Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2


25 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2


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This mock test of Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2 for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 25 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Class 8 Polity NCERT Based-2 extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements:

1. The right to safe drinking water is a Fundamental Right.

2. The Constitution of India recognises the right to water as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Constitution of India recognises the right to water as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21. This means that it is the right of every person, whether rich or poor, to have sufficient amounts of water to fulfil his/her daily needs at a price that he/she can afford. In other words, there should be universal access to water.

  • There have been several court cases in which both the High Courts and the Supreme Court have held that the right to safe drinking water is a Fundamental Right.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements with reference to Public facilities:

1. Electricity, public transport, schools are known as public facilities.

2. The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people

3. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that public facilities are made available to everyone.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • There are essential facilities that need to be provided for everyone, for example healthcare and sanitation.Similarly, there are things like electricity, public transport, schools and colleges that are also necessary.

  • These are known as public facilities. The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people. For instance, a school in the village will enable many children to get educated. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that these public facilities are made available to everyone.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements:

1. Sanitation is a must in prevention of water-borne diseases.

2. Sulabh, a government organisation, has been working to address the problems of sanitation facing low-caste, low-income people in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Sanitation is a must in prevention of water-borne diseases. The poor both in the rural and urban areas lack access to sanitation.

  • Sulabh, a non-government organisation, has been working for three decades to address the problems of sanitation facing low-caste, low-income people in India. It has constructed more than 7,500 public toilet blocks and 1.2 million private toilets, giving access to sanitation to 10 million people. The majority of the users of Sulabh facilities are from the poor working class.

QUESTION: 4

With reference to Minimum Wages Act, consider the following statements:

1. Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum.

2. This law is meant to protect the interests of all workers; particularly farm labourers, construction workers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum. Many workers are denied fair wages by their employers since they badly need work, workers have no bargaining power and are paid low wages.This law is meant to protect the interests of all workers; particularly farm labourers, construction workers, factory workers, domestic workers, etc.

QUESTION: 5

With reference to Child Labour (Prohibition And Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, consider the following statements:

1. It bans the employment of children below the age of 14 years in all occupations.

2. It bans the employment of adolescents (14-18 years) in hazardous occupations and processes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • According to the 2011 census, over 4 million children in India aged between 5 and 14 work in various occupations including hazardous ones.

  • In 2016, Parliament amended the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, banning the employment of children below the age of 14 years in all occupations except where the child helps his family after school hours and of adolescents (14-18 years) in hazardous occupations and processesIt made employing these children or adolescents a cognizable offence.

  • Anyone found violating the ban must be penalized with a punishment ranging from a jail term of six months to two years and/or fine of Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 50,000. The central government had asked state governments to develop plans to rescue and rehabilitate children who are working.

QUESTION: 6

Which one of the following best describes/defines PENCIL portal?

Solution:
  • An online portal, Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour (PENCIL) has become functional in 2017.

  • It is meant for filing of complaint, child tracking, implementation and monitoring of National Child Labour Project (NCLP).The PENCIL is an electronic platform that aims at involving Centre, State, District, Governments, civil society and the general public in achieving the target of child labour free society.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following gas was responsible bhopal gas tragedy:

Solution:
  • The world’s worst industrial tragedy took place in Bhopal 24 years ago. Union Carbide (UC) an American company had a factory in the city in which it produced Pesticides.At midnight on 2 December 1984 methyl-isocyanate (MIC) - a highly poisonous gas – started leaking from this UC plant within three days, more than 8,000 people were dead.

  • Hundreds of thousands were maimed. Most of those exposed to the poison gas came from poor, working-class families, of which nearly 50,000 people are today too sick to work. Among those who survived, many developed severe respiratory disorders, eye problems and other disorders.

  • The disaster was not an accident. UC had deliberately ignored the essential safety measures in order to cut costs.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statement:

1. Right to a healthy environment is intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life.

2. In Subhash Kumar vs. State of Bihar (1991), the Supreme Court held that the Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution and it includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full enjoyment of life.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Higher courts in India have given a number of judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life.

