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population and raw materials were 
required for industrial production. As 
a result, forests were cut on a large 
scale to bring land under plough.
 (v) Tea/coffee plantations: Large 
areas of natural forests were cleared 
to make way for tea, coffee and 
rubber plantations to meet Europe’s 
growing need for these commodities. 
The colonial government took over 
the forests and gave vast areas to 
European planters at cheap rates. 
These areas were enclosed and cleared 
of forests and planted with tea or 
coffee.
 (vi) Adivasis and other peasant users:
   They also played a major role in 
the depletion of forests. They got 
everything from forests such as fuel, 
fodder and leaves. This badly affected 
the forest cover. Many adivasis 
practised shifting cultivation. In this 
type of cultivation, parts of forest 
are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds 
are sown in the ashes after the first 
monsoon rains and crop is harvested 
by October-November. This process 
was harmful for the forests. There 
was always a danger of forest fire.
  Q4. Why are forests affected by wars?
 Ans.(i)  Forests are badly affected by wars. 
Both the World Wars played havoc 
with the forests. In India, working 
plans were abandoned during these 
wars and the forest department cut 
trees freely to meet British war needs.
 (ii) In Java, just before the Japanese 
occupied the region, the Dutch 
followed ‘a scorched earth’ policy, 
destroying saw-mills and burning 
huge piles of giant teak logs so that 
they would not fall into Japanese 
hands.
 (iii) The Japanese then exploited the 
forests recklessly for their own war 
industries forcing forest dwellers to 
cut down forests.
 (iv) Many foresters and villagers used this 
opportunity to expand cultivation in 
the forest. After the war was over, it 
became difficult for the Indonesian 
forest service to get this land back.
ADDITITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
 I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. What per cent of the world’s total area 
was cleared between 1700 and 1995 for 
industrial uses, cultivation, pastures 
and fuel wood?
 (a) 8.5 per cent (b) 9.3 per cent
 (c) 11.8 per cent (d) 10.3 per cent
2. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period?
 (a) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops
 (b) Forests were considered to be 
wasteland
 (c) To fulfil the demand of timber.
 (d) All the above
3. How many trees were being cut 
annually for sleepers in 1850s in the 
Madras Presidency?
 (a) 38,000 trees (b) 35,890 trees
 (c) 37,990 trees (d) 35,000 trees
4. Where was the Imperial Forest Research 
Institute set up in 1906?
 (a) Dehradun  (b) Bastar
 (c) Bangalore (d) Nagpur
5. When was the Indian Forest Act 
passed?
 (a) In 1869 (b) In 1855
 (c) In 1865 (d) In 1860
6. Which of the following is the local name 
of shifting cultivation in Sri Lanka?
 (a) Milpa  (b) Chitemene 
 (c) Chena  (d) Podu
7. Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards 
and 200,000 wolves were killed for 
reward in the period of —
Page 2


population and raw materials were 
required for industrial production. As 
a result, forests were cut on a large 
scale to bring land under plough.
 (v) Tea/coffee plantations: Large 
areas of natural forests were cleared 
to make way for tea, coffee and 
rubber plantations to meet Europe’s 
growing need for these commodities. 
The colonial government took over 
the forests and gave vast areas to 
European planters at cheap rates. 
These areas were enclosed and cleared 
of forests and planted with tea or 
coffee.
 (vi) Adivasis and other peasant users:
   They also played a major role in 
the depletion of forests. They got 
everything from forests such as fuel, 
fodder and leaves. This badly affected 
the forest cover. Many adivasis 
practised shifting cultivation. In this 
type of cultivation, parts of forest 
are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds 
are sown in the ashes after the first 
monsoon rains and crop is harvested 
by October-November. This process 
was harmful for the forests. There 
was always a danger of forest fire.
  Q4. Why are forests affected by wars?
 Ans.(i)  Forests are badly affected by wars. 
Both the World Wars played havoc 
with the forests. In India, working 
plans were abandoned during these 
wars and the forest department cut 
trees freely to meet British war needs.
