from amongst its members who are drawn from the Lok Sabha only. Thus, the members of the committee who are from the Rajya Sabha cannot be appointed as the chairman. Functions -

1. To examine the reports and accounts of public undertakings.

2. To examine the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General on public undertakings.

3. To examine (in the context of autonomy and efficiency of public undertakings) whether the affairs of the public undertakings are being managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices.

4. To exercise such other functions vested in the public accounts committee and the Estimates Committee in relation to public undertakings which are allotted to it by the Speaker from time-to-time.

The committee cannot examine and investigate -

1. Matters of major government policy as distinct from business or commercial functions of the public undertakings.

2. Matters of day-to-day administration.

3. Matters for the consideration of which machinery is established by any special statute under which a particular public undertaking is established.

Effectiveness of the committee is limited by -

1. It cannot take up the examination of more than ten to twelve public undertakings in a year.

2. Its work is in the nature of a post-mortem.

3. It does not look into technical matters as its members are not technical experts.

4. Its recommendations are advisory and not binding on the ministries.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following are true regarding the composition of Departmental Standing Committees?

1) They were set up in 1993.

2) Each committee consists of 31 members.

3) Its recommendations are advisory.

Solution: On the recommendation of the Rules Committee of the Lok Sabha, 17 Departmentally-Related Standing Committees (DRSCs) were set up in the Parliament in 1993. In 2004, the number was increased from 17 to 24. The main objective of the standing committees is to secure more accountability of the Executive (i.e., the Council of Ministers) to the Parliament, particularly financial accountability. They also assist the Parliament in debating the budget more effectively. The 24 standing committees cover under their jurisdiction all the ministries/departments of the Central Government. In 1989, three Standing Committees were constituted which dealt with Agriculture, Science and Technology and Environment and Forests. In 1993, they were superseded by the DepartmentallyRelated Standing Committees (DRSCs). Each standing committee consists of 31 members (21 from Lok Sabha and 10 from Rajya Sabha). The members of the Lok Sabha are nominated by the Speaker from amongst its own members, just as the

members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the Chairman from amongst its members. A minister is not eligible to be nominated as a member of any of the standing committees. In case a member, after his nomination to any of the standing committees, is appointed a minister, he then ceases to be a member of the committee. The term of office of each standing committee is one year from the date of its constitution. Out of the 24 standing committees, 8 work under the Rajya Sabha and 16 under the Lok Sabha. Functions -

1. To consider the demands for grants of the concerned ministries/departments before they are discussed and voted in the Lok Sabha. Its report should not suggest anything of the nature of cut motions.

2. To examine bills pertaining to the concerned ministries/departments.

3. To consider annual reports of ministries/departments.

4. To consider national basic long-term policy documents presented to the Houses.

Limitations on the functioning of standing committees are -

1. They should not consider the matters of the day-to-day administration of the concerned ministries/departments.

2. They should not generally consider the matters which are considered by other parliamentary committees.

3. It should be noted here that the recommendations of these committees are advisory in nature and hence not binding on the Parliament.

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following is/are true?

1) The Constitution of India does not mention Parliamentary Privileges specifically in any articles.

2) There may be contempt of the House without committing a breach of privilege.

Solution:

Any act or omission which obstructs a House of Parliament, its member or its officer in the performance of their functions or which has a tendency, directly or indirectly to produce results against the dignity, authority and honour of the House is treated as contempt of the House. Though the two phrases, ‘breach of privilege’ and ‘contempt of the House’ are used interchangeably, they have different implications. Normally, a breach of privilege may amount to contempt of the House. Contempt of the House, however, has wider implications. There may be contempt of the House without specifically committing a breach of privilege. Sources of Privileges - Originally, the Constitution (Article 105) explicitly mentions two privileges, that is, freedom of speech in Parliament and right of publication of its proceedings. With regard to other privileges, it provided that they were to be the same as those of the British House of Commons, its committees and its members on the date of its commencement (i.e., 26 January 1950), until defined by Parliament. The 44thAmendment Act of 1978 provided that the other privileges of each House of Parliament, its committees and its members are to be those which they had on the date of its commencement (i.e., 20 June 1979), until defined by Parliament. The amendment has made only verbal changes by dropping a direct reference to the British House of Commons, without making any change in the implication of the provision.

 

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following are legislative and executive powers and functions of the Parliament?

1) Parliament can make laws on the subjects enumerated in the State List.

2) Parliament exercises control over the Executive through question-hour.

3) Lok Sabha can express a lack of confidence in the government by a no-confidence motion.

