Test: Geomorphology - 4


30 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Geomorphology - 4


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements:

1. The work of the river in the lower course is mainly erosional rather than depositional due to the volume of water being carried by it.

2. When the river flows normally its bed is raised through accumulation of deposits.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • At higher gradients, downward, vertical erosion is more dominant. This produces V-shaped valleys. As gradients decrease, downward erosion is less dominant, and lateral erosion begins to dominate, forming meanders.

  • As the debris or silt is deposited, it reduces the depth available for the water to flow, and thus the bed is raised. Floodplains are created as a result of both erosion and deposition. Material is also deposited on the sides forming raised banks called levees.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements:

1. At lower river speeds, downward cutting dominates bank cutting.

2. At the lowest reaches of the river, erosion tendencies lead to formation of many distributaries.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Floodplains are created as a result of both erosion and deposition. When the river flows normally its bed is raised through accumulation of deposits. Material is also deposited on the- sides forming raised banks called levees. When the river reaches the sea. the fine materials it has not dropped yet are deposited at its mouth, forming a fan-shaped alluvial area called a delta.

  • When the river reaches the sea, the fine materials it has not dropped yet are deposited at its mouth, forming a fan shaped alluvial area called a delta.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements:

1. Vertical erosion is dominant in the upper courses of the river.

2. Incised meanders are features of river rejuvenation.

3. Mass movement of Earth is mainly due to the lubricating action of rainwater and gravitational forces.

Choose the correct matches using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Vertical erosion is dominant in upper reaches because of

1) high speed of river,

2) low sediment load,

3) high gradient and

4) bed erosion

Basically river rejuvenation is a term used when the river starts becoming young again (back from an old stage). Incised meanders are formed when the river (in its upper courses) develops deep valleys and gorges. And existing meanders are vertically eroded by the rejuvenating stream. Water acts as a lubricant in landslides.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following features in a drainage system:

1. Interlocking spurs

2. Meanders

3. River cliffs

4. Rapids and waterfalls

Which of the above will be found in the middle course of the river system?

Solution: Rapids and waterfalls are features of the river in the youth stage.

QUESTION: 5

About Oxbow lakes, consider the following statements:

1. It is formed when an almost circular meander is cut off from the mainstream.

2. These are observed in the upper courses of a river.

3. They are also called Bayous or cut-offs in the USA.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution: An oxbow lake is a U-shaped body of water that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water. This landform is so named for its distinctive curved shape, resembling the bow pin of an oxbow.

These are found in the lower course of a river.

QUESTION: 6

Which of the following is/are responsible for the formation of ox-bow lakes?

1. Meandering tendency of the river

2. Sediment load of the river

3. Potential of the soil/rock to get eroded

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Formation of floodplains and levees was not affected by the sediment load. Formation of an ox-bow lake is as follows.

  • The water twists and turns when the river enters the plain, leading to the formation of large bends called meanders.

  • Along the sides of the meander, there is continuous erosion and deposition that makes the ends of the meander loops come closer and closer.

  • In due course, the loop breaks off from the river and forms a cut-off lake, also called an ox-bow lake.

QUESTION: 7

Rapids and cataracts are formed by which of the following actions?

Solution: They are formed due to fluvial action.

QUESTION: 8

Regarding river capture, consider the following statements:

1. It is a geomorphological phenomenon occurring when a stream or river drainage system or watershed is diverted from its own bed, and flows instead down the bed of a neighbouring stream.

2. It is also called river beheading.

3. Apart from tectonic Earth movements, erosion also results in river capture.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution: Stream capture can also cause due to

1. Tectonic Earth movements, where the slope of the land changes, and the stream is tipped out of its former course.

2. Head-ward erosion of one stream valley upwards into another, or

3. Lateral erosion of a meander through the higher ground dividing the adjacent streams.

QUESTION: 9

If a river is passing through an area where rocks are composed of homogenous beds of uniform resistance to corrosion, then

1. The tributaries will join the main valley obliquely as insequent streams

2. The evolving drainage pattern will be tree-like in appearance.

3. It will not form a catchment area.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: It is a part of the catchment area.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements:

1. Wind gaps in the course of a river do not allow the construction of upland roads and railways.

2. Deltas are less preferred sites than estuaries for the siting of large ports.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A wind gap is a valley through which a waterway once flowed but is now dry as a result of stream capture. Water gaps and wind gaps often provide practical routes for trails, roads and railroads through mountainous terrain. Examples of wind gaps in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia include Swift Run Gap, Rockfish Gap, and Buford’s Gap.

  • Since deltas have a large sediment deposition, they prevent ships from anchoring close to the shores. There is not enough depth in the water.