  • In Subhash Kumar vs. State of Bihar (1991), the Supreme Court held that the Right to Life is a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution and it includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free water and air for full enjoyment of life.

  • The government is responsible for setting up laws and procedures that can check pollution, clean rivers and introduce heavy fines for those who pollute.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements regarding Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.

1. This Act recognises forest dwellers' right to homestead, cultivable and grazing land and to timber forest produce.

2. The Act points out that the rights of forest dwellers includes conservation of forests and biodiversity.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The central government passed the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.

  • The introduction to the final Act states that this Act is meant to undo the historical injustices meted out to forest dwelling populations in not recognising their rights to land and resources.

  • This Act recognises their right to homestead, cultivable and grazing land and to non-timber forest produce. The Act also points out that the rights of forest dwellers includes conservation of forests and biodiversity.

QUESTION: 10

Pahal scheme is related to?

Solution: PAHAL (DBTL) Scheme: LPG in India is provided at subsidized rates, ensuring that people can afford it. The typical subsidy amount ranges between Rs.160 and Rs.170 per cylinder, helping people save a considerable sum each year.

QUESTION: 11

With reference to term Adivasis, consider the following statements:

1. The term Adivasis literally means ‘original inhabitants’.

2. Adivasis are a homogeneous population.

3. Around 8 per cent of India’s population is Adivasi

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Adivasis – the term literally means ‘original inhabitants’ – are communities who lived, and often continue to live, in close association with forests. Around 8 per cent of India’s population is Adivasi and many of India’s most important mining and industrial centres are located in Adivasi areas – Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro and Bhilai among others. Adivasis are not a homogeneous population: there are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements:

1. Niyamgiri Hill is located in Kalahandi district of Orissa.

2. Hill is inhabited by Dongria Kondhs which is an Adivasi community.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Niyamgiri Hill located in Kalahandi district of Orissa. This area is inhabited by Dongria Kondhs, an Adivasi community.

  • Niyamgiri is the sacred mountain of this community. Vedanta, a major aluminium company, was planning to set up a mine and a refinery here which will displace this Adivasi community.

  • They had strongly resisted this proposed development and had been joined by environmentalists as well.A case against the company was heard by the Supreme Court.

  • In a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court in 2013 directed the smallest units of local governance to use their powers and take a decision on whether the Vedanta group’s $1.7 billion bauxite mining project in Odisha’s Niyamgiri Hills can go forward or not.

QUESTION: 13

With reference to term Marginalisation, consider the following statements:

1. Marginalisation of a society means, “to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things.”

2. Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • To be marginalised means to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the centre of things. Marginalisation of a certain section of the society can be because they speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religious group from the majority community.

  • They may also feel marginalised because they are poor, considered to be of ‘low’ social status and viewed as being less human than others. Sometimes, marginalised groups are viewed with hostility and fear.

  • This sense of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights. They experience a sense of disadvantage and powerlessness vis-a-vis more powerful and dominant sections of society who own land, are wealthy, better educated and politically powerful.

  • Thus, marginalisation is seldom experienced in one sphere.

Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements:

1. According to 2011 census, Muslims are 19.2 per cent of India’s population and are considered to be a marginalised community

2. Justice Rajindar Sachar committee was set up by government to examine the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • According to the 2011 census, Muslims are 14.2 per cent of India’s population and are considered to be a marginalised community in India today because in comparison to other communities, they have over the years been deprived of the benefits of socioeconomic Development.

  • Recognising that Muslims in India were lagging behind in terms of various development indicators, the government set up a high-level committee in 2005Chaired by Justice Rajindar Sachar, the committee examined the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community in India.

