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Lecture 10 (Part 2) 
Fundamental Duties
Capstone IAS Learning
Page 2


Lecture 10 (Part 2) 
Fundamental Duties
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Introduction 
Article 51A 
Importance of Fundamental Duties 
Enforcement of Fundamental Duties
Page 3


Lecture 10 (Part 2) 
Fundamental Duties
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Introduction 
Article 51A 
Importance of Fundamental Duties 
Enforcement of Fundamental Duties
Introduction 
The Fundamental Duties are de?ned as the moral obligations of all citizens to help 
promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. 
These duties, set out in Part IV A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the 
nation. 
Like DPSP s, they are not enforceable by courts unless otherwise made enforceable 
by Parliamentary law. 
The concept of duties of citizens goes back Mahatma Gandhi’ s Hind Swaraj, where 
he observed that “real rights are a result of the performance of duty”. 
So, on the basis of the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee, 42nd 
Constitutional Amendment Act was enacted which introduced Part IV A in the 
Constitution. 
Part IV A introduced a list of 10 duties(now 11), however the Constitution did not say 
anything about the enforceability of these duties.
Page 4


Lecture 10 (Part 2) 
Fundamental Duties
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Introduction 
Article 51A 
Importance of Fundamental Duties 
Enforcement of Fundamental Duties
Introduction 
The Fundamental Duties are de?ned as the moral obligations of all citizens to help 
promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. 
These duties, set out in Part IV A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the 
nation. 
Like DPSP s, they are not enforceable by courts unless otherwise made enforceable 
by Parliamentary law. 
The concept of duties of citizens goes back Mahatma Gandhi’ s Hind Swaraj, where 
he observed that “real rights are a result of the performance of duty”. 
So, on the basis of the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee, 42nd 
Constitutional Amendment Act was enacted which introduced Part IV A in the 
Constitution. 
Part IV A introduced a list of 10 duties(now 11), however the Constitution did not say 
anything about the enforceability of these duties.
As a citizen, we must abide by the Constitution, defend our country, 
promote harmony among all citizens, protect the environment etc. 
In case of violation of Fundamental Duties as enshrined in the 
Constitution by a citizen including the President, Vice President, Speaker, 
Members of Parliament etc., it amounts to contempt of the Constitution 
which is punishable by various laws made by Parliament. 
However it must be noted that our Constitution does not make the 
enjoyment of rights dependent or conditional upon ful?lment of duties. 
In this sense, the inclusion of Fundamental Duties has not changed the 
status of our Fundamental Rights. 
Recently, at an International Judicial Conference 2020, the Chief Justice 
of India, S.A Bobde, drew attention towards the Fundamental Duties 
Chapter in the Constitution. He also cited a quote from Mahatma Gandhi 
in ‘Hind Swaraj’.
Page 5


Lecture 10 (Part 2) 
Fundamental Duties
Capstone IAS Learning
What will we cover
Introduction 
Article 51A 
Importance of Fundamental Duties 
Enforcement of Fundamental Duties
Introduction 
The Fundamental Duties are de?ned as the moral obligations of all citizens to help 
promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. 
These duties, set out in Part IV A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the 
nation. 
Like DPSP s, they are not enforceable by courts unless otherwise made enforceable 
by Parliamentary law. 
The concept of duties of citizens goes back Mahatma Gandhi’ s Hind Swaraj, where 
he observed that “real rights are a result of the performance of duty”. 
So, on the basis of the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee, 42nd 
Constitutional Amendment Act was enacted which introduced Part IV A in the 
Constitution. 
Part IV A introduced a list of 10 duties(now 11), however the Constitution did not say 
anything about the enforceability of these duties.
As a citizen, we must abide by the Constitution, defend our country, 
promote harmony among all citizens, protect the environment etc. 
In case of violation of Fundamental Duties as enshrined in the 
Constitution by a citizen including the President, Vice President, Speaker, 
Members of Parliament etc., it amounts to contempt of the Constitution 
which is punishable by various laws made by Parliament. 
However it must be noted that our Constitution does not make the 
enjoyment of rights dependent or conditional upon ful?lment of duties. 
In this sense, the inclusion of Fundamental Duties has not changed the 
status of our Fundamental Rights. 
Recently, at an International Judicial Conference 2020, the Chief Justice 
of India, S.A Bobde, drew attention towards the Fundamental Duties 
Chapter in the Constitution. He also cited a quote from Mahatma Gandhi 
in ‘Hind Swaraj’.
Article 51A
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India -  
(a)  to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the 
National Flag and the National Anthem; 
(b)  to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national 
struggle for freedom; 
(c)  to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; 
(d)  to defend the country and render national service when called upon to 
do so; 
(e)  to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all 
the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional 
diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
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FAQs on PPT: Fundamental Duties - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What are fundamental duties in India?
Ans. Fundamental duties in India are a set of moral obligations that every citizen of the country is expected to follow. These duties are mentioned in Article 51A of the Indian Constitution and were added by the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976.
2. How many fundamental duties are there in India?
Ans. There are a total of 11 fundamental duties mentioned in Article 51A of the Indian Constitution. These duties range from respecting the national flag and the Constitution to promoting harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among citizens.
3. Are fundamental duties enforceable by law?
Ans. No, fundamental duties in India are not enforceable by law. Unlike fundamental rights, which can be legally enforced, fundamental duties are more of a moral and ethical obligation that citizens are expected to fulfill voluntarily.
4. What is the significance of fundamental duties?
Ans. The fundamental duties in India are significant as they promote a sense of responsibility and patriotism among citizens. They act as a reminder of the obligations citizens have towards the nation and its values, ensuring the overall development and well-being of the society.
5. Can fundamental duties be amended or modified?
Ans. Yes, fundamental duties can be amended or modified by the Parliament through a constitutional amendment. However, any such amendment must be in accordance with the basic structure and principles of the Constitution. So far, no amendments have been made to the fundamental duties since their inclusion in 1976.
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