QUESTION: 11

Levees are formed in a flood plain when the river

Solution:

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following shows the differences between alluvial fans and delta?

1. Fans are formed in the higher reaches of the river unlike deltas which form at lower reaches.

2. Fans are made of much coarser load than deltas.

3. There is no clear stratification of river load while deposition of alluvial fan unlike deltas where there is a clear stratification.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Alluvial fans Water flowing from a higher level breaks down into foot slope plains of low gradient. Normally very coarse load is carried by streams in the upper reaches. It becomes too heavy to carry and is deposited in a low to high cone-shaped deposit called alluvial fan.

  • There is no stratification of river load as all the material (fine and coarse) is dumped together.

  • Streams make alluvial fans eventually shift course, forming many channels called distributaries.

  • Deltas They are like alluvial fans but are formed at different locations, i.e. near the sea.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following depositional features can be made near the river mouth?

1. Ox-bow lakes

2. Braided channels

3. Flat valleys

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: Besides deep gorges, these rivers also form V-shaped valleys, rapids and waterfalls in their mountainous course. While entering the plains, they form depositional features like flat valleys, ox-bow lakes, flood plains, braided channels and deltas near the river mouth.

QUESTION: 14

Which o f these geographical features is most likely to have the lowest mean elevation?

Solution:

Deltas occur near the sea mouth, i.e. very close to mean sea level, which can be the lowest elevation possible.

QUESTION: 15

Conditions that favour the formation of deltas include

1. Coasts without shelters with a large tidal variation.

2. Frequent water diversions from the main river that forms the delta.

3. Presence of Continental shelf.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:

Conditions favourable for Delta Formation

  • Active erosion of the river in its upper course to provide extensive gravel, sand and silt to be eventually deposited as deltas.

  • The coast should be sheltered preferably tideless, else delta will be washed away.

  • There should be no strong current running at right angles to the river mouth, as it can wash away the sediments. Any large lake in the way of the river course can filter off the sediments, thus unfavourable for delta formation. The sea should be shallow adjoining the delta as the sediments will disappear in the deep waters of the sea. This is why a continental shelf is preferred.

QUESTION: 16

Deltas are formed when a river nears the sea and starts depositing its sediment load in the plains. Which of the following can be the consequences of delta formation?

1. Change of river course

2. Formation of several distributaries of the original river

3. Fertility of the local soil increases.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: A river delta is a landform that occurs at the mouth of a river. It has very fertile soil as well as a large amount of vegetation. River slows down when it approaches the end point and starts depositing the silt which leads to formation of distributaries.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the features of limestone caves:

1. Stalactites hang as icicles of different diameters.

2. Stalagmites rise from the floor of the caves.

Which of the above is/are incorrect?

Solution: Stalactites hang as icicles of different diameters. Normally they are broad at their bases and taper towards the free ends showing up in a variety of forms. Stalagmites rise from the floor of the caves. The stalagmite and stalactites eventually fuse to give rise to columns and pillars of different diameters.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements:

1. Estuaries are more favorable than deltas for the siting of large ports.

2. In the outwash plains, eskers and kames have been excavated to provide sands and gravels for highway and building construction.

3. Limestone vegetation in tropical regions is luxuriant because of the heavy rainfall all the year round.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Coastlines of Emergence

  • These are formed either by an uplift of the land or by the lowering of the sea level.

  • Bars, spits, lagoons, salt marshes, beaches, sea cliffs and arches are the typical features.

  • The east coast of India, especially its south-eastern part (Tamil Nadu coast), appears to be a coast of emergence. The west coast of India, on the other hand, is both emergent and submergent.

  • The northern portion of the coast is submerged as a result of faulting and the southern portion, that is the Kerala coast, is an example of an emergent coast.

Coastlines of Submergence

  • A submerged coast is produced either by subsidence of land or by a rise in sea level. Ria, fjord, Dalmatian and drowned lowlands are its typical features.

QUESTION: 19

Regarding Sea weeds, consider the following statements

1. Marine microalgae, or seaweeds, are plant-like organisms that generally live attached to rock or other hard substrata in coastal areas.

2. All seaweeds are edible, though some are more nutritional and palatable than others, and some can cause stomach upset.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: Marine macroalgae, or seaweeds, are plantlike organisms that generally live attached to rock or other hard substrata in coastal areas.
  • All seaweed is edible, though some are more nutritional and palatable than others, and some can cause stomach upset.

  • Brown seaweeds such as bull kelp, giant kelp, and alaria fistulosa consist of carbohydrates that cannot be digested. These seaweeds still have value as seasoning agents, food wrapping, and a source of fibre and vitamins.