 (ii) In Java, just before the Japanese 
occupied the region, the Dutch 
followed ‘a scorched earth’ policy, 
destroying saw-mills and burning 
huge piles of giant teak logs so that 
they would not fall into Japanese 
hands.
 (iii) The Japanese then exploited the 
forests recklessly for their own war 
industries forcing forest dwellers to 
cut down forests.
 (iv) Many foresters and villagers used this 
opportunity to expand cultivation in 
the forest. After the war was over, it 
became difficult for the Indonesian 
forest service to get this land back.
ADDITITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
 I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. What per cent of the world’s total area 
was cleared between 1700 and 1995 for 
industrial uses, cultivation, pastures 
and fuel wood?
 (a) 8.5 per cent (b) 9.3 per cent
 (c) 11.8 per cent (d) 10.3 per cent
2. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period?
 (a) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops
 (b) Forests were considered to be 
wasteland
 (c) To fulfil the demand of timber.
 (d) All the above
3. How many trees were being cut 
annually for sleepers in 1850s in the 
Madras Presidency?
 (a) 38,000 trees (b) 35,890 trees
 (c) 37,990 trees (d) 35,000 trees
4. Where was the Imperial Forest Research 
Institute set up in 1906?
 (a) Dehradun  (b) Bastar
 (c) Bangalore (d) Nagpur
5. When was the Indian Forest Act 
passed?
 (a) In 1869 (b) In 1855
 (c) In 1865 (d) In 1860
6. Which of the following is the local name 
of shifting cultivation in Sri Lanka?
 (a) Milpa  (b) Chitemene 
 (c) Chena  (d) Podu
7. Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards 
and 200,000 wolves were killed for 
reward in the period of —
 (a) 1815-1920 (b) 1885-1995
 (c) 1805-1923 (d) 1875-1925
8. Which new trade was created due to 
the introduction of new forest laws? 
 (a) Cultivation 
 (b) Collecting latex from wild rubber 
trees 
 (c) Hunting 
 (d) None of the above
9. Bastar is located in
 (a) Chhattisgarh
  (b) Uttar Pradesh
 (c) Punjab 
 (d) Madhya Pradesh
10. What is Java now famous as?
 (a) Wheat-producing island 
 (b) Rice-producing island 
 (c) Maize-producing island 
 (d) Tea-producing island
11. People living in forests earn money from 
the sale of—
 (a) Mahua flowers
 (b) Tendu leaves
 (c) Timber
 (d) Fruits
12. Shifting cultivation is also known as—
 (a) Mixed cultivation 
 (b)  Primitive agriculture
 (c) Swidden agriculture
 (d) Modern cultivation
13. Which forest communities are found in 
central India?
 (a) Karachas (b) Koravas
 (c) Banjaras (d) Baigas
14. The Kalangs belonged to—
 (a) Bastar (b) Java
 (c) Indonesia (d) Chhattisgarh
15. The Kalangs were known for their skills 
in— 
 (a) Forest cutting 
 (b) Giving training to forest cutting
 (c) Fluent speaking 
 (d) Farming
16. The forest management in Java was 
under the—
 (a) British (b) Dutch
 (c) French (d) Portuguese
 Ans. 1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 
  4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c)
  7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 
  10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (c)
  13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (a) 
  16. (b)
 II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
 Q1. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period? Give two 
reasons.
Ans. (i) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops.
 (ii) To fulfil the demands of timber.
 Q2. What is deforestation?
 Ans. The disappearance of forests is 
referred to as ‘deforestation’.
 Q3. Name the commercial crops that were 
in great demand in the nineteenth 
century Europe.
 Ans. Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton.
 Q4. How did the colonial state view forests 
in the early nineteenth century?
 Ans. In the early nineteenth century, 
the colonial state viewed forests as 
unproductive. They were considered 
to be wilderness that had to be 
brought under cultivation.
 Q5. What are sleepers?
 Ans. Sleepers are wooden planks laid 
across railway tracks. They hold the 
tracks in position.
 Q6. What created a problem of timber 
supply for the Royal Navy by the early 
nineteenth century?
 Ans. By the early nineteenth century, oak 
forests in England were disappearing. 