  • The report discusses in detail the marginalisation of this community. It suggests that on a range of social, economic and educational indicators the situation of the Muslim community is comparable to that of other marginalised communities like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

  • For example, according to the Report the average years of schooling for Muslim children between the ages of 7-16 is much lower than that of other socio religious communities.

QUESTION: 15

With reference to term Dalit, consider the following statements:

1. The term Dalit, means ‘broken’ and is used by groups to highlight the centuries of discrimination.

2. Dalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental Rights in situations where they feel that they have been treated badly by some individual or community

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: The term Dalit, which means ‘broken’ is used deliberately and actively by groups to highlight the centuries of discrimination they have experienced within the caste SystemDalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental Right (or Rights) in situations where they feel that they have been treated badly by some individual or community, or even by the government.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements:

1. Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has been abolished.

2. Article 17 of the Constitution notes that no citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has been abolished – what this means is that no one can henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves, entering temples, using public facilities etc. It also means that it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice will not be tolerated by a democratic government.

  •  

    In fact, untouchability is a punishable crime now. Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. This has been used by Dalits to seek equality where it has been denied to them.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 17

Which of the following steps are taken by both state and central governments to promote social justice?

1. Free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi communities.

2. Reservation policy

3. The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • As part of their effort to implement the Constitution, both state and central governments create specific schemes for implementation in tribal areas or in areas that have a high Dalit population to promote social justice.

  • For example, the government provides for free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi communities so that they can avail of education facilities that may not be available in their localities.

  • In addition to providing certain facilities, the government also operates through laws to ensure that concrete steps are taken to end inequity in the system.One such law/policy is the reservation policy that today is both significant and highly contentious.

  • The laws which reserve seats in education and government employment for Dalits and Adivasis are based on an important argument- that in a society like ours, where for centuries sections of the population have been denied opportunities to learn and to work in order to develop new skills or vocations, a democratic government needs to step in and assist these sections.

  • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was framed in 1989 in response to demands made by Dalits and others that the government must take seriously the ill treatment and humiliation Dalits and tribal groups face in an everyday sense.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements:

1. Kabir was a twelfth century poet and weaver who belonged to the Bhakti tradition.

2. Chokhamela was a bhakti saint in Maharashtra, during the 14th century who belonged to the Mahar caste.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Kabir was a fifteenth century poet and weaver who belonged to the Bhakti tradition. Kabir’s poetry spoke about his love for the supreme being free of ritual and priests. It also expresses his sharp and pointed criticism of those he saw as powerful.

  • Kabir attacked those who attempted to define individuals on the basis of their religious and caste identities.In his view every person had the ability to reach the highest level of spiritual salvation and deep knowledge within themselves through their own experience.

  • His poetry brings out the powerful idea of the equality of all human beings and their labour. Chokhamela was a bhakti saint in Maharashtra, during 14th century and Soyrabai was his wife. They belonged to the Mahar caste, which was at that time considered untouchable.

QUESTION: 19

Regarding the The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018 consider the following statements:

1. Act establishes special courts for the trial of such offences and the rehabilitation of victims

2. The Act states that persons accused of committing an offence under the Act cannot apply for anticipatory bail

3. The Bill states that the investigating officer will require the approval of any authority for the arrest of an accused.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was framed in 1989 in response to demands made by Dalits and others that the government must take seriously the ill treatment and humiliation Dalits and tribal groups face in an everyday sense.

  • Recently, due to dilution of previous Act by Supreme court judgement government has passed The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018.

  • The Act prohibits the commission of offences against members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and establishes special courts for the trial of such offences and the rehabilitation of victims.

  • The Act states that persons accused of committing an offence under the Act cannot apply for anticipatory bail. The Bill states that the investigating officer will not require the approval of any authority for the arrest of an accused.

  • Further, it provides that a preliminary enquiry will not be required for the registration of a First Information Report against a person accused under the Act.

QUESTION: 20

Regarding the Manual scavenging, consider the following statements.

1. Manual scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste/excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines.