  • QUESTION: 20

    Which of the following cannot be the use of Lagoons and backwaters?

    1. Fishing

    2. Irrigation of paddy crops

    3. Navigation

    Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

    Solution: India has a vast coastline and the coast is very indented in some states. Due to this, several lagoons and lakes have formed. States like Kerala, Orissa and West Bengal have vast surface water resources in these lagoons and lakes. Although water is generally brackish in these water bodies, it is used for fishing and irrigating c

    QUESTION: 21

    Lagoon is

    1. Fresh-water lake

    2. Separated from the sea by sandbars and spits

    3. Considered similar to some of the estuaries

    Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

    Solution: A salt-water lake separated from the sea by the sandbars and spits is called lagoon. Lagoons are commonly -divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on mixed- sand and gravel coastlines.

    QUESTION: 22

    Consider the following statements:

    1. Coastal lagoons generally form near flat or gently sloping landscapes.

    2. The size and depth of coastal lagoons often depend on sea level.

    Which of the above is/are correct?

    Solution: Lagoons are often called estuaries, sounds, bays or even lakes.
    • Lagoons sheltered by sandbars or barrier islands are called coastal lagoons. Coastal lagoons form along coastal plains - flat or gently sloping landscapes.

    • The size and depth of coastal lagoons often depend on sea level. When the sea level is low, coastal lagoons are swampy wetlands. When the sea level is high, they can look like coastal lakes or bays.

    QUESTION: 23

    Geos and gloups are the landforms formed by the action of

    Solution: Geos is a narrow inlet in a cliff while gloups are blow holes.

    QUESTION: 24

    What is a 'catcher beach'?

    Solution:
    • A catcher beach should not be confused with a dumping ground or heavily trashed public beach.

    • A catcher beach typically receives its accumulations of debris due to its shape and location in combination with high-energy waves, storms or winds.

    • A specific example of a catcher beach can be found along the shores of Gore Point, Alaska.

    • The geography of this location makes it a very high-density catcher beach, as it sticks out like a hook into the Gulf of Alaska current.

    QUESTION: 25

    The fine dust blown beyond the desert limits is deposited on neighbouring lands as ‘X’. It is a yellow, friable material and is usually very fertile. ‘X’ can be?

    Solution: Loess is fine loam, rich in lime, very coherent and extremely porous. Water sinks in readily so that the surface is always dry. Streams cut deep valleys through the thick mantle of soft loess and badland topography may develop. It is so soft that roads constructed through a loess region soon sink and their walls rise steeply. The most extensive deposit of loess is found in north-west China in the loess plateau of the Hwang-Ho basin.

    QUESTION: 26

    Concerning desert landforms, consider the following statements:

    1. Mesa and Butte are table-like land masses with very resistant horizontal top layers and steep slope.

    2. Zeugen are isolated residual round hills found in the desert.

    Which of the above is/are correct?

    Solution: Zeugen - Horizontal rock system of alternate hard and soft rocks in desert. Inselbergs are isolated round hills in desert.

    QUESTION: 27

    Consider the following statements:

    1. Erg - It is a stony desert composed of extensive sheets of angular pebbles and gravels.

    2. Reg - It is a sandy desert having vast deposits of dunes.

    Which of the above is/are incorrect?

    Solution: Reg - It is a stony desert composed of extensive sheets of angular pebbles and gravels. Erg - It is a sandy desert having vast deposits of dunes.

    QUESTION: 28

    Which of the following statements is incorrect?

    Solution:
    • Sometimes the oasis may be abnormally large. Tafilalet Oasis in Morocco is a large oasis with an area of about 13,000 sq. km.

    • Animals and even humans live in big oases. In desert areas, the location of the oases is of critical importance for trade and transportation.

    QUESTION: 29

    A long, narrow sand dune or chain of dunes, generally oriented in a direction parallel to the prevailing wind or a direction resulting from two or more winds blowing at acute angles to each other. This description refers to which type of dune?

    Solution:

    Seif: a long, narrow sand dune or chain of dunes, generally oriented in a direction parallel to the prevailing wind or a direction resulting from two or more winds blowing at acute angles,to each other. The dune crest consists of a series of peaks and gaps, and the steep, or slip, face may change sides of the dune according to changes in wind direction.

    QUESTION: 30

    Well-sorted and well-rounded sand grains indicate that sediment

    Solution: Sediment maturity refers to the length of time that the sediment has been in the sedimentary cycle. Texturally mature sediment is sediment that is well rounded (as rounding increases with transport distance and time) and well sorted (as sorting gets better as larger clasts are left behind and smaller clasts are carried away). If the fragments are angular, it indicates that they have not been transported very far and the sediment is poorly sorted.

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