This created a problem of timber 
supply for the Royal Navy.
 Q7. How was expansion of railways 
responsible for deforestation in India?
 Ans. From the 1860s, the railway network 
expanded rapidly. As the railway 
tracks spread through India, a large 
number of trees were felled.
Page 3


population and raw materials were 
required for industrial production. As 
a result, forests were cut on a large 
scale to bring land under plough.
 (v) Tea/coffee plantations: Large 
areas of natural forests were cleared 
to make way for tea, coffee and 
rubber plantations to meet Europe’s 
growing need for these commodities. 
The colonial government took over 
the forests and gave vast areas to 
European planters at cheap rates. 
These areas were enclosed and cleared 
of forests and planted with tea or 
coffee.
 (vi) Adivasis and other peasant users:
   They also played a major role in 
the depletion of forests. They got 
everything from forests such as fuel, 
fodder and leaves. This badly affected 
the forest cover. Many adivasis 
practised shifting cultivation. In this 
type of cultivation, parts of forest 
are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds 
are sown in the ashes after the first 
monsoon rains and crop is harvested 
by October-November. This process 
was harmful for the forests. There 
was always a danger of forest fire.
  Q4. Why are forests affected by wars?
 Ans.(i)  Forests are badly affected by wars. 
Both the World Wars played havoc 
with the forests. In India, working 
plans were abandoned during these 
wars and the forest department cut 
trees freely to meet British war needs.
 (ii) In Java, just before the Japanese 
occupied the region, the Dutch 
followed ‘a scorched earth’ policy, 
destroying saw-mills and burning 
huge piles of giant teak logs so that 
they would not fall into Japanese 
hands.
 (iii) The Japanese then exploited the 
forests recklessly for their own war 
industries forcing forest dwellers to 
cut down forests.
 (iv) Many foresters and villagers used this 
opportunity to expand cultivation in 
the forest. After the war was over, it 
became difficult for the Indonesian 
forest service to get this land back.
ADDITITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
 I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. What per cent of the world’s total area 
was cleared between 1700 and 1995 for 
industrial uses, cultivation, pastures 
and fuel wood?
 (a) 8.5 per cent (b) 9.3 per cent
 (c) 11.8 per cent (d) 10.3 per cent
2. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period?
 (a) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops
 (b) Forests were considered to be 
wasteland
 (c) To fulfil the demand of timber.
 (d) All the above
3. How many trees were being cut 
annually for sleepers in 1850s in the 
Madras Presidency?
 (a) 38,000 trees (b) 35,890 trees
 (c) 37,990 trees (d) 35,000 trees
4. Where was the Imperial Forest Research 
Institute set up in 1906?
 (a) Dehradun  (b) Bastar
 (c) Bangalore (d) Nagpur
5. When was the Indian Forest Act 
passed?
 (a) In 1869 (b) In 1855
 (c) In 1865 (d) In 1860
6. Which of the following is the local name 
of shifting cultivation in Sri Lanka?
 (a) Milpa  (b) Chitemene 
 (c) Chena  (d) Podu
7. Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards 
and 200,000 wolves were killed for 
reward in the period of —
 (a) 1815-1920 (b) 1885-1995
 (c) 1805-1923 (d) 1875-1925
8. Which new trade was created due to 
the introduction of new forest laws? 
 (a) Cultivation 
 (b) Collecting latex from wild rubber 
trees 
 (c) Hunting 
 (d) None of the above
9. Bastar is located in
 (a) Chhattisgarh
  (b) Uttar Pradesh
 (c) Punjab 
 (d) Madhya Pradesh
10. What is Java now famous as?
 (a) Wheat-producing island 
 (b) Rice-producing island 
 (c) Maize-producing island 
 (d) Tea-producing island
11. People living in forests earn money from 
the sale of—
 (a) Mahua flowers
 (b) Tendu leaves
 (c) Timber
 (d) Fruits
12. Shifting cultivation is also known as—
 (a) Mixed cultivation 
 (b)  Primitive agriculture
 (c) Swidden agriculture
 (d) Modern cultivation
13. Which forest communities are found in 
central India?
