Test: Class 10 Polity NCERT Based-2


20 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 10 Polity NCERT Based-2


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements:

1. Majoritarianism is a belief that the minority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants.

2. Ethnic is a social division based on shared culture.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Majoritarianism is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority. Ethnic is a social division based on shared culture. People belonging to the same ethnic group believe in their common descent because of similarities of physical type or of culture or both. They need not always have the same religion or nationality.

QUESTION: 2

Flemish region and Wallonia region are found in which of the following countries?

Solution:
  • Flemish region and Wallonia region are found in Belgium which is a small country in Europe, smaller in area than the state of Haryana.

  • It has borders with the Netherlands, France and Germany. It has a population of a little over one crore, about half the population of Haryana.

  • The ETHNIC composition of this small country is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French. Remaining 1 percent of the Belgians speak German.

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following can be a reason for power sharing in a polity?

1. Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

2. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Two different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing. Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

  • Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order. Imposing the will of the majority community over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it undermines the unity of the nation.

  • Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive for the minority; it often brings ruin to the majority as well.

QUESTION: 4

In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements can take which of the following form:

1. Power is shared among different organs of government

2. Power can be shared among governments at different levels

3. Power can be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements can take following form

1. Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. this horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.

2. Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Such a general government for the entire country is usually called the federal government. In India, we refer to it as the Central or Union Government. The governments at the provincial or regional level are called by different names in different countries. In India we call them State Governments.

3. Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘In some countries there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration.

QUESTION: 5

What is a coalition government?

Solution:
  • Coalition government, in a parliamentary government, body of advisors that is formed when different political parties choose to cooperate in the administration and regulation of a country or community.

  • Coalition governments usually are a temporary alliance, being formed when no single political party gains a clear majority and competing parties instead negotiate to work together.

  • Such a situation is likely to occur during a period of crisis, such as during a war, or in response to political breakdown. Members of all parties in a coalition government are appointed to a cabinet.

QUESTION: 6

Where is the parliament of European Union?

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Why is there a need for a third level of government in India?

Solution: The third tier of the local government was created in India due to many reasons.

1. To overcome various issues at the rural or the local level.

2. Requirement leading to the establishment of primary health centres, primary schools, the supply of drinking water, drainage and construction/ repair of roads at local and rural levels.

3. Implementation of schemes for the development of agriculture and infrastructure, cottage and small-scale industries, and the opening of cooperative societies.

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following is a very important factor for better understanding between the Centre and State’s Government?

All the statements are correct.

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Which is the only official language of Sri Lanka?

Sinhala and Tamil are both official languages of Sri Lanka.

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

How many subjects are enlisted in the Concurrent List?

Solution:
  • The Concurrent List or List-III (Seventh Schedule) is a list of 52 items (though the last item is numbered 47) given in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India.

  • The legislative section is divided into three lists: Union List, State List and Concurrent List. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Union Government, as with the Canadian federal government.

QUESTION: 11

With reference to Federalism, consider the following statements:

1. Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

2. All different levels of governments in federalism enjoy their power independent of the other.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.

  • Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest.

  • The others are governments at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state. Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other.

QUESTION: 12

With reference to features of Indian Federalism , consider the following statements:

1. Each tier of governments in federalism has its own Jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.

2. The fundamental provisions of the constitution pertaining to federalism can be unilaterally changed by one level of government.

3. Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified in the constitution to ensure its financial autonomy.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Solution:
  • The key features of federalism: There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government. Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own JURISDICTION in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.

  • The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution of India. So the existence and authority of each tier of government is constitutionally guaranteed.

  • The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.

  • The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers. Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following is/are the aspects of an ideal federal system?

1. Mutual trust

2. Agreement to live together

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • The federal system has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

  • Therefore, two aspects are crucial for the institutions and practice of federalism Governments at different levels should agree to some rules of power sharing. They should also trust that each would abide by its part of the agreement.

  • An ideal federal system has both aspects : mutual trust and agreement to live together.

