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Lecture 6 
Fundamental Rights
Prelims 2020 Crash Course 
Capstone IAS Learning
Page 2


Lecture 6 
Fundamental Rights
Prelims 2020 Crash Course 
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Important features of Fundamental Rights 
Article 14 - 18 
Equality before law and Equal protection of laws 
Important Judgements enforcing Right to Equality
Page 3


Lecture 6 
Fundamental Rights
Prelims 2020 Crash Course 
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Important features of Fundamental Rights 
Article 14 - 18 
Equality before law and Equal protection of laws 
Important Judgements enforcing Right to Equality
Fundamental Rights
The Constitution classi?es the Fundamental Rights under 7 groups: 
1. Right to Equality(Article 14-18) 
2. Right to particular freedoms (Article 19-22) 
3. Right against exploitation(Article 23-24) 
4. Right to freedom of religion(Article 25-28) 
5. Cultural and Educational Rights(Article 29-30) 
6. Right to Property(Article 31, now repealed) 
7. Right to Constitutional remedies (Article 32)
Page 4


Lecture 6 
Fundamental Rights
Prelims 2020 Crash Course 
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Important features of Fundamental Rights 
Article 14 - 18 
Equality before law and Equal protection of laws 
Important Judgements enforcing Right to Equality
Fundamental Rights
The Constitution classi?es the Fundamental Rights under 7 groups: 
1. Right to Equality(Article 14-18) 
2. Right to particular freedoms (Article 19-22) 
3. Right against exploitation(Article 23-24) 
4. Right to freedom of religion(Article 25-28) 
5. Cultural and Educational Rights(Article 29-30) 
6. Right to Property(Article 31, now repealed) 
7. Right to Constitutional remedies (Article 32)
There is another classi?cation on the basis of persons to whom these rights are available 
1. F or Citizens - Article 15, 16, 19 and 30 
2. F or all residents - Article 14, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27 and 28. 
Negative Vs P ositive Rights  
• Some of the Fundamental Rights are negatively worded, as prohibitions to the State, 
like Article 14, 15, 20 etc. 
• There are other rights which ‘positively’ confer some bene?ts upon the individual like 
Article 29, 30 etc. 
All the above mentioned Fundamental Rights are available against the State. Article 12 
clari?es which all institutions come within the ambit of the word State, as far as 
Fundamental Rights are concerned. 
Even the act of a private individual may become an act of the State if it is enforced or 
aided by any authority of the State. 
There are certain rights which are available against private individuals too. Like Article 
15(2), Article 17, Article 23, Article 24 etc.
Page 5


Lecture 6 
Fundamental Rights
Prelims 2020 Crash Course 
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Important features of Fundamental Rights 
Article 14 - 18 
Equality before law and Equal protection of laws 
Important Judgements enforcing Right to Equality
Fundamental Rights
The Constitution classi?es the Fundamental Rights under 7 groups: 
1. Right to Equality(Article 14-18) 
2. Right to particular freedoms (Article 19-22) 
3. Right against exploitation(Article 23-24) 
4. Right to freedom of religion(Article 25-28) 
5. Cultural and Educational Rights(Article 29-30) 
6. Right to Property(Article 31, now repealed) 
7. Right to Constitutional remedies (Article 32)
There is another classi?cation on the basis of persons to whom these rights are available 
1. F or Citizens - Article 15, 16, 19 and 30 
2. F or all residents - Article 14, 20, 21, 23, 25, 27 and 28. 
Negative Vs P ositive Rights  
• Some of the Fundamental Rights are negatively worded, as prohibitions to the State, 
like Article 14, 15, 20 etc. 
• There are other rights which ‘positively’ confer some bene?ts upon the individual like 
Article 29, 30 etc. 
All the above mentioned Fundamental Rights are available against the State. Article 12 
clari?es which all institutions come within the ambit of the word State, as far as 
Fundamental Rights are concerned. 
Even the act of a private individual may become an act of the State if it is enforced or 
aided by any authority of the State. 
There are certain rights which are available against private individuals too. Like Article 
15(2), Article 17, Article 23, Article 24 etc.
Right to Equality(Article 14)
Article 14 of the Constitution ensures ‘equality before law’ and ‘equal protection of laws’. 
Article 14 - “The State shall not deny to any person equality before law or the equal protection of the 
laws within the territory of India” 
Equality before law 
• It implies the absence of any special privilege by reason of birth, creed or the like, in favour of any 
individual and the equal subjection of all classes to ordinary law. 
• The concept of ‘equality before law’ is a necessary correlative to AV Dicey’ s concept of ‘Rule of 
Law’. 
• It means that no person is above law and that every person, whatever his or her rank or status 
maybe, is subject to the ordinary law and amenable to the jurisdictions of ordinary tribunals. 
• The concept of ‘equality before law’ does not involve the idea of absolute equality amongst all, 
which may be a physical impossibility. 
•
Article 14 allows for rational or reasonable discrimination. Conferment of special bene?ts or 
protection or rights to a particular group of citizens for rational reasons is envisaged under Article 
14 and implicit in the concept of equality.
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FAQs on PPT: Right to Equality - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is the Right to Equality?
Ans. The Right to Equality is a fundamental right that ensures equal treatment and protection under the law for all individuals, regardless of their race, religion, caste, sex, or place of birth. It guarantees that every person is entitled to equal opportunities and prohibits discrimination in various aspects of life.
2. How is the Right to Equality protected?
Ans. The Right to Equality is protected by various legal provisions and constitutional guarantees. In many countries, including India, it is enshrined in the constitution as a fundamental right. Courts have the power to enforce this right and strike down any law or action that discriminates against individuals or violates their right to equality.
3. What are the types of equality recognized under the Right to Equality?
Ans. The Right to Equality recognizes two types of equality: substantive equality and formal equality. Substantive equality focuses on achieving equal outcomes and addressing historical disadvantages, while formal equality emphasizes equal treatment and prohibits discrimination based on certain grounds.
4. Can the Right to Equality be limited or restricted?
Ans. Although the Right to Equality is a fundamental right, it is not an absolute right and can be limited or restricted under certain circumstances. These limitations are usually imposed to ensure public order, national security, or the protection of other fundamental rights. However, any restrictions must be reasonable and proportionate to the objective being pursued.
5. What remedies are available for violations of the Right to Equality?
Ans. Various remedies are available for violations of the Right to Equality. Individuals can file complaints or petitions with human rights commissions or equality bodies to seek redress. They can also approach the courts to challenge discriminatory laws or actions and seek remedies such as compensation, injunctions, or declaratory relief. Additionally, public awareness and advocacy play a crucial role in promoting and protecting the Right to Equality.
132 videos|662 docs|304 tests
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