 (a) Karachas (b) Koravas
 (c) Banjaras (d) Baigas
14. The Kalangs belonged to—
 (a) Bastar (b) Java
 (c) Indonesia (d) Chhattisgarh
15. The Kalangs were known for their skills 
in— 
 (a) Forest cutting 
 (b) Giving training to forest cutting
 (c) Fluent speaking 
 (d) Farming
16. The forest management in Java was 
under the—
 (a) British (b) Dutch
 (c) French (d) Portuguese
 Ans. 1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 
  4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c)
  7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 
  10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (c)
  13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (a) 
  16. (b)
 II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
 Q1. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period? Give two 
reasons.
Ans. (i) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops.
 (ii) To fulfil the demands of timber.
 Q2. What is deforestation?
 Ans. The disappearance of forests is 
referred to as ‘deforestation’.
 Q3. Name the commercial crops that were 
in great demand in the nineteenth 
century Europe.
 Ans. Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton.
 Q4. How did the colonial state view forests 
in the early nineteenth century?
 Ans. In the early nineteenth century, 
the colonial state viewed forests as 
unproductive. They were considered 
to be wilderness that had to be 
brought under cultivation.
 Q5. What are sleepers?
 Ans. Sleepers are wooden planks laid 
across railway tracks. They hold the 
tracks in position.
 Q6. What created a problem of timber 
supply for the Royal Navy by the early 
nineteenth century?
 Ans. By the early nineteenth century, oak 
forests in England were disappearing. 
This created a problem of timber 
supply for the Royal Navy.
 Q7. How was expansion of railways 
responsible for deforestation in India?
 Ans. From the 1860s, the railway network 
expanded rapidly. As the railway 
tracks spread through India, a large 
number of trees were felled.
 Q8. Who was Dietrich Brandis?
 Ans. Dietrich Brandis was a German forest 
expert whom the colonial government 
invited for advice and made him the 
first Inspector General of Forests in 
India.
 Q9. What did Dietrich Brandis do after 
being the Inspector General of Forests 
in India?
 Ans. He set up the Indian Forest Service in 
1864 and helped formulate the Indian 
Forest Act in 1865.
 Q10. What was done under scientific 
forestry?
 Ans. Natural forests which had lots of 
different types of trees were cut down. 
In this place, one type of tree was 
planted in straight rows.
 Q11. The 1878 Act divided forests into three 
categories. Name them.
Ans.  (i)  Reserved forests
  (ii) Protected forests
  (iii) Village forests
 Q12. What happened after the Forest Act 
was enacted?
 Ans. The villagers’ hardships increased. 
All their everyday practices —cutting 
wood for their houses, grazing their 
cattle, collecting fruits and roots, 
hunting and fishing—became illegal.
 Q13. What is shifting agriculture?
 Ans. In shifting agriculture, a clearing is 
made in the forest, usually on the 
slopes of hills. After the trees have 
been cut, they are burnt to provide 
ashes. The seeds are then scattered in 
the area, and left to be irrigated by the 
rain. Once the soil loses its fertility, 
the farmers shift to anothter forest.
 Q14. Why were the European foresters 
not in favour of the continuation of 
shifting agriculture? Give one reason.
 Ans. The European foresters felt that land, 
which was used for cultivation, every 
few years could not grow trees for 
railway timber.
 Q15. How did ban on shifting agriculture 
affect the concerned communities?
 Ans. They were forcibly displaced from 
their homes in the forests. Some had 
to change occupations.
 Q16. How were men and women from 
forest communities exploited on tea 
plantations in Assam?
 Ans. They were given low wages. The 
conditions, under which they worked, 
were very bad. They could not return 
easily to their home villages.
 Q17. Where is Bastar located?
 Ans. Bastar is located in the southernmost 
part of Chhattisgarh and borders of 
Andhra Pradesh, Orissa (Odisha) and 
Maharashtra.
 Q18. Name the communities living in 
Bastar.
 Ans. Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, 
Bhatras and Halbas.
 Q19. What do the people of Bastar think 
about the earth?