4) It can recommend removal of judges.

Solution:

Legislative Powers and Functions - The primary function of Parliament is to make laws for the governance of the country. It has exclusive power to make laws on the subjects in the Union List (which at present has 100 subjects, originally 97 subjects) and on the residuary subjects (that is, subjects not enumerated in any of the 3 lists). With regard to Concurrent List (which has at present 52 subjects, originally 47 subjects), the Parliament has overriding powers, i.e. the law of Parliament prevails over the law of the state legislature in case of a conflict between the two. The Constitution also empowers the Parliament to make laws on the subjects enumerated in the State List under the following 5 abnormal circumstances -

1. When Rajya Sabha passes a resolution to that effect.

2. When a proclamation of National Emergency is in operation.

3. When two or more states make a joint request to the Parliament.

4. When necessary to give effect to international agreements, treaties and conventions.

5. When the President's Rule is in operation in the state.

All the ordinances issued by the president (during the recess of the Parliament) must be approved by the Parliament within six weeks after its reassembly. An ordinance becomes inoperative if it is not approved by the parliament within that period. The Parliament makes laws in a skeleton form and authorises the Executive to make detailed rules and regulations within the framework of the parent law. This is known as delegated legislation or executive legislation or subordinate legislation. Such rules and regulations are placed before the Parliament for its examination. Executive Powers and Functions - The Executive is responsible to the Parliament for its policies and acts. The Parliament exercises control over the Executive through question-hour, zero hours, half-an-hour discussion, short duration discussion, calling attention motion, adjournment motion, no-confidence motion, censure motion and other discussions. It also supervises the activities of the Executive with the help of its committees. The ministers are collectively responsible to the Parliament in general and to the Lok Sabha in particular. As a part of collective responsibility, there is an individual responsibility, that is, each minister is individually responsible for the efficient administration of the ministry under his charge. The council of ministers can be removed from office by the Lok Sabha by passing a no-confidence motion. The Lok Sabha can also express a lack of confidence in the government in the following ways - 1. By not passing a motion of thanks on the President’s inaugural address. 2. By rejecting a money bill. 3. Bypassing a censure motion or an adjournment motion. 4. By defeating the government on a vital issue. 5. By passing a cut motion. Therefore, “the first function of Parliament can be said to be to select the group which is to form the government, support and sustain it in power so long as it enjoys its confidence, and to expel it when it ceases to do so, and leave it to the people to decide at the next general election.”

QUESTION: 18

Which of the following is/are true regarding Youth Parliament?

1) UNESCO and the National Commission for Child Rights recommended the starting of this scheme.

2) The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs provides necessary training related to the scheme.

Solution:

The scheme of Youth Parliament was started on the recommendation of the Fourth All India Whips Conference. Its objectives are - 1. To acquaint the younger generations with practices and procedures of Parliament. 2. To imbibe the spirit of discipline and tolerance cultivating character in the minds of youth. 3. To inculcate in the student community the basic values of democracy and to enable them to acquire a proper perspective on the functioning of democratic institutions. The ministry of parliamentary affairs provides necessary training and encouragement to the states in introducing the scheme. The idea of organizing “Youth Parliaments’ in educational institutions was conceived by the Fourth All India Whips Conference held at Bombay in 1962 which made, interalia, the following recommendation - “This Committee recommends that Government should encourage holding of Mock Parliament in educational institutions and through Panchayats in rural areas.” The scheme wishes to strengthen the roots of democracy, inculcate healthy habits of discipline, tolerance of views of others and to enable the student community to have better awareness about the working of Parliament. The scheme gives financial assistance to the State Governments/Governments of Union Territories to organize similar competitions in their recognized schools.

QUESTION: 19

Which state has the lowest number of seats in Lok Sabha?

Solution:

Total members in Rajya Sabha are 245. Total members in Lok Sabha are 545. UP has the highest number of seats in Lok Sabha. Sikkim, Mizoram, Nagaland have just 1 seat in Lok Sabha.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements.

1. A person who is not a member of either House of the state legislature can also be appointed as a minister

2. A minister who is a member of one House of the state legislature has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of the other House

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: Usually, the members of the state legislature, either the legislative assembly or the legislative council, are appointed as ministers. A person who is not a member of either House of the state legislature can also be appointed as a minister. But, within six months, he must become a member (either by election or by nomination) of either House of the state legislature, otherwise, he ceases to be a minister. A minister who is a member of one House of the state legislature has the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of the other House. But, he can vote only in the House of which he is a member.

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following statements:

1. The Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act, 1959 exempts several posts from disqualification on the grounds of ‘Office of Profit’.