2. Manual scavengers are known by Pakhis in Andhra Pradesh and the Sikkaliars in Tamil Nadu.

3. Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Manual scavenging refers to the practice of removing human and animal waste/excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to disposal grounds some distance away.

  • A manual scavenger is the person who does the job of carrying this filth. This job is mainly done by Dalit women and young girls. Manual scavengers in different parts of the country are known by different names, the Bhangis in Gujarat, Pakhis in Andhra Pradesh and the Sikkaliars in Tamil Nadu, and they continue to be considered untouchable.

  • In 1993, the government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines.

  • In 2003, the Safai Karamchari Andolan and 13 other organisations and individuals, including seven scavengers, filed a PIL in the Supreme Court. The court observed that the number of manual scavengers in India had increased since the 1993 law. It directed every department/ministry of the union government and state governments to verify the facts within six months. The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act came into force on 6 December 2013.

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following statements:

1. The right to safe drinking water is a Fundamental Right.

2. The Constitution of India recognises the right to water as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Constitution of India recognises the right to water as being a part of the Right to Life under Article 21. This means that it is the right of every person, whether rich or poor, to have sufficient amounts of water to fulfil his/her daily needs at a price that he/she can afford.

  • In other words, there should be universal access to water. There have been several court cases in which both the High Courts and the Supreme Court have held that the right to safe drinking water is a Fundamental Right.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements with reference to Public facilities:

1. Electricity, public transport, schools are known as public facilities.

2. The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people

3. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that public facilities are made available to everyone.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • There are essential facilities that need to be provided for everyone, for example healthcare and sanitation.

  • Similarly, there are things like electricity, public transport, schools and colleges that are also necessary. These are known as public facilities.

  • The important characteristic of a public facility is that once it is provided, its benefits can be shared by many people. For instance, a school in the village will enable many children to get educated. One of the most important functions of the government is to ensure that these public facilities are made available to everyone.

QUESTION: 23

Consider the following statements:

1. Sanitation is a must in prevention of water-borne diseases.

2. Sulabh, a government organisation, has been working to address the problems of sanitation facing low-caste, low-income people in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Sanitation is a must in prevention of water-borne diseases. The poor both in the rural and urban areas lack access to sanitation.

  • Sulabh, a non-government organisation, has been working for three decades to address the problems of sanitation facing low-caste, low-income people in India.

  • It has constructed more than 7,500 public toilet blocks and 1.2 million private toilets, giving access to sanitation to 10 million people. The majority of the users of Sulabh facilities are from the poor working class.Sulabh enters into contracts with municipalities or other local authorities to construct toilet blocks with government funds.Local authorities provide land and funds for setting up the services, whereas maintenance costs are sometimes financed through user charges.

QUESTION: 24

With reference to Minimum Wages Act, consider the following statements:

1. Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum.

2. This law is meant to protect the interests of all workers; particularly farm labourers, construction workers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Minimum Wages Act specifies that wages should not be below a specified minimum. Many workers are denied fair wages by their employers since they badly need work, workers have no bargaining power and are paid low wages.This law is meant to protect the interests of all workers; particularly farm labourers, construction workers, factory workers, domestic workers, etc.

QUESTION: 25

With reference to Child Labour (Prohibition And Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016, consider the following statements:

1. It bans the employment of children below the age of 14 years in all occupations.

2. It bans the employment of adolescents (14-18 years) in hazardous occupations and processes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • According to the 2011 census, over 4 million children in India aged between 5 and 14 work in various occupations including hazardous ones.

  • In 2016, Parliament amended the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, banning the employment of children below the age of 14 years in all occupations except where the child helps his family after school hours and of adolescents (14-18 years) in hazardous occupations and processesIt made employing these children or adolescents a cognizable offence.

  • Anyone found violating the ban must be penalized with a punishment ranging from a jail term of six months to two years and/or fine of Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 50,000. The central government had asked state governments to develop plans to rescue and rehabilitate children who are working.