 Ans. They think that each village was given 
its land by the earth, and in return, 
they look after the earth by making 
some offerings at each agricultural 
festival.
 Q20. Why were the people of Bastar 
worried? Give two reasons.
Ans. (i) The colonial government proposed to 
reserve two-thirds of their forests in 
1905.
 (ii) It decided to stop shifting cultivation, 
hunting and collection of forest 
produce.
 Q21. On what condition were some villages 
of Bastar allowed to stay on in the 
reserved forests?
   Or
   Explain ‘forest villages’.
 Ans. Some villages were allowed to stay 
on in the reserved forests on the 
condition that they worked free for 
the forest department in cutting and 
Page 4


population and raw materials were 
required for industrial production. As 
a result, forests were cut on a large 
scale to bring land under plough.
 (v) Tea/coffee plantations: Large 
areas of natural forests were cleared 
to make way for tea, coffee and 
rubber plantations to meet Europe’s 
growing need for these commodities. 
The colonial government took over 
the forests and gave vast areas to 
European planters at cheap rates. 
These areas were enclosed and cleared 
of forests and planted with tea or 
coffee.
 (vi) Adivasis and other peasant users:
   They also played a major role in 
the depletion of forests. They got 
everything from forests such as fuel, 
fodder and leaves. This badly affected 
the forest cover. Many adivasis 
practised shifting cultivation. In this 
type of cultivation, parts of forest 
are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds 
are sown in the ashes after the first 
monsoon rains and crop is harvested 
by October-November. This process 
was harmful for the forests. There 
was always a danger of forest fire.
  Q4. Why are forests affected by wars?
 Ans.(i)  Forests are badly affected by wars. 
Both the World Wars played havoc 
with the forests. In India, working 
plans were abandoned during these 
wars and the forest department cut 
trees freely to meet British war needs.
 (ii) In Java, just before the Japanese 
occupied the region, the Dutch 
followed ‘a scorched earth’ policy, 
destroying saw-mills and burning 
huge piles of giant teak logs so that 
they would not fall into Japanese 
hands.
 (iii) The Japanese then exploited the 
forests recklessly for their own war 
industries forcing forest dwellers to 
cut down forests.
 (iv) Many foresters and villagers used this 
opportunity to expand cultivation in 
the forest. After the war was over, it 
became difficult for the Indonesian 
forest service to get this land back.
ADDITITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
 I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
1. What per cent of the world’s total area 
was cleared between 1700 and 1995 for 
industrial uses, cultivation, pastures 
and fuel wood?
 (a) 8.5 per cent (b) 9.3 per cent
 (c) 11.8 per cent (d) 10.3 per cent
2. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period?
 (a) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops
 (b) Forests were considered to be 
wasteland
 (c) To fulfil the demand of timber.
 (d) All the above
3. How many trees were being cut 
annually for sleepers in 1850s in the 
Madras Presidency?
 (a) 38,000 trees (b) 35,890 trees
 (c) 37,990 trees (d) 35,000 trees
4. Where was the Imperial Forest Research 
Institute set up in 1906?
 (a) Dehradun  (b) Bastar
 (c) Bangalore (d) Nagpur
5. When was the Indian Forest Act 
passed?
 (a) In 1869 (b) In 1855
 (c) In 1865 (d) In 1860
6. Which of the following is the local name 
of shifting cultivation in Sri Lanka?
 (a) Milpa  (b) Chitemene 
 (c) Chena  (d) Podu
7. Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards 
and 200,000 wolves were killed for 
reward in the period of —
 (a) 1815-1920 (b) 1885-1995
 (c) 1805-1923 (d) 1875-1925
8. Which new trade was created due to 
the introduction of new forest laws? 