2. The above-mentioned Act was amended five times.

3. The term ‘Office of Profit’ is well-defined in the Constitution of India.

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Joint Committee on Offices of Profit examines the composition and character of committees and other bodies appointed by the Central and state governments and union territories administrations and recommends what offices ought to or ought not to disqualify a person from being chosen as a member of either House of Parliament.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements about the individual privileges belonging to the members of the legislature.

1. They cannot be arrested during the session of the state legislature

2. This privilege is available both in Civil and criminal cases

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

They cannot be arrested during the session of the state legislature and 40 days before the beginning and 40 days after the end of such session.

QUESTION: 23

Privileges of the state legislature has also been extended to

1. The advocate general of the state

2. State Ministers

3. Governor

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

The Constitution has also extended the privileges of the state legislature to those persons who are entitled to speak and take part in the proceedings of a House of the state legislature or any of its committees. These include the advocate-general of the state and state ministers. Privileges of the state legislator do not extend to the Governor.

QUESTION: 24

Which one among the following pairs of the level of government and legislative power is not correctly matched?

Solution: Parliament and the State legislatures have exclusive powers to legislate on items in the Union List and the State List respectively. Both can legislate on items in the Concurrent List. However, foreseeing the possibility of a situation in which legislation might be required on matters that are not mentioned in any of the three Lists, the Founding Fathers made residuary provisions in Article 248 of the Constitution and Entry 97 of the Union List. The residuary powers of legislation are vested in Parliament.

QUESTION: 25

What is the difference between vote-of-credit and excess grant?

1) Vote-of-credit is like a blank cheque given to the executive by the Lok Sabha and the excess grant is granted when money has been spent on any service during a financial year in surplus of the amount granted for that service.

2) Vote of credit only deals with the expenditure in the Government's budget, and excess grant includes both expenditure and receipts.

Solution:

Voting of credit is allowed to meet the unexpected demand on India's resources, which cannot be told with the details given in the budget, due to the magnitude of the uncertain character of service. Therefore, it is like a blank check given to the executive by the Lok Sabha. Excess Grant - it is an excess amount, which is given to the ruling party, on the service which already has been spent it’s all allowance given before. The excess must be approved by the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament.

QUESTION: 26

Consider the following statements.

1. The Rajya Sabha consists of the representatives of the states and thus reflect the federal element of the polity

2. It maintains the federal equilibrium by protecting the interests of the states against the undue interference of the Centre

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

The Rajya Sabha consists of the representatives of the states and thus reflect the federal element of the polity. It maintains the federal equilibrium by protecting the interests of the states against the undue interference of the Centre. Therefore, it has to be an effective revising body and not just an advisory body or dilatory body like that of the council.

QUESTION: 27

Consider the following statements.

1. Each standing committee consists of 31 members

2. The members of the Lok Sabha are nominated by the Speaker from amongst its own members, just as the members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the Chairman from amongst its members

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:

Each standing committee consists of 31 members (21 from Lok Sabha and 10 from Rajya Sabha). The members of the Lok Sabha are nominated by the Speaker from amongst its own members, just as the members of the Rajya Sabha are nominated by the Chairman from amongst its members.

QUESTION: 28

Consider the following statements about the parliamentary system.

1. Under this system, the executive authority is vested in a group of individuals and not in a single person

2. The executive is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by a no-confidence motion

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution: Under this system, the executive authority is vested in a group of individuals (council of ministers) and not in a single person. This dispersal of authority checks the dictatorial tendencies of the executive. Moreover, the executive is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by a no-confidence motion.

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following statements.

1. The lower house of the Parliament can be dissolved by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister

2. This means that the executive enjoys the right to get the legislature dissolved in a parliamentary system

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: The lower house of the Parliament (Lok Sabha) can be dissolved by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. In other words, the prime minister can advise the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry of its term and hold fresh elections. This means that the executive enjoys the right to get the legislature dissolved in a parliamentary system.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following statements.

1. In respect of matters on which both the Parliament and the state legislatures have the power of legislation the executive power in every condition rests with the states

2. A law on a concurrent subject, though enacted by the Parliament, is to be executed by the states

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: In respect of matters on which both the Parliament and the state legislatures have the power of legislation (i.e., the subjects enumerated in the Concurrent List), the executive power rests with the states except when a Constitutional provision or a parliamentary law. specifically confers it on the Centre. Therefore, a law on a concurrent subject, though enacted by the Parliament, is to be executed by the states except when the Constitution or the Parliament has directed otherwise

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