QUESTION: 14

Which of the following countries are examples of ‘holding together’ federations?

1. Spain

2. India

3. USA

4. Australia

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

1. The exact balance of power between the central and the state government varies from one federation to another. This balance depends mainly on the historical context in which the federation was formed. There are two kinds of routes through which federations have been formed.

2. The first route involves independent States coming together on their own to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security. This type of ‘coming together’ federations include the USA, Switzerland and Australia. In this first category of federations, all the constituent States usually have equal power and are strong vis-à-vis the federal government.

3. The second route is where a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. India, Spain and Belgium are examples of this kind of ‘holding together’ federations.

4. In this second category, the central government tends to be more powerful vis-à-vis the States. Very often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers. Some units are granted special power.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements:

1. The Constitution of India declares India as a Union of states.

2. The Constitution has not used the term federation though Indian Union is based on the principles of federalism.

Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?

Solution: India had emerged as an independent nation after a painful and bloody partition. Soon after Independence, several princely states became a part of the country.The Constitution declared India as a Union of States. Although it did not use the word federation, the Indian Union is based on the principles of federalism.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements:

1. Only the Union Government can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List.

2. Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in concurrent list.

3. Both the State and Union Government has the power to legislate on ‘residuary’ subjects.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Constitution contains three lists

1. Union List includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency. They are included in this list because we need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country. The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List.

2. State List contains subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. The State Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the State List.

3. The Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession.

4. Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list. If their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Government will prevail.

5. Regarding the subjects that do not fall in any of the above three lists or subjects like computer software that came up after the constitution was made, the Union Government has the power to legislate on these ‘residuary’ subjects according to our constitution.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements:

1. All States in the Indian Union do not have identical powers.

2. Jammu and Kashmir and Goa are the only two states which have their own Constitution.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Most federations that are formed by ‘holding together’ do not give equal power to its constituent units.

  • Thus, all States in the Indian Union do not have identical powers. Some States enjoy a special status, erstwhile Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution {now abolished).

  • Many provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to this State without the approval of the State Assembly. Goa, does not have its own constitution.

  • Indians who are not permanent residents of this State cannot buy land or house here. Similar special provisions exist for some other States of India as well.

QUESTION: 18

Which of the following Indian states were formed to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography rather than on linguistic basis?

1. Nagaland

2. Uttarakhand

3. Jharkhand

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • The creation of Linguistic States was the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country.

  • Many old States have vanished and many new States have been created since independence, areas, boundaries and names of the States have been changed. In 1947, the boundaries of several old States of India were changed in order to create new States.

  • This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. Some States were created not on the basis of language but to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography. These include States like Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements:

1. Period from the 1990s saw the beginning of the era of coalition governments at the Centre.

2. Federal power sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years after the Constitution came into force.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • For a long time, the same party ruled both at the Centre and in most of the States. This meant that the State governments did not exercise their rights as autonomous federal units.

  • As and when the ruling party at the State level was different, the parties that ruled at the Centre tried to undermine the power of the States. In those days, the Central Government would often misuse the Constitution to dismiss the State governments that were controlled by rival parties.

  • This undermined the spirit of federalism. All this changed significantly after 1990. This period saw the rise of regional political parties in many States of the country.

QUESTION: 20

With reference to 8th Schedule of the constitution, consider the following statements:

1. Scheduled Languages are included in the 8th schedule of the constitution.

2. There are 24 languages in the 8th schedule of the constitution.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Census of India which held in 1991 recorded more than 1500 distinct languages which people mentioned as their mother tongues.These languages were grouped together under some major languages.

  • For example languages like Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Bundelkhandi, Chhattisgarhi, Rajasthani, Bhili and many others were grouped together under ‘Hindi’. Even after this grouping, the Census found 114 major languages.

  • Of these 22 languages are now included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and are therefore called ‘Scheduled Languages’. Others are called ‘non Scheduled Languages’. In terms of languages, India is perhaps the most diverse country in the world.

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