 (a) Cultivation 
 (b) Collecting latex from wild rubber 
trees 
 (c) Hunting 
 (d) None of the above
9. Bastar is located in
 (a) Chhattisgarh
  (b) Uttar Pradesh
 (c) Punjab 
 (d) Madhya Pradesh
10. What is Java now famous as?
 (a) Wheat-producing island 
 (b) Rice-producing island 
 (c) Maize-producing island 
 (d) Tea-producing island
11. People living in forests earn money from 
the sale of—
 (a) Mahua flowers
 (b) Tendu leaves
 (c) Timber
 (d) Fruits
12. Shifting cultivation is also known as—
 (a) Mixed cultivation 
 (b)  Primitive agriculture
 (c) Swidden agriculture
 (d) Modern cultivation
13. Which forest communities are found in 
central India?
 (a) Karachas (b) Koravas
 (c) Banjaras (d) Baigas
14. The Kalangs belonged to—
 (a) Bastar (b) Java
 (c) Indonesia (d) Chhattisgarh
15. The Kalangs were known for their skills 
in— 
 (a) Forest cutting 
 (b) Giving training to forest cutting
 (c) Fluent speaking 
 (d) Farming
16. The forest management in Java was 
under the—
 (a) British (b) Dutch
 (c) French (d) Portuguese
 Ans. 1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 
  4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c)
  7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 
  10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (c)
  13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (a) 
  16. (b)
 II. Very Short Answer Type Questions
 Q1. Why were forests cleared off rapidly 
during the colonial period? Give two 
reasons.
Ans. (i) To fulfil the demand of commercial 
crops.
 (ii) To fulfil the demands of timber.
 Q2. What is deforestation?
 Ans. The disappearance of forests is 
referred to as ‘deforestation’.
 Q3. Name the commercial crops that were 
in great demand in the nineteenth 
century Europe.
 Ans. Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton.
 Q4. How did the colonial state view forests 
in the early nineteenth century?
 Ans. In the early nineteenth century, 
the colonial state viewed forests as 
unproductive. They were considered 
to be wilderness that had to be 
brought under cultivation.
 Q5. What are sleepers?
 Ans. Sleepers are wooden planks laid 
across railway tracks. They hold the 
tracks in position.
 Q6. What created a problem of timber 
supply for the Royal Navy by the early 
nineteenth century?
 Ans. By the early nineteenth century, oak 
forests in England were disappearing. 
This created a problem of timber 
supply for the Royal Navy.
 Q7. How was expansion of railways 
responsible for deforestation in India?
 Ans. From the 1860s, the railway network 
expanded rapidly. As the railway 
tracks spread through India, a large 
number of trees were felled.
 Q8. Who was Dietrich Brandis?
 Ans. Dietrich Brandis was a German forest 
expert whom the colonial government 
invited for advice and made him the 
first Inspector General of Forests in 
India.
 Q9. What did Dietrich Brandis do after 
being the Inspector General of Forests 
in India?
 Ans. He set up the Indian Forest Service in 
1864 and helped formulate the Indian 
Forest Act in 1865.
 Q10. What was done under scientific 
forestry?
 Ans. Natural forests which had lots of 
different types of trees were cut down. 
In this place, one type of tree was 
planted in straight rows.
 Q11. The 1878 Act divided forests into three 
categories. Name them.
Ans.  (i)  Reserved forests
  (ii) Protected forests
  (iii) Village forests
 Q12. What happened after the Forest Act 
was enacted?
 Ans. The villagers’ hardships increased. 
All their everyday practices —cutting 
wood for their houses, grazing their 
cattle, collecting fruits and roots, 
hunting and fishing—became illegal.
 Q13. What is shifting agriculture?
 Ans. In shifting agriculture, a clearing is 
made in the forest, usually on the 
slopes of hills. After the trees have 
been cut, they are burnt to provide 
ashes. The seeds are then scattered in 
the area, and left to be irrigated by the 
rain. Once the soil loses its fertility, 
the farmers shift to anothter forest.
 Q14. Why were the European foresters 
not in favour of the continuation of 
shifting agriculture? Give one reason.
 Ans. The European foresters felt that land, 
which was used for cultivation, every 
few years could not grow trees for 
railway timber.
 Q15. How did ban on shifting agriculture 
affect the concerned communities?
 Ans. They were forcibly displaced from 
their homes in the forests. Some had 
to change occupations.
 Q16. How were men and women from 
forest communities exploited on tea 
plantations in Assam?
 Ans. They were given low wages. The 
conditions, under which they worked, 
were very bad. They could not return 
easily to their home villages.
 Q17. Where is Bastar located?
 Ans. Bastar is located in the southernmost 
part of Chhattisgarh and borders of 
Andhra Pradesh, Orissa (Odisha) and 
Maharashtra.
 Q18. Name the communities living in 
Bastar.
 Ans. Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, 
Bhatras and Halbas.
 Q19. What do the people of Bastar think 
about the earth?
 Ans. They think that each village was given 
its land by the earth, and in return, 
they look after the earth by making 
some offerings at each agricultural 
festival.
 Q20. Why were the people of Bastar 
worried? Give two reasons.
Ans. (i) The colonial government proposed to 
reserve two-thirds of their forests in 
1905.
 (ii) It decided to stop shifting cultivation, 
hunting and collection of forest 
produce.
 Q21. On what condition were some villages 
of Bastar allowed to stay on in the 
reserved forests?
   Or
   Explain ‘forest villages’.
 Ans. Some villages were allowed to stay 
on in the reserved forests on the 
condition that they worked free for 
the forest department in cutting and 
transporting trees, and protecting the 
forest from fires. Subsequently, these 
came to be known as ‘forest villages’.
 Q22. Who was Gunda Dhur?
 Ans. Gunda Dhur led the Bastar Forest 
rebellion in 1910.
 Q23. What was the consequence of the 
Bastar forest rebellion led by Gunda 
Dhur?
 Ans. Work on reservation was temporarily 
suspended on the area to be reserved 
was reduced to roughly half of that 
planned before 1910.
 Q24. Who started forest management in 
Java?
 Ans. The Dutch started forest management 
in Java.
 Q25. What is Java famous for?
 Ans. Java is famous for bumper rice-
production.
 Q26. Which forest community is found in 
Central India?
 Ans. Baigas are found in central India.
 Q27. What were the Kalangs known for?
 Ans. The Kalangs were known for their 
skills in forest cutting.
 Q28. What was ‘a scorched earth’ policy?
 Ans. It was a policy followed by the Dutch 
during the First World War. Under 
this policy, the Dutch destroyed saw-
mills, and burnt huge poles of giant 
teak logs so that they would not fall 
into Japanese hands.
 III. Short Answer Type Questions
 Q1. What were the reasons for the 
expansion of cultivation in the colonial 
period? Explain any two.
 Ans. In the colonial period, cultivation 
expanded rapidly for a variety of 
reasons of which two are given below:
 (i) The British directly encouraged the 
production of commercial crops like 
jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The 
demand for these crops increased in 
19th century Europe where foodgrains 
were needed to feed the growing urban 
population and raw materials were 
required for industrial production.
 (ii) In the early 19th century, the colonial 
state thought that forests were 
unproductive. They were considered 
to be wilderness that had to be 
brought under cultivation so that the 
land could yield agricultural products 
and revenue and enhance the income 
of the state.
 Q2. For what purpose did the British 
invite Dietrich Brandis, a German 
expert? What did he do to manage the 
forests of India?   [HOTS]
Ans. (i)  The British needed forests in order to 
build ships and railways. They were 
worried about the use of forests by 
local people and the reckless felling of 
trees by traders would destroy forests. 
So, they invited a German expert, 
Dietrich Brandis, for advice and made 
him the first Inspector General of 
Forests in India.
 (ii) Brandis realised that a proper system 
had to be introduced to manage the 
forests and people had to be trained 
in the science of conservation. Hence, 
he set up the Indian Forest Service in 
1864 and helped formulate the Indian 
Forest Act of 1865.
 (iii) Soon after the enactment of this Act, 
felling of trees and grazing began to 
be restricted  in order to preserve the 
forests for timber production. It was 
made punishable to cut trees without 
following the system.
 Q3. What were the provisions of the Indian 
Forest Act of 1878?
Ans. (i)  As per this Act, forests were divided 
into three categories—reserved, 
protected and village forests.
 (ii) The best forests were called ‘reserved 
forests’. Villagers could not take 
anything from these forests, even for 
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